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Virginia
VIRGINIA (/vərˈdʒɪniə/ ( listen ); officially the COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States
United States
located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
. Virginia
Virginia
is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America, and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay , which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond ; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2017 is over 8.4 million
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Legislature
A LEGISLATURE is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city . Legislatures form important parts of most governments ; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with the executive and judicial branches of government. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as legislation . Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and usually have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process. The members of a legislature are called legislators . In a democracy , legislators are most commonly popularly elected , although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber
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Upper House
An UPPER HOUSE, sometimes called a senate , is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature (or one of three chambers of a tricameral legislature ), the other chamber being the lower house . The house formally designated as the upper house is usually smaller and often has more restricted power than the lower house. Examples of upper houses in countries include the United Kingdom's House of Lords
House of Lords
, India's Rajya Sabha , Russia's Federation Council , Ireland's Seanad
Seanad
, Malaysia's Dewan Negara , Germany's Bundesrat and the United States Senate
Senate

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Lower House
A LOWER HOUSE is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature , the other chamber being the upper house . Inside the Australian House of Representatives Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legislatures worldwide, the lower house has come to wield more power. A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries , dependent territories , special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. CONTENTS * 1 Parts * 2 Editions * 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency * 3.1 Members * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PARTSIt consists of three parts: * ISO 3166-1 , Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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List Of U.S. States By Elevation
The ELEVATION of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid , a mathematical model of the Earth\'s sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic system, vertical datum ). Elevation, or GEOMETRIC HEIGHT, is mainly used when referring to points on the Earth's surface, while altitude or geopotential height is used for points above the surface, such as an aircraft in flight or a spacecraft in orbit, and depth is used for points below the surface. Elevation
Elevation
is not to be confused with the distance from the center of the Earth; due to equatorial bulge , the summits of Mt. Everest and Chimborazo have, respectively, the largest elevation and the largest geocentric distance
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Cardinal (bird)
Periporphyrus Saltator Caryothraustes Parkerthraustes Rhodothraupis Cardinalis Cyanocompsa Passerina Pheucticus Spiza CARDINALS, in the family CARDINALIDAE, are passerine birds found in North and South America . They are also known as cardinal-grosbeaks and cardinal-buntings. The South American cardinals in the genus Paroaria are placed in another family, the Thraupidae (previously placed in Emberizidae ). CONTENTS* 1 Biology * 1.1 Human benefits * 2 Species list * 3 References * 4 External links BIOLOGYThey are robust, seed-eating birds with strong bills. The family ranges in size from the 12-cm (4.7-in), 11.5-g (0.40-oz) orange-breasted bunting and up to the 25-cm (9.8-in), 85-g (2.99-oz) black-headed saltator
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United States Congressional Delegations From Virginia
DELEGATION is the assignment of any responsibility or authority to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities, such as starting on proper tires during a wet race. It is one of the core concepts of management leadership . However, the person who delegated the work remains accountable for the outcome of the delegated work. Delegation empowers a subordinate to make decisions, i.e. it is a shifting of decision-making authority from one organizational level to a lower one. Delegation, if properly done, is not abdication . The opposite of effective delegation is micromanagement , where a manager provides too much input, direction, and review of delegated work. In general, delegation is good and can save money and time, help in building skills, and motivate people. On the other hand, poor delegation might cause frustration and confusion to all the involved parties
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Coordinated Universal Time
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT), but GMT
GMT
is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent), was not adopted until 1967. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time
Time
(SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972
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Atlantic Ocean
The ATLANTIC OCEAN is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 square miles). It covers approximately 20 percent of the Earth\'s surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area. It separates the "Old World " from the " New World
New World
". The Atlantic Ocean
Ocean
occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Eurasia
Eurasia
and Africa to the east, and the Americas to the west. As one component of the interconnected global ocean , it is connected in the north to the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
in the southwest, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica
Antarctica
)
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Eastern Daylight Time
The EASTERN TIME ZONE (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States , parts of eastern Canada
Canada
, the state of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
in Mexico
Mexico
, Panama
Panama
in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. Places that use EASTERN STANDARD TIME (EST) when observing standard time (autumn/winter) are 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00 ). EASTERN DAYLIGHT TIME (EDT), when observing daylight saving time DST (spring/summer) is 4 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−04:00 ). In the northern parts of the time zone, on the second Sunday in March, at 2:00 a.m. EST, clocks are advanced to 3:00 a.m. EDT leaving a one-hour "gap". On the first Sunday in November, at 2:00 a.m. EDT, clocks are moved back to 1:00 a.m
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Eastern Time Zone (North America)
The EASTERN TIME ZONE (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States , parts of eastern Canada
Canada
, the state of Quintana Roo
Quintana Roo
in Mexico
Mexico
, Panama
Panama
in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. Places that use EASTERN STANDARD TIME (EST) when observing standard time (autumn/winter) are 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00 ). EASTERN DAYLIGHT TIME (EDT), when observing daylight saving time DST (spring/summer) is 4 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−04:00 ). In the northern parts of the time zone, on the second Sunday in March, at 2:00 a.m. EST, clocks are advanced to 3:00 a.m. EDT leaving a one-hour "gap". On the first Sunday in November, at 2:00 a.m. EDT, clocks are moved back to 1:00 a.m
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Eastern Time Zone
The EASTERN TIME ZONE (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States , parts of eastern Canada
Canada
, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico
Mexico
, Panama
Panama
in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands. Places that use EASTERN STANDARD TIME (EST) when observing standard time (autumn/winter) are 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00 ). EASTERN DAYLIGHT TIME (EDT), when observing daylight saving time DST (spring/summer) is 4 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−04:00 ). In the northern parts of the time zone, on the second Sunday in March, at 2:00 a.m. EST, clocks are advanced to 3:00 a.m. EDT leaving a one-hour "gap". On the first Sunday in November, at 2:00 a.m. EDT, clocks are moved back to 1:00 a.m
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List Of Metropolitan Statistical Areas
Population * Area * Density * Ethnic identity * Foreign-born * Income * Spanish speakers * By decade URBAN AREAS Populous cities and metropolitan areas METROPOLITAN AREAS * 574 Primary Statistical Areas * 169 Combined Statistical Areas * 929 Core Based Statistical Areas * 388 Metropolitan Statistical Areas * 540 Micropolitan Statistical Areas MEGAREGIONS * SEE ALSO * North American metro areas * World cities * v * t * e The United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has defined 382 Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for the United States
United States
and seven for Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico

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