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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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The Second World War (other)
The Second World War
Second World War
was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It officially began with the Occupation of Poland
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Battle Of Wanjialing
Chinese victoryHeavy losses among the Japanese 101st and 106th divisionsBelligerents Republic of China Empire of JapanCommanders and leaders Xue Yue Zhang Lingfu Junrokurō MatsuuraStrength100,000 92,000Casualties and lossesUnknown 30,000+ killed or captured (101st and 106th divisions, not including relief units (9th and 27th divisions)v t eSecond Sino-Japanese WarMajor engagements in boldBegun in 1931–37Mukden ManchuriaJiangqiao Nenjiang Bridge Jinzhou HarbinShanghai (1932) Pacification of Manchukuo Rehe Great Wall Inner MongoliaSuiyuanBegun in 1937–39Marco Polo Bridge Beiping–Tianjin Chahar Shanghai (1937)Sihang WarehouseBeiping–Hankou Railway Tianjin–Pukou Railway TaiyuanPingxingguan XinkouNanjing XuzhouTaierzhuangN.-E. HenanLanfengAmoy Chongqing WuhanWanjialingCantonHainanNanchang Suixian–ZaoyangSwatow1st Changsha S
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK)[15] or Britain,[note 11] is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands.[16] Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland
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Superpower
Superpower
Superpower
is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale. This is done through the combined-means of economic, military, technological and cultural strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence. Traditionally, superpowers are preeminent among the great powers. The term was first applied post World War II
World War II
to the British Empire, the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union. However, after the end of World War II
World War II
and the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
in 1956, the United Kingdom's status as a superpower was greatly diminished, leaving just the United States and Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers
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United Nations
The United Nations
United Nations
(UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked with maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international co-operation, and being a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.[3] It was established after World War II, with the aim of preventing future wars, and succeeded the ineffective League of Nations.[4] Its headquarters, which are subject to extraterritoriality, are in Manhattan, New York City, and it has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna
Vienna
and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states
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25-pounder
The Ordnance QF 25-pounder, or more simply 25-pounder or 25-pdr, was the major British field gun and howitzer during the Second World War, possessing a 3.45-inch (87.6 mm) calibre. It was introduced into service just before the war started, combining high-angle and direct-fire, relatively high rates of fire, and a reasonably lethal shell in a highly mobile piece. It remained the British Army's primary artillery field piece well into the 1960s, with smaller numbers serving in training units until the 1980s
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Republic Of China (1912–1949)
The Republic
Republic
of China
China
was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia
Mongolia
and Taiwan. It was founded in 1912, after the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty, was overthrown in the Xinhai Revolution. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, former leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song was assassinated shortly after, and the Beiyang Army
Beiyang Army
led by Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
maintained full control of the government in Beijing. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan tried to reinstate the monarchy, before resigning after popular unrest
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German Instrument Of Surrender
The German Instrument of Surrender
German Instrument of Surrender
ended World War II in Europe. The definitive text was signed in Karlshorst, Berlin, on the night of 8 May 1945 by representatives of the three armed services of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
(OKW) and the Allied Expeditionary Force together with the Supreme High Command of the Red Army, with further French and US representatives signing as witnesses. The signing took place 9 May 1945 at 00:16 local time. An earlier version of the text had been signed in a ceremony in Reims in the early hours of 7 May 1945. In the West, 8 May is known as Victory in Europe Day, whereas in post-Soviet states the Victory Day is celebrated on 9 May. There were three language versions of the surrender document
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Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
(/ˈtʃæŋ kaɪˈʃɛk, ˈdʒjɑːŋ/;[3] 31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China
Republic of China
between 1928 and 1975. Chiang was an influential member of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT), the Chinese Nationalist Party, as well as a close ally of Sun Yat-sen's. Chiang became the Commandant of the Kuomintang's Whampoa Military Academy
Whampoa Military Academy
and took Sun's place as leader of the KMT
KMT
following the Canton Coup
Canton Coup
in early 1926
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Wilhelm Keitel
Wilhelm Keitel
Wilhelm Keitel
(22 September 1882 – 16 October 1946) was a German field marshal who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command ( Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
Oberkommando der Wehrmacht
or OKW) in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II. According to David Stahel, Keitel was "well known and [...] reviled as Hitler's dependable mouthpiece and habitual yes-man" among his military colleagues.[1]:277 Following the war, Keitel was charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity by the International Military Tribunal
International Military Tribunal
at Nuremberg. He was found guilty, sentenced to death and executed in 1946
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Italian Empire
The Italian Empire
Italian Empire
(Italian: Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
and, after 1946, the Italian Republic. The genesis of the Italian colonial empire was the purchase, in 1869, by a commercial company of the coastal town of Assab
Assab
on the Red Sea.[1] This was taken over by the Italian government in 1882, becoming modern Italy's first overseas territory.[2] Over the next two decades the pace of European acquisitions in Africa increased, causing the so-called "Scramble for Africa"
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Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament (MP). Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
to a wealthy, aristocratic family
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Coat of arms Motto: "In God
God
We Trust"[1][a] .mw-parser-ou
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Invasion Of Lingayen Gulf
 United States Commonwealth of the Philippines Australia Japan Second Philippine RepublicCommanders and leaders Jesse B. Oldendorf Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Tomoyuki YamashitaStrength: 875 + warships 203,608 soldiers : 1 heavy cruiser UnknownCasualties and losses24 ships sunk 67 ships damaged Unknownv t ePhilippines campaign (1944–45)Major battles in bold LuzonMindoro Lingayen Gulf Bessang Pass Baguio Kirang Pass Bacsil Ridge Cabanatuan Bataan Manila Corregidor Los Baños PalawanVisayasLeyte Panay Simara Negros Cebu CityMindanaoBukidnon Cotabato and Maguindanao DavaoNaval operationsConvoy Hi-71 Shin'yō Maru incident Formosa Leyte Gulf Ormoc Bay Convoy Hi-81 South China Sea raid Action of 24 July 1945The Invasion of Lingayen Gulf
Lingayen Gulf
(Filipino: Paglusob sa Golfo ng Lingayen), 6–9 January 1945, was an Allied amphibious operation in the Philippines during World War II
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