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Wikisource
WIKISOURCE is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki , operated by the Wikimedia Foundation . Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project (each instance usually representing a different language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the _Déclaration universelle des Droits de l\'Homme_ ), it has expanded to become a general-content library. The project officially began in November 24, 2003 under the name PROJECT SOURCEBERG, a play on the famous Project Gutenberg . The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later. The project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is also cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration . The project holds works that are either in the public domain or freely licensed ; professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products ; and are verifiable. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of other digital libraries
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Digital Library
A DIGITAL LIBRARY is a special library with a collection of digital objects that can include text, visual material, audio material, video material, stored as electronic media formats (as opposed to print , or other media. ), along with means for organizing, storing, and retrieving the files and media contained in the library collection. Digital libraries can vary immensely in size and scope, and can be maintained by individuals, organizations, or affiliated with established physical library buildings or institutions, or with academic institutions. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. An electronic library is a type of information retrieval system. CONTENTS * 1 Software implementation * 2 History * 3 Terminology * 4 Academic repositories * 5 Digital archives * 6 The future * 7 Searching * 7.1 Software * 7.2 Digitization * 8 Recommendation-Systems * 9 Advantages * 9.1 Digital preservation * 9.2 Copyright and licensing * 9.3 Metadata creation * 10 Disadvantages * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION Institutional repository software is designed for archiving, organizing, and searching a library's content
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Wikimedia Foundation
The WIKIMEDIA FOUNDATION, INC. (WMF, or simply WIKIMEDIA) is an American non-profit and charitable organization headquartered in San Francisco , California . It is mostly known for participating in the Wikimedia movement . It owns the internet domain names of most movement projects and hosts sites like Wikipedia . The foundation was founded in 2003 by Jimmy Wales as a way to fund Wikipedia and its sister projects through non-profit means. As of 2015 , the foundation employs over 280 people, with annual revenues in excess of US$ 75 million. Christophe Henner is chair of the board . Katherine Maher is the executive director since March 2016
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Slogan
A SLOGAN is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan , political , commercial , religious , and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The _Oxford Dictionary of English _ defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." (Stevenson, 2010) A slogan usually has the attributes of being memorable, very concise and appealing to the audience. (Lim they were used primarily as passwords to ensure proper recognition of individuals at night or in the confusion of battle. LIKABILITYCrimmins' (2000, as cited in Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014) research suggests that brands are an extremely valuable corporate asset, and can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's (1993, as cited in Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014) research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components. These include, name, logo and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way the receiver interprets them. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand (Dass, Kumar, Kohli, & Thomas, 2014). Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message very clear and concise
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Alexa Internet
ALEXA INTERNET, INC. is a California-based company that provides commercial web traffic data and analytics. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Amazon.com . Founded as an independent company in 1996, Alexa was acquired by the company Amazon in 1999. Its toolbar collects data on browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis for the company's web traffic reporting. According to its website, Alexa provides traffic data, global rankings, and other information on 30 million websites. As of 2015, its website has been visited by over 6.5 million people monthly. As of June 2017, the number 1 Alexa Rank belongs to Google.com , its average daily time being 8.1 and average daily pageviews being 8.01. CONTENTS* 1 Operations and history * 1.1 1996–1999 * 1.2 2000–2009 * 2 Tracking * 2.1 Toolbar * 2.2 Certified statistics * 3 Privacy and malware assessments * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links OPERATIONS AND HISTORY1996–1999Alexa Internet was founded in April 1996 by American web entrepreneurs Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat . The company's name was chosen in homage to the Library of Alexandria of Ptolemaic Egypt , drawing a parallel between the largest repository of knowledge in the ancient world and the potential of the Internet to become a similar store of knowledge
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Free Content
FREE CONTENT, LIBRE CONTENT, or FREE INFORMATION, is any kind of functional work, work of art , or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Legal matters * 2.1 Copyright * 2.2 Public domain * 2.3 Copyleft * 3 Usage * 3.1 Media * 3.2 Software * 3.3 Engineering and technology * 3.4 Academia * 3.5 Legislation * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links DEFINITIONA _free cultural work_ (free content) is, according to the Definition of free cultural works , one that has no significant legal restriction on people's freedom to: * use the content and benefit from using it, * study the content and apply what is learned, * make and distribute copies of the content, * change and improve the content and distribute these derivative works. Free content encompasses all works in the public domain and also those copyrighted works whose licenses honor and uphold the freedoms mentioned above. Because the Berne Convention in most countries by default grants copyright holders monopolistic control over their creations, copyright content must be explicitly declared free, usually by the referencing or inclusion of licensing statements from within the work
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Source Text
A SOURCE TEXT is a text (sometimes oral ) from which information or ideas are derived. In translation , a source text is the original text that is to be translated into another language. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Primary * 1.2 Secondary and tertiary * 2 Types * 3 Source text in translation * 4 See also * 5 References and notes DESCRIPTIONIn historiography , distinctions are commonly made between three kinds of source texts: PRIMARY Main article: Primary source Primary sources are firsthand written evidence of history made at the time of the event by someone who was present. They have been described as those sources closest to the origin of the information or idea under study. These types of sources have been said to provide researchers with "direct, unmediated information about the object of study." Primary sources are sources which, usually, are recorded by someone who participated in, witnessed, or lived through the event. These are also usually authoritative and fundamental documents concerning the subject under consideration. This includes published original accounts, published original works, or published original research. They may contain original research or new information not previously published elsewhere. They have been distinguished from secondary sources , which often cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources. They serve as an original source of information or new ideas about the topic
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Wiki
A WIKI (/ˈwɪki/ ( listen ) WIK-ee ) is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser . In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor . A wiki is run using wiki software , otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system , but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software , in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little implicit structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems . Some wiki engines are open source , whereas others are proprietary. Some permit control over different functions (levels of access); for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others may permit access without enforcing access control. Other rules may be imposed to organize content. The online encyclopedia project is by far the most popular wiki-based website, and is one of the most widely viewed sites of any kind in the world, having been ranked in the top ten since 2007. is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, one for each language
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Project Gutenberg
PROJECT GUTENBERG (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks ". It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library . Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books . The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of 3 October 2015 , Project Gutenberg reached 50,000 items in its collection. The releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML , PDF , EPUB , MOBI , and Plucker . Most releases are in the English language , but many non-English works are also available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional and language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is also closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders , an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts
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Domain Name
A DOMAIN NAME is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet . Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes. In general, a domain name represents an Internet Protocol (IP) resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a web site , or the web site itself or any other service communicated via the Internet. In 2017, 330.6 million domain names had been registered. Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains com , info , net , edu , and org , and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users who wish to connect local area networks to the Internet, create other publicly accessible Internet resources or run web sites. The registration of these domain names is usually administered by domain name registrars who sell their services to the public
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National Archives And Records Administration
June 19, 1934; 83 years ago (1934-06-19) (Independent Agency April 1, 1985) PRECEDING AGENCY * National Archives and Records Service (GSA) JURISDICTION Federal government of the United States HEADQUARTERS 700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. EMPLOYEES 3,112 (2014) ANNUAL BUDGET $391 million (FY 2012) AGENCY EXECUTIVES * David Ferriero , Archivist * Debra Steidel Wall, Deputy Archivist WEBSITE archives.govThe NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is officially responsible for maintaining and publishing the legally authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress , presidential proclamations and executive orders , and federal regulations. The NARA also transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress. The chief administrator of NARA is the Archivist of the United States
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Public Domain
The term PUBLIC DOMAIN has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the public domain in the sense that it is available to the public . Once published, news and information in books are in the public domain, although they may also be copyrighted. In the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable. For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven , and most of the early silent films , are all now in the public domain by either being created before copyrights existed or leaving the copyright term . Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the public domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics , cooking recipes , and all software before 1974. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of cryptographic algorithms , NIH 's ImageJ
ImageJ
, and the CIA
CIA
's _World Factbook_ . The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another
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Freely Licensed
FREE CONTENT, LIBRE CONTENT, or FREE INFORMATION, is any kind of functional work, work of art , or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Legal matters * 2.1 Copyright * 2.2 Public domain * 2.3 Copyleft * 3 Usage * 3.1 Media * 3.2 Software * 3.3 Engineering and technology * 3.4 Academia * 3.5 Legislation * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links DEFINITIONA _free cultural work_ (free content) is, according to the Definition of free cultural works , one that has no significant legal restriction on people's freedom to: * use the content and benefit from using it, * study the content and apply what is learned, * make and distribute copies of the content, * change and improve the content and distribute these derivative works. Free content encompasses all works in the public domain and also those copyrighted works whose licenses honor and uphold the freedoms mentioned above. Because the Berne Convention in most countries by default grants copyright holders monopolistic control over their creations, copyright content must be explicitly declared free, usually by the referencing or inclusion of licensing statements from within the work
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Vanity Press
A VANITY PRESS, VANITY PUBLISHER, or SUBSIDY PUBLISHER is a publishing house in which authors pay to have their books published. Additionally, vanity publishers have no selection criteria as opposed to other "hybrid" publishing models. The term appears in mainstream U.S. publications as early as 1941. In contrast, mainstream publishers, whether major companies or small presses , derive their profit from sales of the book to the general public. Publishers must therefore be cautious and deliberate in choosing to publish works that will sell, particularly as they must recoup their investment in the book (such as an advance payment and royalties to the author, editorial guidance, promotion , marketing , or advertising ). In order to sell books, commercial publishers may also be selective in order to cultivate a reputation for high-quality work, or to specialize in a particular genre . Because vanity presses are not usually selective (at least in the same way a commercial publisher would be) publication by a vanity press is typically not seen as conferring the same recognition or prestige as commercial publication. Vanity presses do offer more independence for the author than does the mainstream publishing industry; however, their fees can be higher than the fees normally charged for similar printing services, and sometimes restrictive contracts are required
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Audiobook
An AUDIOBOOK (or TALKING BOOK) is a recording of a text being read. A reading of the complete text is noted as "unabridged", while readings of a reduced version, or abridgement of the text are labeled as "abridged". Spoken audio has been available in schools and public libraries and to a lesser extent in music shops since the 1930s. Many spoken word albums were made prior to the age of videocassettes, DVDs, compact discs , and downloadable audio, however often of poetry and plays rather than books. It was not until the 1980s that the medium began to attract book retailers, and then book retailers started displaying audiobooks on bookshelves rather than in separate displays. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 2.1 United States * 2.1.1 Beginnings to 1970 * 2.1.2 1970 to 1996 * 2.1.3 1996 to present * 2.2 Germany
Germany
* 2.3 India * 3 Production * 4 Formats * 5 Use * 6 Listening practices * 7 Charitable and nonprofit organizations * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term "talking book" came into being in the 1930s with government programs designed for blind readers, while the term "audiobook" came into use during the 1970s when audiocassettes began to replace records. In 1994, the Audio Publishers Association established the term "audiobook" as the industry standard
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URL
A UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR (URL), colloquially termed a WEB ADDRESS, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), although many people use the two terms interchangeably. URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http ), but are also used for file transfer (ftp ), email (mailto ), database access (JDBC ), and many other applications. Most web browsers display the URL of a web page above the page in an address bar . A typical URL could have the form http://www.example.com/index.html, which indicates a protocol (http), a hostname (www.example.com), and a file name (index.html). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Syntax * 3 Internationalized URL * 4 Protocol-relative URLs * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Citations * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYUniform Resource Locators were defined in Request for Comments (RFC) 1738 in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee , the inventor of the World Wide Web , and the URI
URI
working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) , as an outcome of collaboration started at the IETF Living Documents "Birds of a Feather" session in 1992
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