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Yellow-shouldered Amazon
The YELLOW-SHOULDERED AMAZON (Amazona barbadensis) also known as YELLOW-SHOULDERED PARROT is a parrot of the genus Amazona that is found in the arid areas of northern Venezuela
Venezuela
, the Venezuelan islands of Margarita and La Blanquilla , and the island of Bonaire (Caribbean Netherlands ). It has been extirpated from Aruba and possibly also Curaçao . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Behavior * 2.1 Diet and feeding * 2.2 Breeding * 3 Status * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Front view The yellow-shouldered amazon is mainly green and about 33 cm long. It has a whitish forehead and lores, and a yellow crown, ocular region and - often - ear coverts and chin. The bare eye-ring is white. The thighs and the bend of the wing ("shoulder") are yellow, but both can be difficult to see. The throat, cheeks and belly often have a bluish tinge
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Wing-speculum
The SPECULUM is a patch, often distinctly coloured, on the secondary wing feathers , or remiges, of some birds . Examples of the colour(s) of the speculum in a number of ducks are: * Common teal and green-winged teal : Iridescent green edged with buff. * Blue-winged teal : Iridescent green. The species' common name comes from the sky-blue wing coverts. * Crested duck and bronze-winged duck : Iridescent purple-bronze, edged white. * Pacific black duck : Iridescent green, edged light buff. * Mallard : Iridescent purple-blue with white edges. * American black duck : Iridescent violet bordered in black and may have a thin white trailing edge. * Northern pintail : Iridescent green in male and brown in female, both are white on trailing edge. * Gadwall : Both sexes have white inner secondaries. * Yellow-billed duck : Iridescent green or blue, bordered white
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Fruit
In botany , a FRUIT is the seed -bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering . Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds . Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition ; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate ) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples , bananas , grapes , lemons , oranges , and strawberries
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Conservation Status
The CONSERVATION STATUS of a group of organisms (for instance, a species ) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future. Many factors are taken into account when assessing conservation status: not simply the number of individuals remaining, but the overall increase or decrease in the population over time, breeding success rates, and known threats. Various systems of conservation status exist and are in use at international, multi-country, national and local levels as well as for consumer use
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Remiges
FLIGHT FEATHERS (Pennae volatus) are the long, stiff, asymmetrically shaped, but symmetrically paired pennaceous feathers on the wings or tail of a bird; those on the wings are called REMIGES (/ˈrɛmᵻdʒiːz/ ), singular REMEX (/ˈriːmɛks/ ), while those on the tail are called RECTRICES (/rɛkˈtraɪsiːs/ ), singular RECTRIX (/ˈrɛktrɪks/ ). The primary function of the flight feathers is to aid in the generation of both thrust and lift , thereby enabling flight . The flight feathers of some birds have evolved to perform additional functions, generally associated with territorial displays, courtship rituals or feeding methods
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Curaçao
CURAçAO (/ˈkʊrəsaʊ/ _KUR-ə-sow_ or /ˈkjʊərəsaʊ/ _KEWR-ə-sow_ ; Dutch : _Curaçao_, pronounced ; Papiamentu : _Kòrsou_) is a Lesser Antilles island country in the southern Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea and the Dutch Caribbean
Caribbean
region, approximately 65 kilometres (40 miles) north of the Venezuelan coast. It is a constituent country (Dutch : _land_) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . It was formerly called Curaçao and Dependencies (1815–1954) and the COUNTRY OF CURAçAO (Dutch : _Land Curaçao_; Papiamento : _Pais Kòrsou_); it includes the main island of Curaçao
Curaçao
and the uninhabited island of Klein Curaçao ("Little Curaçao"). It has a population of over 160,000 in an area of 444 square kilometres (171 square miles ), and its capital is Willemstad
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Extirpated
LOCAL EXTINCTION, or EXTIRPATION, is the condition of a species (or other taxon ) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere. Local extinctions are contrasted with global extinctions. Local extinctions may be followed by a replacement of the species taken from other locations; wolf reintroduction is an example of this. CONTENTS * 1 Conservation * 2 IUCN subpopulation and stock assessments * 3 Local extinction events * 4 See also * 5 References CONSERVATIONLocal extinctions mark a change in the ecology of an area. The area of study chosen may reflect a natural subpopulation, political boundaries, or both. The Cetacean Specialist Group of the IUCN has assessed the threat of a local extinction of the Black Sea stock of Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) that touches six different countries
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Aruba
ARUBA (/əˈruːbə/ _ə-ROO-bə_ ; Dutch: ) is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea , located about 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometres (18 mi) north of the coast of Venezuela . It measures 32 kilometres (20 mi) long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres (6 mi) across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao , Aruba forms a group referred to as the ABC islands . Collectively, Aruba and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean are often called the Dutch Caribbean . Aruba is one of the four countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands , along with the Netherlands , Curaçao , and Sint Maarten . The citizens of these countries all share a single nationality: Dutch
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Cactus
See also Classification of the Cactaceae SYNONYMS * Opuntiaceae Desv. * Leuchtenbergiaceae Salm-Dyck ex Pfeiff. _ Cultivated cacti in the Singapore Botanic Gardens Many species of cactus have long, sharp spines , like this Opuntia _. A CACTUS (plural: _cacti_, _cactuses_, or _cactus_) is a member of the plant family CACTACEAE, a family comprising about 127 genera with some 1750 known species of the order Caryophyllales . The word "cactus" derives, through Latin, from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
κάκτος, _kaktos_, a name originally used by Theophrastus for a spiny plant whose identity is not certain. Cacti occur in a wide range of shapes and sizes. Most cacti live in habitats subject to at least some drought. Many live in extremely dry environments, even being found in the Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
, one of the driest places on earth
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom , is the reproductive structure found in plants that are floral (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the ISO . An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata
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International Union For Conservation Of Nature
The INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE (IUCN), officially INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources . It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable." Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation
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CITES
CITES
CITES
(the CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA, also known as the WASHINGTON CONVENTION) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The convention was opened for signature in 1973 and CITES
CITES
entered into force on 1 July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 35,000 species of animals and plants. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process
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