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Volcanologist
A volcanologist or vulcanologist is a geologist who studies the processes involved in the formation and eruptive activity of volcanoes and their current and historic eruptions, known as volcanology. Volcanologists frequently visit volcanoes, especially active ones, to observe volcanic eruptions, collect eruptive products including tephra (such as ash or pumice), rock and lava samples. One major focus of inquiry is the prediction of eruptions; there is currently no accurate way to do this, but predicting eruptions could alleviate the impact on surrounding populations. Notable volcanologists[edit] Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(1707–1788) Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
(1750–1801) Frank A. Perret
Frank A. Perret
(1867–1943) George P. L
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Déodat Gratet De Dolomieu
Dieudonné Sylvain Guy Tancrède de Gratet de Dolomieu usually known as Déodat de Dolomieu (23 June 1750 – 28 November 1801) was a French geologist; the mineral and the rock dolomite and the largest summital crater on the Piton de la Fournaise
Piton de la Fournaise
volcano were named after him. Biography and career[edit] Déodat de Dolomieu was born in Dauphiné, France, one of 11 children of the Marquis De Dolomieu and his wife Marie-Françoise de Berénger. As a child young Déodat showed considerable intellectual potential and special interest in the natural surroundings of his home in the Alps
Alps
of southeastern France. De Dolomieu began his military career in the Sovereign and Military Order of the Knights of Saint John
Knights of Saint John
(also called the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
or the Knights of Malta) at the age of 12
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Volcanic Ash
Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash
consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.[1] The term volcanic ash is also often loosely used to refer to all explosive eruption products (correctly referred to as tephra), including particles larger than 2mm. Volcanic ash
Volcanic ash
is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions when dissolved gases in magma expand and escape violently into the atmosphere. The force of the escaping gas shatters the magma and propels it into the atmosphere where it solidifies into fragments of volcanic rock and glass. Ash
Ash
is also produced when magma comes into contact with water during phreatomagmatic eruptions, causing the water to explosively flash to steam leading to shattering of magma
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Pumice
Pumice
Pumice
( /ˈpʌmɪs/), called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals. It is typically light colored. Scoria
Scoria
is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles, thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored and denser.[1][2] Pumice
Pumice
is created when super-heated, highly pressurized rock is violently ejected from a volcano. The unusual foamy configuration of pumice happens because of simultaneous rapid cooling and rapid depressurization. The depressurization creates bubbles by lowering the solubility of gases (including water and CO2) that are dissolved in the lava, causing the gases to rapidly exsolve (like the bubbles of CO2 that appear when a carbonated drink is opened)
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Rock (geology)
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a common rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar and biotite. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. Rock has been used by humankind throughout history. The minerals and metals in rocks have been essential to human civilization.[1] Three major groups of rocks are defined: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is an essential component of geology.Contents1 Classification1.1 Igneous rock 1.2 Sedimentary rock 1.3 Metamorphic rock2 Human use2.1 Mining3 See also 4 References 5 External linksClassification See also: Formation of rocksRock outcrop along a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica.Rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound arranged in an orderly manner
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Lava
Lava
Lava
is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). The resulting structures after solidification and cooling are also sometimes described as lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava
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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔʁʒ lwi ləklɛʁ kɔ̃t də byfɔ̃]; 7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste. His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
and Georges Cuvier
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Volcano
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earth's volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, rigid tectonic plates that float on a hotter, softer layer in its mantle.[1] Therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging, and most are found underwater. For example, a mid-oceanic ridge, such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates whereas the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
has volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates
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Volcanic Eruption
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward
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Keith Rowley
Dr. Keith Christopher Rowley MP (born 24 October 1949) is the current Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago, in office since September 2015.[1] He has led the People's National Movement
People's National Movement
(PNM) since May 2010 and was Leader of the Opposition from 2010 to 2015. He has also served as the Member of the House of Representatives for Diego Martin West since 1991.[2] He is a volcanologist who obtained his doctorate in geology, specializing in geochemistry. He is now the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago
Tobago
for a duration of 5 years (2015 - 2020). [3]Contents1 Career 2 Leader of the Opposition 3 Prime Minister 4 Personal life 5 References 6 External linksCareer[edit] Rowley was a pupil of Bishop's High School, Tobago, and graduated from the University of the West Indies
University of the West Indies
(Mona)
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Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens
or Louwala-Clough (known as Lawetlat'la to the indigenous Cowlitz people, and Loowit to the Klickitat) is an active stratovolcano located in Skamania County, Washington, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
and 96 miles (154 km) south of Seattle, Washington. Mount St. Helens takes its English name from the British diplomat Lord St Helens, a friend of explorer George Vancouver who made a survey of the area in the late 18th century.[1] The volcano is located in the Cascade Range
Cascade Range
and is part of the Cascade Volcanic Arc, a segment of the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
that includes over 160 active volcanoes. This volcano is well known for its ash explosions and pyroclastic flows. Mount St. Helens
Mount St

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Geologist
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth
Earth
as well as the processes that shape it. Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology, and other sciences are also useful. Field work
Field work
is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Geologists work in the energy and mining sectors searching for natural resources such as petroleum, natural gas, and precious metals. They are also in the forefront of preventing and mitigating damage from natural hazards and disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis and landslides. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events
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Tephra
Tephra
Tephra
is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size or emplacement mechanism.[1] Tephra
Tephra
horizons in south-central Iceland. The thick and light coloured layer at the centre of the photo is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla.Volcanologists also refer to airborne fragments as pyroclasts. Once clasts have fallen to the ground they remain as tephra unless hot enough to fuse together into pyroclastic rock or tuff.A 2007 eruptive plume at Mount Etna
Mount Etna
producing volcanic ash, pumice and lava bombs.Contents1 Overview 2 Classification 3 Etymology 4 Notes 5 External linksOverview[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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George P. L. Walker
George Patrick Leonard Walker FRS (2 March 1926 – 17 January 2005) was a British geologist who specialized in mineralogy and volcanology.[1][2]Contents1 Life 2 Awards 3 See also 4 Selected publications 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksLife[edit] He worked on the volcanic rocks of Iceland
Iceland
and on Mount Etna. He taught at Imperial College. In 1978, he was Captain James Cook Research Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellow of the Royal Society
of New Zealand at the University of Auckland, In 1981, he was Macdonald Chair in Volcanology
Volcanology
at the University of Hawaii.[3] He was married to a woman named Hazel and had a daughter, Alison, and a son, Leonard. Awards[edit]Honorary D.Sc. from the University of New Zealand
University of New Zealand
in 1988. Dr. scient. hon. c
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Katia And Maurice Krafft
Katia Krafft (née Catherine Joséphine Conrad, Soultz-Haut-Rhin, 17 April 1942 – 3 June 1991) and her husband, Maurice Paul Krafft (Guebwiller, 25 March 1946 – 3 June 1991), were French volcanologists who died in a pyroclastic flow on Mount Unzen, in Japan, on June 3, 1991. The Kraffts were known for being pioneers in filming, photographing and recording volcanoes, often getting within feet of lava flows. Their obituary appeared in the Bulletin of Volcanology.[1]Contents1 Early days 2 As professional volcanologists 3 Mount Unzen
Mount Unzen
eruption 4 M. and K. Krafft Crater 5 Books5.1 Maurice Krafft 5.2 Maurice and Katia Krafft 5.3 Maurice Krafft and Roland Benard 5.4 Maurice Krafft, Katia Krafft and François-Dominique de Larouzière6 References 7 External linksEarly days[edit] Katia Conrad and Maurice Krafft met at the University of Strasbourg, and their career as volcano observers began soon after
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