WIKISOURCE is an online digital library of free content textual
sources on a wiki , operated by the
Wikimedia Foundation . Wikisource
is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance
of that project (each instance usually representing a different
language); multiple Wikisources make up the overall project of
Wikisource. The project's aims are to host all forms of free text, in
many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive
to store useful or important historical texts (its first text was the
Déclaration universelle des Droits de l\'Homme ), it has expanded to
become a general-content library. The project officially began in
November 24, 2003 under the name PROJECT SOURCEBERG, a play on the
Project Gutenberg . The name
The project holds works that are either in the public domain or freely licensed ; professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products ; and are verifiable. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of other digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, which ensures the reliability and accuracy of the project's texts.
Some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language,
now only allow works backed up with scans. While the bulk of its
collection are texts,
* 1 History
* 1.1 Early history * 1.2 Logo and slogan * 1.3 Tools built * 1.4 Milestones
* 2 Library contents
* 3 Structure
* 3.1 Language subdomains * 3.2 wikisource.org
* 4 Reception * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links
Wikisource's early (2003–2005) history included several changes of name and location ( URL ), and the move to language subdomains in 2005.
The original concept for
The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages (a play on words for Project Gutenberg ).
In 2001, there was a dispute on regarding the addition of
primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or
deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this. In
describing the proposed project, user The Cunctator said, "It would be
Project Gutenberg what is to
The project began its activity at ps.wikipedia.org. The contributors understood the "PS" subdomain to mean either "primary sources" or Project Sourceberg. However, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto (the ISO language code of the Pashto language is "ps").
Project Sourceberg officially launched on November 24, 2003 when it received its own temporary URL, at sources.wikipedia.org, and all texts and discussions hosted on ps.wikipedia.org were moved to the temporary address. A vote on the project's name changed it to WIKISOURCE on December 6, 2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL (at http://wikisource.org/) until July 23, 2004.
LOGO AND SLOGAN
The first prominent use of Wikisource's slogan — The Free Library
— was at the project's multilingual portal, when it was redesigned
based upon the portal on August 27, 2005, (historical
version). As in the portal the
Clicking on the portal's central images (the iceberg logo in the
center and the "Wikisource" heading at the top of the page) links to a
list of translations for
The Proofread Page extension in action.
This system assists editors in ensuring the accuracy of texts on Wikisource. The original page scans of completed works remain available to any user so that errors may be corrected later and readers may check texts against the originals. ProofreadPage also allows greater participation, since access to a physical copy of the original work is not necessary to be able to contribute to the project once images have been uploaded. Thus it enhances the project's commitment to the Wikimedia principle that anyone can contribute.
ThomasV built other tools as well: when the choice of whether
publishing annotations or not was discussed, he made a gadget to offer
the choice between texts alone or annotated texts. When the choice of
modernizing or not the texts was discussed, he made another gadget to
modernize the original text only when it was wished, so that it could
be decided then that the texts themselves would be the original ones.
▶ Example: Old ſ (for s) and other old spellings on French
:::ORIGINAL TEXT :::ACTION OF THE MODERNIZING TOOL
Within two weeks of the project's official start at
sources.wikipedia.org, over 1,000 pages had been created, with
approximately 200 of these being designated as actual articles. On
January 4, 2004,
On November 27, 2005, the English
A scanned source is preferred on many Wikisources and required on some. Most Wikisources will, however, accept works transcribed from offline sources or acquired from other digital libraries . The requirement for prior publication can also be waived in a small number of cases if the work is a source document of notable historical importance. The legal requirement for works to be licensed or free of copyright remains constant.
The only original pieces accepted by
A separate Hebrew version of
An initial wave of 14 languages was set up by
At this point the
Three more languages were created on March 29, 2006, and then another large wave of 14 language domains was created on June 2, 2006. Currently, there are individual subdomains for Wikisources in more than 60 languages, besides the additional languages hosted at wikisource.org, which serves as an incubator or a home for languages without their own subdomains (31 languages are currently hosted locally).
During the move to language subdomains, the community requested that the main wikisource.org website remain a functioning wiki, in order to serve three purposes:
* To be a multilingual coordination site for the entire Wikisource project in all languages. In practice, use of the website for multilingual coordination has not been heavy since the conversion to language domains. Nevertheless, there is some policy activity at the Scriptorium, and multilingual updates for news and language milestones at pages such as Wikisource:2007. * To be a home for texts in languages without their own subdomains, each with its own local main page for self-organization. As a language incubator, the wiki currently provides a home for over 30 languages that do not yet have their own language subdomains. Some of these are very active, and have built libraries with hundreds of texts (such as Esperanto and Volapuk), and one with thousands (Hindi). * To provide direct, ongoing support by a local wiki community for a dynamic multilingual portal at its Main Page, for users who go to http://wikisource.org. The current Main Page portal was created on August 26, 2005, by ThomasV, who based it upon the portal.
The idea of a project-specific coordination wiki, first realized at
Wikisource, also took hold in another Wikimedia project, namely at
Play media Personal explanation of
Larry Sanger has criticised Wikisource, and sister project Wiktionary , because the collaborative nature and technology of these projects means there is no oversight by experts and therefore their content is not reliable.
Bart D. Ehrman , a New Testament scholar and professor of religious studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , has criticised the English Wikisource's project to create a user-generated translation of The Bible saying "Democratization isn't necessarily good for scholarship." Richard Elliott Friedman , an Old Testament scholar and professor of Jewish studies at the University of Georgia , has identified errors in the translation of the Book of Genesis .
In 2010, Wikimedia France signed an agreement with the Bibliothèque
nationale de France (National Library of France) to add scans from its
own Gallica digital library to French Wikisource. 1,400 public domain
French texts were added to the
In 2011, the English
* ^ "Wikisource.org Site Info".
Alexa Internet . Retrieved
* ^ A B C D E F G H Ayers, Phoebe; Matthews, Charles; Yates, Ben
(2008). How Works. No Starch Press. pp. 435–436. ISBN
* ^ "Transcribe Citizen Archivist". Retrieved 4 October 2013.
* ^ A B The Cunctator (2001-10-16). "Primary sources Pedia, or
Project Sourceberg". . Retrieved 2011-07-05.
* ^ The Cunctator (2001-10-16). "Primary sources Pedia, or Project
Sourceberg". . Retrieved 2012-03-24.
* ^ Sanger, Larry (2001-10-17). "Primary sources Pedia, or Project
Sourceberg". . Retrieved 2012-03-24.
* ^ Wales, Jimmy (2001-10-17). "Primary sources Pedia, or Project
Sourceberg". . Retrieved 2012-03-24.
* ^ Starling, Tim (2004-07-23). "Scriptorium". Wikisource.
* ^ "Wikisource.org". Wikisource.org. 2005-08-27. Retrieved
* ^ A B Bernier, Alex; Burger, Dominique; Marmol, Bruno (2010).
"Wiki, a New Way to Produce Accessible Documents". In Miesenberger,
Klaus; Klaus, Joachim; Zagler, Wolfgang; Karshmer, Arthur. Computers
Helping People with
Special Needs. Springer. pp. 22–24. ISBN
* ^ Proofread Page extension at MediaWiki. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
* ^ ProofreadPage at Wikisource.org. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
* ^ "100K" discussion on Scriptorium. English Wikisource. 14
February 2008. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
* ^ "Mission statement". WikimediaFoundation.org. Wikimedia
Foundation . Retrieved 2011-07-08.
* ^ "Wikisource". Wikimedia.org.
Wikimedia Foundation . Retrieved
* ^ "What is Wikisource? – What do we exclude?". Wikisource.org.
Wikisource. Retrieved 2011-07-08.
* ^ A B C Boot, Peter (2009). Mesotext. Amsterdam University Press.
pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-90-8555-052-5 .
* ^ Broughton, John (2008). Reader's Guide: The Missing
Manual. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-596-52174-5 .
* ^ A B C Philips, Matthew (June 14, 2008). "God\'s Word, According
* ^ Server admin log for August 23, 2005 ; a fifteenth language
(sr:) was created on August 25 (above).
* ^ See the Server admin log for September 11, 2005, at 01:20 and
below (September 10) at 22:49.
* ^ "Server admin log for March 29" . Wikitech.wikimedia.org.
* ^ "Server admin log for June 2, 2006" . Wikitech.wikimedia.org.
* ^ See the organized lists at Wikisource's Multilingual
Meta's numbered, sortable list of Wikisources by size.
* ^ For an automatic list of local main pages, see Category:Main
Pages; for a formatted list, see the WIKISOURCE.ORG section of the