1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Threats to highly endemistic regions 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links
The word endemic is from
Chorus cicada, a species endemic to New Zealand
Physical, climatic, and biological factors can contribute to endemism.
The orange-breasted sunbird is exclusively found in the fynbos
vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa. The glacier bear is
found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors
can play a part if a species is protected, or actively hunted, in one
jurisdiction but not another.
There are two subcategories of endemism: paleoendemism and
Paleoendemism refers to species that were formerly
widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism
refers to species that have recently arisen, such as through
divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and
polyploidy in plants.
Endemic types or species are especially likely to develop on
geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and
remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, and
Socotra; they can equally develop in biologically isolated areas such
as the highlands of Ethiopia, or large bodies of water far from other
lakes, like Lake Baikal.
^ "Endemic". Reference.com. Retrieved 6 december 2014. ^ MacCaughey, Vaughaun 1917. A survey of the Hawaiian land flora. Botanical Gazette 64: 89–114 [see p. 92]. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2469367 ^ Frank, J. H. and McCoy, E. D. 1990. Endemics and epidemics of shibboleths and other things causing chaos. Florida Entomologist 73: 1–9. http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/58577/56256 ^ Frank, J. H. and McCoy, E. D. 1995. Precinctive insect species in Florida. Florida Entomologist 78: 21–35. [also uses word precinction]. http://journals.fcla.edu/flaent/article/view/74657/72315 ^ Sharp, D. 1900. Coleoptera. I. Coleoptera Phytophaga, pp. 91–116 in D. Sharp [ed.]. Fauna Hawaiiensis, Being the Land-Fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Cambridge Univ. Press; Cambridge, vol. 2 part 3 [see p. 91]. ^ Fred Smiet (1982). Threats to the Spice Islands. Oryx, 16, pp 323–328 doi:10.1017/S0030605300017774 ^ "Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 5". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 5 (1): 25–32. doi:10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[25:ARFDAL]2.0.CO;2.
Juan J. Morrone (1994). "On the Identification of Areas of Endemism" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 43 (3): 438–441. doi:10.1093/sysbio/43.3.438. CDL Orme, RG Davies, M Burgess, F Eigenbrod; et al. (18 August 2005). "Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat". Nature. 436 (7053): 1016–9. Bibcode:2005Natur.436.1016O. doi:10.1038/nature03850. PMID 16107848. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) JT Kerr (October 1997). "Species Richness, Endemism, and the Choice of Areas for Conservation" (PDF). Conservation Biology. 11 (55): 1094–1100. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1997.96089.x. JSTOR 2387391.
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