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Xocoatl
CHOCOLATE /ˈtʃɒklɪt, -kəlɪt/ ( listen ) is a typically sweet, usually brown food preparation of Theobroma cacao
Theobroma cacao
seeds, roasted and ground. It is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. Cacao has been cultivated by many cultures for at least three millennia in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Mokaya (Mexico and Guatemala
Guatemala
), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating back to 1900 BCE. In fact, the majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs , who made it into a beverage known as xocolātl Nahuatl pronunciation: , a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter water". The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted
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Chocolate (other)
CHOCOLATE is a foodstuff. CHOCOLATE may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Music * 3 Film and television * 4 Other uses * 5 See also GEOGRAPHY * Chocolate
Chocolate
Hills , Bohol, Philippines * Chocolate
Chocolate
Mountains , California, United States * Chocolate
Chocolate
Mountains (Arizona) , United States * Chocolate, Mexico MUSIC * Chocolate
Chocolate
(band) , a Uruguayan musical group * "Chocolate" (The 1975 song) * "Chocolate" (Jesse font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CHOCOLATE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chocolate_(other) additional terms may apply
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Chocolate Liquor
CHOCOLATE LIQUOR (COCOA LIQUOR) is pure cocoa mass in solid or semi-solid form. Like the cocoa beans (nibs) from which it is produced, it contains both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in roughly equal proportion. It is produced from cocoa beans that have been fermented, dried, roasted, and separated from their skins. The beans are ground into cocoa mass (cocoa paste). The mass is melted to become the liquor, and the liquor is either separated into cocoa solids and cocoa butter, or cooled and molded into blocks of raw chocolate . Its main use (often with additional cocoa butter) is in making chocolate . The name liquor is used not in the sense of a distilled, alcoholic substance, but rather the older meaning of the word, meaning 'liquid' or 'fluid'. Chocolate
Chocolate
liquor contains roughly 53 percent cocoa butter (fat), about 17 percent carbohydrates , 11 percent protein , 6 percent tannins , and 1.5 percent theobromine
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Cocoa Butter
COCOA BUTTER, also called THEOBROMA OIL, is a pale-yellow, edible vegetable fat extracted from the cocoa bean . It is used to make chocolate , as well as some ointments , toiletries , and pharmaceuticals . Cocoa butter
Cocoa butter
has a cocoa flavor and aroma . Its best-known attribute is its melting point, which is just below human body temperature. CONTENTS* 1 Extraction and composition * 1.1 Adulterants * 2 Substitutes * 3 Uses * 3.1 Personal care * 4 Physical properties * 5 References EXTRACTION AND COMPOSITION The main constituent of cocoa butter is the triglyceride (fat) derived from palmitic acid , stearic acid , and oleic acid . Cocoa butter
Cocoa butter
is obtained from whole cocoa beans , which are fermented , roasted, and then separated from their hulls. About 54–58% of the residue is cocoa butter
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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Diet food substitutes for sugar , include aspartame and sucralose , a chlorinated derivative of sucrose
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Paul Gavarni
PAUL GAVARNI was the nom de plume of SULPICE GUILLAUME CHEVALIER (13 January 1804, Paris – 24 November 1866), a French illustrator , born in Paris. CONTENTS * 1 Early career * 2 Nom-de-plume * 3 Publications * 4 Illustrated works * 5 Change in focus * 6 Visit to England * 7 Collections and catalogues * 8 References * 9 External links EARLY CAREERGavarni's father Sulpice Chevalier was from a family line of coopers from Burgundy
Burgundy
. Paul began work as a mechanical worker in a machine factory but he saw that to make any progress in his profession, he had to be able to draw; accordingly in his spare time in the evenings, he took classes in drawing. He devoted his special attention to architectural and mechanical drawing and worked at land surveying and mapping which led to his obtaining a position with the Government Ordnance Department as a draughtsman
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Theobroma Cacao
THEOBROMA CACAO is the taxonomic classification for the plant also called the CACAO TREE and the COCOA TREE, which is a small (4–8 m (13–26 ft) tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae
Malvaceae
, native to the deep tropical regions of Central and South America. Its seeds, cocoa beans , are used to make cocoa mass , cocoa powder , confectionery , ganache and chocolate . Floral diagram
Floral diagram
showing partial inflorescence CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy and nomenclature * 3 Distribution and domestication * 4 History of cultivation * 4.1 Currency system * 5 Mythology * 6 Modern history * 7 Cultivation * 8 Pests * 9 Conservation * 10 Genome * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links DESCRIPTIONLeaves are alternate, entire, unlobed, 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long and 5–20 cm (2.0–7.9 in) broad
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Mesoamerica
MESOAMERICA was a region and cultural area in the Americas , extending up there approximately from central Mexico to Belize , Guatemala , El Salvador , Honduras , Nicaragua , and northern Costa Rica , within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico (Caral-Supe) in present-day northern coastal Peru . As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures
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Mokaya
MOKAYA were pre- Olmec
Olmec
cultures of the Soconusco region in Mexico
Mexico
and parts of the Pacific coast of western Guatemala
Guatemala
, an archaeological culture that developed a number of Mesoamerica’s earliest-known sedentary settlements. The Soconusco region is generally divided by archaeologists into three adjacent zones along the coast—the Lower Río Naranjo region (along the Pacific coast of western Guatemala), Acapetahua, and Mazatán (both on the Pacific coast of modern-day Chiapas
Chiapas
, Mexico). These three zones are about 50 km apart along the coast, but they are connected by a natural inland waterway, which could have permitted easy communication in prehistoric times. The term _Mokaya_ was coined by archaeologists to mean "corn people" in an early form of the Mixe–Zoquean language, which the Mokaya supposedly spoke
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Guatemala
Coordinates : 15°30′N 90°15′W / 15.500°N 90.250°W / 15.500; -90.250 Republic of Guatemala _República de Guatemala_ (Spanish ) _ Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Libre Crezca Fecundo" * "El País de la Eterna Primavera" * "The Land of the Eternal Spring" ANTHEM: _ Himno Nacional de Guatemala _ _National Anthem of Guatemala_------------------------- MARCH: _ La Granadera _ _The Song of the Grenadier_ Capital and largest city
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Mesoamerican
MESOAMERICA was a region and cultural area in the Americas
Americas
, extending up there approximately from central Mexico
Mexico
to Belize
Belize
, Guatemala
Guatemala
, El Salvador
El Salvador
, Honduras
Honduras
, Nicaragua , and northern Costa Rica , within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas
Americas
in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is one of six areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, and the second in the Americas
Americas
along with Norte Chico (Caral-Supe) in present-day northern coastal Peru
Peru
. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures
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Maya Civilization
The MAYA CIVILIZATION was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples , and noted for its hieroglyphic script —the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art , architecture , mathematics , calendar , and astronomical system. The Maya civilization
Maya civilization
developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico
Mexico
, all of Guatemala
Guatemala
and Belize
Belize
, and the western portions of Honduras
Honduras
and El Salvador
El Salvador
. This region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula , and the highlands of the Sierra Madre , running from the Mexican state of Chiapas
Chiapas
, across southern Guatemala
Guatemala
and onwards into El Salvador, and the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain
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Aztec
AZTEC CULTURE (/ˈæztɛk/ ), also known as Mexica culture, was a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in Central Mexico
Mexico
in the post-classic period from 1300-1521, during the time in which a triple alliance of the Mexica, Texcoca and Tepaneca tribes established the Aztec empire . The Aztec
Aztec
people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico
Mexico
, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl
Nahuatl
language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
from the 14th to 16th centuries. Aztec
Aztec
culture is the culture of the people referred to as Aztecs, but since most ethnic groups of central Mexico
Mexico
in the postclassic period shared basic cultural traits, many of the traits that characterize Aztec
Aztec
culture cannot be said to be exclusive to the Aztecs
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Nahuatl
NAHUATL (English: /ˈnɑːwɑːtəl/ ; Nahuatl
Nahuatl
pronunciation: ( listen ) ), known historically as AZTEC, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family . Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by an estimated 1.5 million Nahua peoples , most of whom live in central Mexico
Mexico
. All Nahuan languages are indigenous to Mesoamerica . Nahuatl
Nahuatl
has been spoken in central Mexico
Mexico
since at least the seventh century CE. It was the language of the Aztecs who dominated what is now central Mexico
Mexico
during the Late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican history
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Bitter (taste)
TASTE, GUSTATORY PERCEPTION, or GUSTATION is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the GUSTATORY SYSTEM. Taste
Taste
is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity , mostly on the tongue . Taste, along with smell (olfaction ) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (registering texture, pain, and temperature), determines flavors of food or other substances. Humans have taste receptors on taste buds (gustatory calyculi) and other areas including the upper surface of the tongue and the epiglottis . The gustatory cortex is responsible for the perception of taste. The tongue is covered with thousands of small bumps called papillae , which are visible to the naked eye. Within each papilla are hundreds of taste buds. The exception to this is the filiform papillae that do not contain taste buds
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Fermentation (food)
FERMENTATION IN FOOD PROCESSING is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms —yeasts or bacteria —under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of microorganisms is desired. The science of fermentation is known as zymology or zymurgy. The term fermentation sometimes refers specifically to the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol , producing alcoholic drinks such as wine , beer , and cider . However, similar processes take place in the leavening of bread (CO2 produced by yeast activity), and in the preservation of sour foods with the production of lactic acid , such as in sauerkraut and yogurt . Other widely consumed fermented foods include vinegar , olives , and cheese . More localised foods prepared by fermentation may also be based on beans, grain, vegetables, fruit, honey, dairy products, fish, meat, or tea
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