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Yellow-shouldered Amazon
The YELLOW-SHOULDERED AMAZON (Amazona barbadensis) also known as YELLOW-SHOULDERED PARROT is a parrot of the genus Amazona that is found in the arid areas of northern Venezuela
Venezuela
, the Venezuelan islands of Margarita and La Blanquilla , and the island of Bonaire
Bonaire
(Caribbean Netherlands ). It has been extirpated from Aruba
Aruba
and possibly also Curaçao . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Behavior * 2.1 Diet and feeding * 2.2 Breeding * 3 Status * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Front view The yellow-shouldered amazon is mainly green and about 33 cm long. It has a whitish forehead and lores, and a yellow crown, ocular region and - often - ear coverts and chin. The bare eye-ring is white. The thighs and the bend of the wing ("shoulder") are yellow, but both can be difficult to see. The throat, cheeks and belly often have a bluish tinge. As most members of the genus Amazona, it has broad dark blue tips to the remiges and a red wing-speculum . Its beak is horn coloured
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Conservation Status
The CONSERVATION STATUS of a group of organisms (for instance, a species ) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use. CONTENTS* 1 International systems * 1.1 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
Species
* 1.2 The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora * 2 Multi-country systems * 3 National systems * 4 Consumer guides * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links INTERNATIONAL SYSTEMSIUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIESThe IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species
Species
is the best known worldwide conservation status listing and ranking system. Species
Species
are classified by the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
into nine groups set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, and degree of population and distribution fragmentation
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Vulnerable Species
A VULNERABLE species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as likely to become endangered unless the circumstances threatening its survival and reproduction improve. Vulnerability is mainly caused by habitat loss or destruction of the species home. Vulnerable habitat or species are monitored and can become increasingly threatened. Some species listed as "vulnerable" may be common in captivity , an example being the military macaw . There are currently 5196 animals and 6789 plants classified as vulnerable, compared with 1998 levels of 2815 and 3222, respectively. Practices such as Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources have been enforced in efforts to conserve vulnerable breeds of livestock specifically. CONTENTS * 1 Criteria * 2 See also * 3 Notes and references * 4 External links CRITERIAThe International Union for Conservation of Nature uses several criteria to enter species in this category
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IUCN Red List
The IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES (also known as the IUCN RED LIST or RED DATA LIST), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species . The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to IUCN (1996), the formally stated goals of the Red List are (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a global level, (2) to draw attention to the magnitude and importance of threatened biodiversity, (3) to influence national and international policy and decision-making, and (4) to provide information to guide actions to conserve biological diversity
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion , about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals . The remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs (clams , oysters , octopuses , squid , snails ); arthropods (millipedes , centipedes , insects , spiders , scorpions , crabs , lobsters , shrimp ); annelids (earthworms , leeches ), nematodes (filarial worms , hookworms ), flatworms (tapeworms , liver flukes ), cnidarians (jellyfish , sea anemones , corals ), ctenophores (comb jellies), and sponges
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata , which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata , comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa. The Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata , consisting of chordates with a skull ; the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish of the superclass Osteichthyes . The world's largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans . Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion
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Bird
BIRDS (AVES) are a group of endothermic vertebrates , characterised by feathers , toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart , and a strong yet lightweight skeleton . Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich . They rank as the class of tetrapods with the most living species, at approximately ten thousand, with more than half of these being passerines , sometimes known as perching birds. Birds are the closest living relatives of crocodilians . Birds are descendants of extinct dinosaurs with feathers , making them the only surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics . The fossil record indicates that birds evolved from feathered ancestors within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs , though a 2017 paper has put them in a proposed clade Ornithoscelida , along with the Ornithischia . True birds first appeared during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, around 120 million years ago. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified dramatically around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which reduced the Pterosaurs , and killed off all the non-avian dinosaur lineages
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Parrot
Cacatuoidea (cockatoos) Psittacoidea (true parrots) Strigopoidea ( New Zealand parrots) Range of parrots, all species (red)PARROTS, also known as PSITTACINES /ˈsɪtəsaɪnz/ , are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order PSITTACIFORMES, found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three superfamilies: the Psittacoidea ("true" parrots), the Cacatuoidea (cockatoos), and the Strigopoidea (New Zealand parrots). Parrots have a generally pantropical distribution with several species inhabiting temperate regions in the Southern Hemisphere , as well. The greatest diversity of parrots is in South America and Australasia . Characteristic features of parrots include a strong, curved bill , an upright stance, strong legs, and clawed zygodactyl feet. Many parrots are vividly coloured, and some are multi-coloured. Most parrots exhibit little or no sexual dimorphism in the visual spectrum. They form the most variably sized bird order in terms of length. The most important components of most parrots' diets are seeds, nuts, fruit, buds, and other plant material. A few species sometimes eat animals and carrion , while the lories and lorikeets are specialised for feeding on floral nectar and soft fruits
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True Parrot
Psittacidae Psittrichasiidae Psittaculidae
Psittaculidae
The TRUE PARROTS are about 350 species of colorful flighted (with a few notable exceptions ) hook-billed, mostly herbivorous birds forming the superfamily PSITTACOIDEA, one of the three superfamilies in the biological order Psittaciformes (parrots). True parrots are widespread, with species in Mexico
Mexico
, Central and South America , sub-Saharan Africa , India
India
, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
, Australia
Australia
, and eastwards across the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
as far as Polynesia
Polynesia
. The true parrots include many of the familiar parrots including macaws , conures , lorikeets , eclectus , Amazon parrots , African gray parrot , and budgerigar . CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 Distribution and habitat * 2 Conservation status * 3 Taxonomy * 4 Species lists * 5 Further reading * 6 References * 7 Notes * 8 External links OVERVIEW This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Amazon Parrot
AMAZON PARROT is the common name for a parrot of the genus Amazona. These are medium-sized parrots native to the New World ranging from South America
South America
to Mexico
Mexico
and the Caribbean
Caribbean
. Most amazon parrots are predominantly green, with accenting colors that depend on the species and can be quite vivid. They feed primarily on seeds, nuts , and fruits , supplemented by leafy matter. Many amazon parrots have a remarkable ability to mimic human speech and other sounds. Partly because of this, they are popular as pets or companion parrots , and a small industry has developed in breeding parrots in captivity for this market. This popularity has led to many parrots being taken from the wild to the extent that some species have become threatened. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora treaty has made the capture of wild parrots for the pet trade illegal in an attempt to help protect wild populations. CONTENTS* 1 Taxonomy and naming * 1.1 List of species * 1.2 Reclassification of the yellow-faced parrot * 1.3 Hypothetically extinct species * 2 Aviculture * 3 Gallery * 4 References * 5 External links TAXONOMY AND NAMINGThe genus Amazona (to which amazons belong) was established by René Lesson in 1830
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Johann Friedrich Gmelin
JOHANN FRIEDRICH GMELIN (8 August 1748 – 1 November 1804) was a German naturalist , botanist , entomologist , herpetologist and malacologist . CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Career * 3 Legacy * 4 Publications * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATION Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
was born as the eldest son of Philipp Friedrich Gmelin in 1748 in Tübingen . He studied medicine under his father at University of Tübingen and graduated with an MD in 1768, with a thesis entitled: Irritabilitatem vegetabilium, in singulis plantarum partibus exploratam ulterioribusque experimentis confirmatam., defended under the presidency of Ferdinand Christoph Oetinger , whom he thanks with the words Patrono et praeceptore in aeternum pie devenerando, pro summis in medicina obtinendis honoribus. CAREERIn 1769, Gmelin became an adjunct professor of medicine at University of Tübingen . In 1773 he became professor of philosophy and adjunct professor of medicine at University of Göttingen . He was promoted to full professor of medicine and professor of chemistry , botany , and mineralogy in 1778. He died in 1804 in Göttingen . Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
published several textbooks in the fields of chemistry, pharmaceutical science, mineralogy, and botany
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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Venezuela
Coordinates : 7°N 65°W / 7°N 65°W / 7; -65 Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Venezuela
* _República Bolivariana de Venezuela_ (Spanish ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Gloria al Bravo Pueblo _ (English: "Glory to the Brave People") Capital and largest city Caracas
Caracas
10°30′N 66°55′W / 10.500°N 66.917°W / 10.500; -66.917 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Spanish b RECOGNIZED REGIONAL LANGUAGES Indigenous languages ETHNIC GROUPS (2011 ) * 51.6%
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Isla Margarita
MARGARITA ISLAND (Isla de Margarita, Spanish pronunciation: ) is the largest island in the Venezuelan state of Nueva Esparta
Nueva Esparta
, situated off the northeastern coast of the country, in the Caribbean Sea . The capital city of Nueva Esparta, La Asunción
La Asunción
, is located on the island. Primary industries are tourism, fishing and construction. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 2.1 Terrain * 2.2 Weather * 3 Municipalities * 4 Cities * 4.1 La Asunción
La Asunción
* 4.2 Pampatar
Pampatar
* 4.3 Porlamar
Porlamar
* 4.4 Juan Griego * 5 Tourism * 6 Population * 7 Religion * 8 Natural Heritage * 8.1 Las Tetas de María Guevara * 9 Crime * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links HISTORY 1840 map by Agustín Codazzi
Agustín Codazzi
. Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
was the first European to arrive on Margarita Island in 1498. The local natives were the Guaiqueries people. The coast of the island was abundant in pearls, which represented almost a third of all New World tribute to the Spanish Crown. Margarita Island was fortified against the increasing threat of pirate attacks, and some fortifications remain today. It was the center of Spanish colonial MARGARITA PROVINCE , established in 1525
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