HOME
The Info List - Virginia



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

VIRGINIA (/vərˈdʒɪnjə/ ( listen ), UK : /vərˈdʒɪni.ə/ , officially the COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA) is a state in the Southeastern United States
Southeastern United States
located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
. Virginia
Virginia
is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America, and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond ; Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million.

The area's history begins with several indigenous groups , including the Powhatan
Powhatan
. In 1607 the London Company
London Company
established the Colony of Virginia
Virginia
as the first permanent New World
New World
English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy. Virginia
Virginia
was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution
American Revolution
and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War , during which Richmond was made the Confederate capital and Virginia's northwestern counties seceded to form the state of West Virginia
Virginia
. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction , both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.

The Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008. It is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley
Shenandoah Valley
; federal agencies in Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
, including the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) ; and military facilities in Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
, the site of the region\'s main seaport .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Geology and terrain * 1.2 Climate * 1.3 Ecosystem

* 2 History

* 2.1 Colony * 2.2 Statehood * 2.3 Civil War and aftermath * 2.4 Post-Reconstruction

* 3 Cities and towns

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Ethnicity * 4.2 Languages * 4.3 Religion

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Government * 5.2 Business * 5.3 Agriculture * 5.4 Taxes

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Fine and performing arts * 6.2 Festivals

* 7 Media * 8 Education * 9 Health * 10 Transportation * 11 Law and government * 12 Politics * 13 Sports * 14 State symbols * 15 See also * 16 References * 17 Bibliography * 18 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Environment of Virginia Geographically and geologically, Virginia
Virginia
is divided into five regions from east to west: Tidewater , Piedmont , Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
, Ridge and Valley , and Cumberland Plateau .

Virginia
Virginia
has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles (110,784.7 km2), including 3,180.13 square miles (8,236.5 km2) of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia
Virginia
is bordered by Maryland
Maryland
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east; by North Carolina
North Carolina
to the south; by Tennessee
Tennessee
to the southwest; by Kentucky
Kentucky
to the west; and by West Virginia
West Virginia
to the north and west. Virginia's boundary with Maryland
Maryland
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River
Potomac River
. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north , though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes . The border with Tennessee
Tennessee
was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
.

GEOLOGY AND TERRAIN

The Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore . The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the Susquehanna River and the James River
James River
. Many of Virginia\'s rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac , Rappahannock , York , and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay. Deciduous and evergreen trees give the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
their distinct color.

The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line . It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay. The Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock -based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville . The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet (1,746 m). The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley
Great Appalachian Valley
. The region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain . The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains
Cumberland Mountains
are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau
Allegheny Plateau
. In this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system , into the Ohio
Ohio
River basin.

The Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 in magnitude , because Virginia
Virginia
is located away from the edges of the North American Plate
North American Plate
. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg . A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 23, 2011, near Mineral . The earthquake was reportedly felt as far away as Toronto
Toronto
, Atlanta
Atlanta
and Florida
Florida
.

Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic
Mesozoic
basins. Over 62 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate , kyanite , sand, or gravel, were also mined in Virginia
Virginia
in 2012. The state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted what is now eastern Virginia. The resulting crater may explain sinking and earthquakes in the region.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Virginia

VIRGINIA STATE-WIDE AVERAGES

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

3.1 46 26 3.1 48 27 3.7 57 34 3.3 67 43 4 76 52 3.7 83 60 4.3 86 64 4.1 85 63 3.5 79 57 3.4 69 45 3.2 58 35 3.2 48 28

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

_Source: University of Virginia
University of Virginia
data 1895–1998 _

METRIC CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

79 8 −3 79 9 −3 94 14 1 84 19 6 102 24 11 94 28 16 109 30 18 104 29 17 89 26 14 86 21 7 81 14 2 81 9 −2

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

The climate of Virginia
Virginia
is temperate and becomes increasingly warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F (−3 °C) in January to average highs of 86 °F (30 °C) in July. The Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
has a strong effect on eastern and southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes , most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, even the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summer and winter, particularly given the state climate's subtropical classification, which is typical of states in the Upper South .

Virginia
Virginia
has an annual average of 35–45 days of thunderstorm activity, particularly in the western part of the state, and an average annual precipitation of 42.7 inches (108 cm). Cold air masses arriving over the mountains in winter can lead to significant snowfalls, such as the Blizzard of 1996 and winter storms of 2009–2010 . The interaction of these elements with the state's topography creates distinct microclimates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains. Virginia
Virginia
averages seven tornadoes annually, most F2 or lower on the Fujita scale .

In recent years, the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington, D.C. into Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
has introduced an urban heat island primarily caused by increased absorption of solar radiation in more densely populated areas. In the American Lung Association 's 2011 report, 11 counties received failing grades for air quality, with Fairfax County having the worst in the state, due to automobile pollution. Haze in the mountains is caused in part by coal power plants.

ECOSYSTEM

Forests cover 65% of the state, primarily with deciduous, broad leaf trees in the western part of the state and evergreens and conifers dominant the central and eastern part of Virginia. Lower altitudes are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving hemlocks and mosses in abundance, with hickory and oak in the Blue Ridge. However, since the early 1990s, Gypsy moth
Gypsy moth
infestations have eroded the dominance of oak forests. In the lowland tidewater and piedmont, yellow pines tend to dominate, with bald cypress wetland forests in the Great Dismal and Nottoway swamps. Other common trees and plants include red bay, wax myrtle, dwarf palmetto, tulip poplar , mountain laurel , milkweed , daisies, and many species of ferns. The largest areas of wilderness are along the Atlantic coast and in the western mountains, where the largest populations of trillium wildflowers in North America are found. The Atlantic coast regions are host to flora commonly associated with the South Atlantic pine forests and lower Southeast Coastal Plain maritime flora, the latter found primarily in eastern and central Virginia. White-tailed deer, also known as Virginia
Virginia
deer, graze at Big Meadows in Shenandoah National Park

Mammals include white-tailed deer , black bear , beaver , bobcat , coyote , raccoon , skunk , groundhog , Virginia opossum
Virginia opossum
, gray fox , red fox , and eastern cottontail rabbit . Other mammals include: nutria, fox squirrel, gray squirrel, flying squirrel, chipmunk, brown bat, and weasel. Birds include cardinals (the state bird), barred owls, Carolina chickadees, red-tailed hawks, ospreys, brown pelicans, quail, seagulls, bald eagles, and wild turkeys. Virginia
Virginia
is also home to the pileated woodpecker as well as the red-bellied woodpecker. The peregrine falcon was reintroduced into Shenandoah National Park
Shenandoah National Park
in the mid-1990s. Walleye, brook trout, Roanoke bass, and blue catfish are among the 210 known species of freshwater fish. Running brooks with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by plentiful amounts of crayfish and salamanders. The Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
is host to many species, including blue crabs , clams, oysters, and rockfish (also known as striped bass).

Virginia
Virginia
has 30 National Park Service
National Park Service
units, such as Great Falls Park and the Appalachian Trail
Appalachian Trail
, and one national park, the Shenandoah National Park . Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive
Skyline Drive
. Almost 40% of the park's area (79,579 acres/322 km2) has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System . Additionally, there are 34 Virginia state parks and 17 state forests , run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry. The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge extends into North Carolina, as does the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge , which marks the beginning of the Outer Banks
Outer Banks
.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Virginia The story of Pocahontas
Pocahontas
, an ancestress of many of the First Families of Virginia
First Families of Virginia
, was romanticized by later artists.

"Jamestown 2007" marked Virginia's quadricentennial year, celebrating 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. The celebrations highlighted contributions from Native Americans , Africans, and Europeans, each of which had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history. Warfare, including among these groups, has also had an important role. Virginia
Virginia
was a focal point in conflicts from the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
, the American Revolution
American Revolution
and the Civil War , to the Cold War
Cold War
and the War on Terrorism
War on Terrorism
. Stories about historic figures, such as those surrounding Pocahontas
Pocahontas
and John Smith , George Washington
George Washington
's childhood, or the plantation elite in the slave society of the antebellum period , have also created potent myths of state history, and have served as rationales for Virginia's ideology.

COLONY

Main article: Colony of Virginia
Colony of Virginia

The first people are estimated to have arrived in Virginia
Virginia
over 12,000 years ago. By 5,000 years ago more permanent settlements emerged, and farming began by 900 AD. By 1500, the Algonquian peoples had founded towns such as Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
in the Tidewater region , which they referred to as _ Tsenacommacah _. The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians , who included the Nottoway and Meherrin , to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan
Powhatan
in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network. Powhatan controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia
Virginia
Algonquian language. In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 and 14,000.

Several European expeditions, including a group of Spanish Jesuits , explored the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
during the 16th century. In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
granted Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh
a charter to plant a colony north of Spanish Florida
Florida
. In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America . The name "Virginia" may have been suggested then by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen," and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa," or name, "Wingina." Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina
South Carolina
to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda
Bermuda
. Later, subsequent royal charters modified the Colony's boundaries. The London Company
London Company
was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606 , which granted land rights to this area. The company financed the first permanent English settlement in the " New World
New World
", Jamestown . Named for King James I , it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport
Christopher Newport
. In 1619, colonists took greater control with an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses
. With the bankruptcy of the London Company
London Company
in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as an English crown colony . Williamsburg was Virginia's capital from 1699 to 1780.

Life in the colony was perilous, and many died during the Starving Time in 1609 and the Anglo- Powhatan
Powhatan
Wars , including the Indian massacre of 1622 , which fostered the colonists' negative view of all tribes. By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived. However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants. The headright system tried to solve the labor shortage by providing colonists with land for each indentured servant they transported to Virginia. African workers were first imported to Jamestown in 1619 initially under the rules of indentured servitude. The shift to a system of African slavery in Virginia
Virginia
was propelled by the legal cases of John Punch , who was sentenced to lifetime slavery in 1640 for attempting to run away, and of John Casor , who was claimed by Anthony Johnson as his servant for life in 1655. Slavery first appears in Virginia
Virginia
statutes in 1661 and 1662, when a law made it hereditary based on the mother's status.

Tensions and the geographic differences between the working and ruling classes led to Bacon\'s Rebellion in 1676, by which time current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population. Rebels, largely from the colony's frontier, were also opposed to the conciliatory policy towards native tribes , and one result of the rebellion was the signing at Middle Plantation of the Treaty of 1677 , which made the signatory tribes tributary states and was part of a pattern of appropriating tribal land by force and treaty. Middle Plantation saw the founding of The College of William "> 1851 painting of Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
's speech before the House of Burgesses on the Virginia Resolves against the Stamp Act of 1765

The British Parliament\'s efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses
, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
and Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee
, among others. Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
the following year. After the House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses
was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia Conventions . On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason
George Mason
's Virginia Declaration of Rights
Virginia Declaration of Rights
, which was then included in a new constitution. Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence .

When the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
began, George Washington
George Washington
was selected to head the colonial army . During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's coastal location would make it vulnerable to British attack. In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula , where troops under George Washington
George Washington
and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown . His surrender on October 19, 1781 led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies.

Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution . James Madison
James Madison
drafted the Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789. Virginia
Virginia
ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives . Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland
Maryland
ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia , though the Virginian area was retroceded in 1846. Virginia
Virginia
is called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into states like Kentucky
Kentucky
, which became the 15th state in 1792, and for the numbers of American pioneers born in Virginia.

CIVIL WAR AND AFTERMATH

Main article: Virginia
Virginia
in the American Civil War
American Civil War
Union soldiers before Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg in May 1863

In addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries. The execution of Gabriel Prosser in 1800, Nat Turner\'s slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown\'s Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 marked the growing social discontent over slavery and its role in the plantation economy . By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31% of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved. This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War
American Civil War
.

Virginia
Virginia
voted to secede from the United States
United States
on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter
Battle of Fort Sumter
and Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
's call for volunteers. On April 24, Virginia
Virginia
joined the Confederate States of America , which chose Richmond as its capital. After the 1861 Wheeling Convention , 48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia
West Virginia
, which chose to remain loyal to the Union . Virginian general Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
took command of the Army of Northern Virginia
Virginia
in 1862, and led invasions into Union territory, ultimately becoming commander of all Confederate forces. During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia
Virginia
than anywhere else, including Bull Run , the Seven Days Battles , Chancellorsville , and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House . After the capture of Richmond in April 1865, the state capital was briefly moved to Lynchburg , while the Confederate leadership fled to Danville . Virginia
Virginia
was formally restored to the United States
United States
in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine
Committee of Nine
.

During the post-war Reconstruction era , Virginia
Virginia
adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights . The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883. It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia
Constitution of Virginia
to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor European Americans. Though their schools and public services were segregated and underfunded due to a lack of political representation, African Americans were able to unite in communities and take a greater role in Virginia
Virginia
society.

POST-RECONSTRUCTION

_ Many Pre-Dreadnought
Pre-Dreadnought
and World War I
World War I
-era warships were built in Newport News , including the USS Virginia_ .

New economic forces also changed the Commonwealth. Virginian James Albert Bonsack invented the tobacco cigarette rolling machine in 1880 leading to new industrial scale production centered on Richmond. In 1886, railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington founded Newport News Shipbuilding , which was responsible for building six major World War I -era battleships for the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
from 1907 to 1923. During the war, German submarines like U-151 attacked ships outside the port. In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin , rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church , began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
Though their project, like others in the state, had to contend with the Great Depression and World War II
World War II
, work continued as Colonial Williamsburg became a major tourist attraction. The Virginia
Virginia
Civil Rights Memorial was erected in 2008 to commemorate the protests which led to school desegregation.

Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns
Barbara Rose Johns
in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit _Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County _. This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill
Oliver Hill
, was decided in 1954 with _Brown v. Board of Education _, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal ". But, in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance " led by the influential segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd and his Byrd Organization , the Commonwealth prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving state funding.

The Civil Rights Movement
Civil Rights Movement
gained many participants in the 1960s. It achieved the moral force and support to gain passage of national legislation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 . In 1964 the United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools. In 1967, the Court also struck down the state's ban on interracial marriage with _Loving v. Virginia
Virginia
_. From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws
Jim Crow laws
had been achieved. In 1989, Douglas Wilder
Douglas Wilder
became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.

The Cold War
Cold War
led to the expansion of national defense government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
near Washington, D.C., and correlative population growth. The Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
in Langley was involved in various Cold War
Cold War
events , including as the target of Soviet espionage activities . Also among the federal developments was the Pentagon , built during World War II
World War II
as the headquarters for the Department of Defense. It was one of the targets of the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
; 189 people died at the site when a jet passenger plane was crashed into the building.

CITIES AND TOWNS

Main article: Political subdivisions of Virginia

* v * t * e

Largest cities or towns in Virginia Source:

RANK NAME COUNTY POP.

Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach

Norfolk 1 Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
Independent city 448,479

Chesapeake

Arlington

2 Norfolk Independent city 246,139

3 Chesapeake Independent city 230,571

4 Arlington Arlington 224,906

5 Richmond Independent city 214,114

6 Newport News Independent city 182,020

7 Alexandria Independent city 148,892

8 Hampton Independent city 136,699

9 Roanoke Independent city 98,465

10 Portsmouth Independent city 96,205

Virginia
Virginia
counties and cities by population in 2010

Virginia
Virginia
is divided into 95 counties and 38 independent cities , the latter acting in many ways as county-equivalents . This general method of treating cities and counties on par with each other is unique to Virginia, with only three other independent cities in the United States
United States
outside Virginia, in three different states. Virginia limits the authority of cities and counties to countermand laws expressly allowed by the Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
under what is known as Dillon\'s Rule . In addition to independent cities, there are also incorporated _towns_ which operate under their own governments, but are part of a county. Finally there are hundreds of unincorporated communities within the counties. Virginia
Virginia
does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships.

Virginia
Virginia
has 11 Metropolitan Statistical Areas ; Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
, Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
, and Richmond-Petersburg are the three most populous. Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population of over 1.2 million. As of 2010 , Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
is the most populous city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively. Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
metropolitan area, which has a population over 1.6 million people and is the site of the world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk
Naval Station Norfolk
. Suffolk , which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp
Great Dismal Swamp
, is the largest city by area at 429.1 square miles (1,111 km2).

Fairfax County is the most populous locality in Virginia, with over one million residents, although that does not include its county seat Fairfax, which is one of the independent cities. Fairfax County has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner
Tysons Corner
, Virginia's largest office market. Neighboring Prince William County is Virginia's second most populous county, with a population exceeding 450,000, and is home to Marine Corps Base Quantico
Marine Corps Base Quantico
, the FBI Academy and Manassas National Battlefield Park . Loudoun County , with the county seat at Leesburg , is both the fastest-growing county in Virginia
Virginia
and has the highest median household income ($114,204) in the country as of 2010 . Arlington County , the smallest self-governing county in the United States
United States
by land area, is an urban community organized as a county. The Roanoke area, with an estimated population of 300,399, is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Virginia.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Virginia

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1790 691,737

1800 807,557

16.7%

1810 877,683

8.7%

1820 938,261

6.9%

1830 1,044,054

11.3%

1840 1,025,227

−1.8%

1850 1,119,348

9.2%

1860 1,596,318

42.6%

1870 1,225,163

−23.3%

1880 1,512,565

23.5%

1890 1,655,980

9.5%

1900 1,854,184

12.0%

1910 2,061,612

11.2%

1920 2,309,187

12.0%

1930 2,421,851

4.9%

1940 2,677,773

10.6%

1950 3,318,680

23.9%

1960 3,966,949

19.5%

1970 4,648,494

17.2%

1980 5,346,818

15.0%

1990 6,187,358

15.7%

2000 7,078,515

14.4%

2010 8,001,024

13.0%

EST. 2016 8,411,808

5.1%

Source: 1860 1910–2010 2016 estimate

The Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
metropolitan area is home to the first British colony in the Americas , and currently has a population exceeding 1.7 million.

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the state population was 8,411,808 on July 1, 2016, a 5.1% increase since the 2010 United States Census . This includes an increase from net migration of 381,969 people into the Commonwealth since the 2010 census . Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 155,205 people. As of 2000, the center of population is located in Goochland County , near Richmond .

Aside from Virginia, the top birth state for Virginians is New York , having overtaken North Carolina
North Carolina
in the 1990s, with the Northeast accounting for the largest number of migrants into the state by region. As of 2015, both the state's population density and median household income are nearly identical to that of Hawaii
Hawaii
, while Virginia's total population is closest in size to New Jersey
New Jersey
.

ETHNICITY

The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic White
, has declined from 76% in 1990 to 62.7% in 2015. In 2011, non-Hispanic Whites were involved in 50.9% of all the births. People of English heritage settled throughout the Commonwealth during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have since immigrated. Those who self-identify as having " American ethnicity
American ethnicity
" are predominantly of English descent, but have ancestry that has been in North America for so long that they choose to identify simply as American. Of the English immigrants to Virginia
Virginia
in the 17th century, 75% came as indentured servants . The western mountains have many settlements that were founded by Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolution
American Revolution
. There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley
Shenandoah Valley
, and German ancestry was the most popular response on the 2010 American Community Survey , with 11.7%. 2.9% of Virginians also describe themselves as biracial .

The largest minority group in Virginia
Virginia
is African American, at 19.7% as of 2015 . Most African American Virginians have been descendants of enslaved Africans who worked on tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations. These men, women and children were brought from West and West-Central Africa, primarily from Angola
Angola
and the Bight of Biafra . The Igbo ethnic group of what is now southern Nigeria
Nigeria
were the single largest African group among slaves in Virginia. Though the black population was reduced by the Great Migration , since 1965 there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning south . According to the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
, the state has the highest concentration of black and white interracial marriages.

More recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century has fueled new communities of Hispanics and Asians. As of 2015 , 9.0% of Virginians are Hispanic or Latino (of any race), and 6.5% are Asian . The state's Hispanic population rose by 92% from 2000 to 2010, with two-thirds of Hispanics living in Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
. Hispanic citizens in Virginia
Virginia
have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general Virginia
Virginia
population. As far as Hispanic groups, there is a large Salvadoran population in the DC suburbs of Northern Virginia, and a large Puerto Rican population in the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
region of Southeast Virginia. Northern Virginia also has a significant population of Vietnamese Americans , whose major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
, and Korean Americans , whose migration has been more recent and was induced in part by the quality school system. The Filipino American
Filipino American
community has about 45,000 in the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area, many of whom have ties to the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
and armed forces.

Additionally, 0.5% of Virginians are American Indian or Alaska
Alaska
Native , and 0.1% are Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
or other Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander
. Virginia has extended state recognition to eight Native American tribes resident in the state, though some lack federal recognition status. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region .

ETHNICITY

LARGEST ANCESTRIES BY COUNTY ANCESTRY (2010 )

Non-Hispanic White 62.7%

American Community Survey
American Community Survey
5-year estimate German 11.7%

Black or African American 19.7%

English 10.7%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 9.0%

Irish 9.8%

Asian 6.5%

American 9.7%

American Indian and Alaska Native
Alaska Native
0.5%

Subsaharan African 1.7%

As of 2011, 49.1% of Virginia's population younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white).

LANGUAGES

The Piedmont region is known for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English
Southern American English
. While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including the Tidewater accent , the Old Virginia accent , and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island .

As of 2010 , 85.87% (6,299,127) of Virginia
Virginia
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language , while 6.41% (470,058) spoke Spanish , 0.77% (56,518) Korean , 0.63% (45,881) Vietnamese , 0.57% (42,418) Chinese (which includes Mandarin ), and Tagalog was spoken as a main language by 0.56% (40,724) of the population over the age of five. In total, 14.13% (1,036,442) of Virginia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English. English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia
Virginia
.

RELIGION

See also: Religion in early Virginia

RELIGION (2008)

Christian 76%

Baptist
Baptist
27%

Roman Catholic 11%

Methodist 8%

Presbyterian 3%

Lutheran 2%

Other Christian 28%

Buddhism
Buddhism
1%

Hinduism
Hinduism
1%

Judaism
Judaism
1%

Islam
Islam
0.5%

Unaffiliated 18%

Virginia
Virginia
is predominantly Christian and Protestant ; Baptists
Baptists
are the largest single group with 27% of the population as of 2008 . Baptist congregations in Virginia
Virginia
have 763,655 members. Baptist denominational groups in Virginia
Virginia
include the Baptist
Baptist
General Association of Virginia
Virginia
, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist
Baptist
Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist
Baptist
Fellowship ; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia
Virginia
with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist
Baptist
Convention. Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group with 673,853 members. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest. Christ Church in Alexandria was frequented by George Washington
George Washington
and Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
.

The Virginia
Virginia
Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church in most of the Commonwealth, while the Holston Conference represents much of extreme Southwest Virginia. The Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church . Presbyterian , Pentecostal , Congregationalist , and Episcopalian adherents each composed less than 2% of the population as of 2010 . The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia , Southern Virginia
Virginia
, and Southwestern Virginia
Virginia
support the various Episcopal churches .

In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia
Virginia
over the ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy in other dioceses of the Episcopal Church; these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States
United States
. Though Virginia
Virginia
law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claimed the secessionist churches' buildings and properties. The resulting property law case, ultimately decided in favor of the mainline diocese, was a test for Episcopal churches nationwide.

Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1% of the population, with 197 congregations in Virginia
Virginia
as of March 2014 . Fairfax Station is the site of the Ekoji Buddhist Temple , of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga
Durga
Temple. While the state's Jewish population is small, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah . Muslims
Muslims
are a growing religious group throughout the Commonwealth through immigration. Megachurches in the Commonwealth include Thomas Road Baptist
Baptist
Church , Immanuel Bible Church , and McLean Bible Church . Several Christian universities are also based in the state, including Regent University , Liberty University
Liberty University
, and Lynchburg College .

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Virginia See also: Virginia
Virginia
locations by per capita income Virginia
Virginia
counties and cities by median household income (2010).

Virginia
Virginia
is an employment-at-will state; its economy has diverse sources of income, including local and federal government, military, farming and business. Virginia
Virginia
has 4.1 million civilian workers, and one-third of the jobs are in the service sector . The unemployment rate in Virginia
Virginia
is among the lowest in the nation , at 4.8%, as of December 2014 . The second fastest job growth town in the nation is Leesburg , as of 2011 . The Gross Domestic Product of Virginia
Virginia
was $452 billion in 2013. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis , Virginia
Virginia
had the most counties in the top 100 wealthiest in the United States at sixteen counties based upon median income in 2007. Northern Virginia
Virginia
is the highest-income region in Virginia, having six of the twenty highest-income counties in the United States
United States
, including the three highest as of 2011 . According to CNN Money Magazine the highest-income town in the nation is Great Falls , as of 2011 . According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Virginia had the seventh-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 6.64%.

GOVERNMENT

The Department of Defense is headquartered in Arlington at The Pentagon , the world's largest office building.

Virginia
Virginia
has the highest defense spending of any state per capita, providing the Commonwealth with around 900,000 jobs. Approximately 12% of all U.S. federal procurement money is spent in Virginia, the second-highest amount after California. Many Virginians work for federal agencies in Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
, which include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense , as well as the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
, the United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
and the United States Patent and Trademark Office
United States Patent and Trademark Office
. Many others work for government contractors , including defense and security firms, which hold more than 15,000 federal contracts.

Virginia
Virginia
has one of the highest concentrations of veterans of any state, and is second to California
California
in total Department of Defense employees. The Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area has the largest concentration of military personnel and assets of any metropolitan area in the world, including the largest naval base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk
Naval Station Norfolk
. In its state government, Virginia
Virginia
employs 106,143 public employees, who combined have a median income of $44,656 as of 2013 .

BUSINESS

Ocean tourism is an important sector of Virginia
Virginia
Beach\'s economy.

Virginia
Virginia
has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state, and the fourth-highest number of technology workers after California
California
, Texas
Texas
, and New York . Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco combined, reaching a total export value of $717 million in 2015. Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
, once considered the state's dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, defense contracting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor .

The state has the highest average and peak Internet speeds in the United States, with the third-highest worldwide. Northern Virginia's data centers can carry up to 70% of the nation's internet traffic, with Loudoun County alone home to as much data center space as northern California
California
.

Virginia
Virginia
companies received the fourth-highest amount of venture capital funding in the first half of 2011 after California, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
, and New York. In 2009, _ Forbes
Forbes
_ magazine named Virginia
Virginia
the best state in the nation for business for the fourth year in a row, while CNBC
CNBC
named it the top state for business in 2007, 2009, and 2011. Additionally, in 2014 a survey of 12,000 small business owners found Virginia
Virginia
to be one of the most friendly states for small businesses. Virginia
Virginia
has 20 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies, ranking the state eighth nationwide. Tysons Corner
Tysons Corner
is one of the largest business districts in the nation.

Tourism in Virginia
Virginia
supported an estimated 210,000 jobs and generated $21.2 billion in 2012. Arlington County is the top tourist destination in the state by domestic spending, followed by Fairfax County , Loudoun County , and Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
.

AGRICULTURE

U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
sailors unload oysters to help establish an artificial oyster reef . Virginia
Virginia
is the third largest producer of seafood in the nation, after Alaska
Alaska
and Louisiana
Louisiana
.

Agriculture occupies 32% of the land in Virginia. As of 2012 , about 357,000 Virginian jobs were in agriculture, with over 47,000 farms, averaging 171 acres (0.27 sq mi; 0.69 km2), in a total farmland area of 8.1 million acres (12,656 sq mi; 32,780 km2). Though agriculture has declined significantly since 1960 when there were twice as many farms, it remains the largest single industry in Virginia. Tomatoes surpassed soy as the most profitable crop in Virginia
Virginia
in 2006, with peanuts and hay as other agricultural products. Although it is no longer the primary crop, Virginia
Virginia
is still the fifth-largest producer of tobacco nationwide.

Virginia
Virginia
is the largest producer of seafood on the East Coast , with scallops , oysters , blue crabs , and clams as the largest seafood harvests by value, and France
France
, Canada
Canada
, and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
as the top export destinations. Eastern oyster
Eastern oyster
harvests have increased from 23,000 bushels in 2001 to over 500,000 in 2013. Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck
Northern Neck
and along the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
also have begun to generate income and attract tourists. Virginia
Virginia
has the fifth-highest number of wineries in the nation.

TAXES

Virginia
Virginia
collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 3.0% to 5.75%. The state sales and use tax rate is 4.3%, while the tax rate on food is 1.5%. There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 5.3% combined sales tax on most Virginia purchases and 2.5% on most food. Virginia's property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the Commonwealth. Real estate is also taxed at the local level based on 100% of fair market value. Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Virginia Colonial Virginian culture, language, and style are reenacted in Williamsburg .

Virginia's culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by figures such as George Washington
George Washington
, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
, and Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
. Their homes in Virginia
Virginia
represent the birthplace of America and the South. Modern Virginia
Virginia
culture has many sources, and is part of the culture of the Southern United States
Southern United States
. The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
divides Virginia
Virginia
into nine cultural regions.

Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States
Southern United States
, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions. Virginia wine
Virginia wine
is made in many parts of the state. Smithfield ham , sometimes called " Virginia
Virginia
ham", is a type of country ham which is protected by state law , and can only be produced in the town of Smithfield . Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture
American colonial architecture
. Thomas Jefferson and many of the state's early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture
style, leading to its use for important state buildings. The Pennsylvania Dutch
Pennsylvania Dutch
and their style can also be found in parts of the state.

Literature in Virginia
Virginia
often deals with the state's extensive and sometimes troubled past. The works of Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
winner Ellen Glasgow often dealt with social inequalities and the role of women in her culture. Glasgow's peer and close friend James Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position of gentry in the Reconstruction era , and challenged its moral code with _Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice _. William Styron approached history in works such as _The Confessions of Nat Turner _ and _Sophie\'s Choice _. Tom Wolfe has occasionally dealt with his southern heritage in bestsellers like _ I Am Charlotte Simmons _. Mount Vernon native Matt Bondurant received critical acclaim for his historic novel _The Wettest County in the World _ about moonshiners in Franklin County during prohibition . Virginia
Virginia
also names a state Poet Laureate , currently Ron Smith of Richmond , who will serve until mid-2016.

FINE AND PERFORMING ARTS

See also: Music of Virginia The Meadow Pavilion is one of the theaters at Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts .

Rich in cultural heritage, Virginia
Virginia
however ranks near the bottom of U.S. states in terms of public spending on the arts, at nearly half of the national average. The state government does fund some institutions, including the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
and the Science Museum of Virginia . Other museums include the popular Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum
National Air and Space Museum
and the Chrysler Museum of Art . Besides these sites, many open-air museums are located in the Commonwealth, such as Colonial Williamsburg
Colonial Williamsburg
, the Frontier Culture Museum , and various historic battlefields. The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve the Commonwealth's civic, cultural, and intellectual life.

Theaters and venues in the Commonwealth are found both in the cities and suburbs. The Harrison Opera House , in Norfolk , is home of the Virginia Opera . The Virginia Symphony Orchestra operates in and around Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
. Resident and touring theater troupes operate from the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton . The Barter Theatre , designated the State Theatre of Virginia, in Abingdon won the first ever Regional Theatre Tony Award in 1948, while the Signature Theatre in Arlington won it in 2009. There's also a Children's Theater of Virginia, Theatre IV , which is the second largest touring troupe nationwide.

Virginia
Virginia
has launched many award-winning traditional musical artists and internationally successful popular music acts, as well as Hollywood actors. Virginia
Virginia
is known for its tradition in the music genres of old-time string and bluegrass , with groups such as the Carter Family
Carter Family
and Stanley Brothers , as well as gospel , blues , and shout bands . Contemporary Virginia
Virginia
is also known for folk rock artists like Dave Matthews
Dave Matthews
and Jason Mraz
Jason Mraz
, hip hop stars like Pharrell Williams
Pharrell Williams
and Missy Elliott
Missy Elliott
, as well as thrash metal groups like GWAR and Lamb of God . Notable performance venues include The Birchmere , the Landmark Theater , and Jiffy Lube Live . Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is located in Vienna and is the only national park intended for use as a performing arts center.

FESTIVALS

The annual Chincoteague Pony
Chincoteague Pony
Swim features over 200 wild ponies swimming across the Assateague Channel into Chincoteague .

Many counties and localities host county fairs and festivals. The Virginia State Fair is held at the Meadow Event Park every September. Also in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
, which celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists. Norfolk\'s Harborfest , in June, features boat racing and air shows . Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances. The Virginia
Virginia
Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville . Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company , which produces an opera festival every summer. Each September, Bay Days celebrates the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
as well as Hampton's 400-year history since 1610, and Isle of Wight County holds a County Fair on the second week of September as well. Both feature live music performances, and other unique events.

On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim ">_ USA Today
USA Today
_, the nation's most circulated newspaper, has its headquarters in McLean.

The Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area is the 45th-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research
Nielsen Media Research
, while the Richmond-Petersburg area is 57th and Roanoke -Lynchburg is 66th as of 2013 . Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
is part of the much larger Washington, D.C. media market.

There are 36 television stations in Virginia
Virginia
, representing each major U.S. network , part of 42 stations which serve Virginia
Virginia
viewers. More than 720 FCC -licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia
Virginia
, with about 300 such AM stations. The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is headquartered in Arlington . Independent PBS affiliates exist throughout Virginia, and the Arlington PBS member station WETA-TV
WETA-TV
produces programs such as the _ PBS NewsHour
PBS NewsHour
_ and _ Washington Week _.

The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are Norfolk\'s _ The Virginian-Pilot _ (142,476 daily subscribers), the _ Richmond Times-Dispatch _ (108,559), and _ The Roanoke Times _ (78,663), as of 2014 . Several Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
papers are based in Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
, such as _ The Washington Examiner
The Washington Examiner
_ and _Politico _. The paper with the nation's widest circulation, _ USA Today
USA Today
_, with 1.83 million daily subscriptions, is headquartered in McLean . Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia
Virginia
is the home base for telecommunication companies such as Voxant and XO Communications . In Northern Virginia, _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_ is the dominant newspaper, since Northern VA is located in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in Virginia The University of Virginia , a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
, was founded by President Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
.

Virginia's educational system consistently ranks in the top ten states on the U.S. Department of Education\'s National Assessment of Educational Progress , with Virginia
Virginia
students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested. The 2011 _Quality Counts _ report ranked Virginia's K–12 education fourth best in the country. All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Education , which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability. In 2010, 85% of high school students graduated on-time after four years. Between 2000 and 2008, school enrollment increased 5%, the number of teachers 21%.

Public K–12 schools in Virginia
Virginia
are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state. As of 2011 , a total of 1,267,063 students were enrolled in 1,873 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including three charter schools , and an additional 109 alternative and special education centers across 132 school divisions . Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor\'s Schools and selective magnet schools . The Governor's Schools are a collection of more than 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students. The Virginia
Virginia
Council for Private Education oversees the regulation of 320 state accredited and 130 non-accredited private schools. An additional 24,682 students receive homeschooling.

As of 2011 , there are 176 colleges and universities in Virginia
Virginia
. In the 2017 _U.S. News "> Sentara Norfolk General Hospital , part of the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
based Sentara Health System and a teaching institution of Eastern Virginia Medical School , was the site of the first successful in-vitro fertilization birth.

Virginia
Virginia
has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 26th overall healthiest state according to the 2013 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings. Virginia
Virginia
also ranks 21st among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 6,816 per 100,000. In 2008, Virginia
Virginia
reached its lowest ever rate of infant mortality , at 6.7 deaths per 1,000. There are however racial and social health disparities, in 2010 African Americans experienced 28% more premature deaths than whites, while 13% of Virginians lack any health insurance . According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
's 2009 survey, 26% of Virginians are obese and another 35% are overweight. 78% of residents claim to have exercised at least once in the past three months. About 30% of Virginia's 10- to 17-year-olds are overweight or obese. Virginia
Virginia
banned smoking in bars and restaurants in January 2010. 19% of Virginians smoke tobacco. Residents of Virginia\'s 8th congressional district share the longest average life expectancy rate in the nation, over 83 years.

There are 89 hospitals in Virginia
Virginia
listed with the United States Department of Health and Human Services . Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital , the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area , and the VCU Medical Center
VCU Medical Center
, located on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University
Virginia Commonwealth University
. The University of Virginia
Virginia
Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
Health System , is highly ranked in endocrinology according to _U.S.News "> Located at the confluence of major bridges, roads, bus lines, and subway lines, Rosslyn station in Arlington is the biggest choke point of the Washington Metro
Washington Metro
system. Arlington accounts for 40% of Virginia's public transit trips.

Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act , the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, instead of a local county authority as is usual in other states. As of 2011 , the Virginia
Virginia
Department of Transportation owns and operates 57,867 miles (93,128 km) of the total 70,105 miles (112,823 km) of roads in the state, making it the third largest state highway system in the United States. Although the Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
, has the second worst traffic in the nation, Virginia
Virginia
as a whole has the 21st-lowest congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes. Virginia
Virginia
hit peak car usage before the year 2000, making it one of the first such states. The main terminal of Washington Dulles International Airport is one of the few surviving examples of Space Age architecture .

Virginia
Virginia
has Amtrak
Amtrak
passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express
Virginia Railway Express
(VRE) maintains two commuter lines into Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
from Fredericksburg and Manassas . VRE is one of the nation's fastest growing commuter rail services, handling nearly 20,000 passengers a day. The Washington Metro
Washington Metro
rapid transit system serves Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
as far west as communities along I-66 in Fairfax County, with expansion plans to reach Loudoun County by 2017. Major freight railroads in Virginia
Virginia
include Norfolk Southern
Norfolk Southern
and CSX Transportation . Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector
Fairfax Connector
and the Shenandoah Valley
Shenandoah Valley
Commuter Bus . The Virginia
Virginia
Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River
James River
in Surry County .

Virginia
Virginia
has five major airports: Washington Dulles International and Reagan Washington National in Northern Virginia, both of which handle over 20 million passengers a year; Richmond International ; and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport
Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport
and Norfolk International serving the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area. Several other airports offer limited commercial passenger service, and sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs. The Virginia
Virginia
Port Authority 's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
, which carried 17,726,251 short tons (16,080,984 t ) of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States
United States
ports. The Eastern Shore of Virginia is the site of Wallops Flight Facility
Wallops Flight Facility
, a rocket testing center owned by NASA
NASA
, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport
Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport
, a commercial spaceport. Space tourism
Space tourism
is also offered through Vienna -based Space Adventures .

LAW AND GOVERNMENT

Main article: Government of Virginia The Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol , designed by Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and Charles-Louis Clérisseau
Charles-Louis Clérisseau
, is home to the Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
.

In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses
, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly". Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere. In 2008, the government was ranked by the Pew Center on the States with an A− in terms of its efficiency, effectiveness, and infrastructure, tied with Utah
Utah
and Washington . This was the second consecutive time that Virginia received the highest grade in the nation.

Since 1971, the government has functioned under the seventh Constitution of Virginia
Constitution of Virginia
, which provides for a strong legislature and a unified judicial system. Similar to the federal structure , the government is divided in three branches : legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature is the General Assembly , a bicameral body whose 100-member House of Delegates and 40-member Senate write the laws for the Commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as it selects judges and justices. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are elected every four years in separate elections. Incumbent governors cannot run for re-election, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can, and governors may serve non-consecutive terms. The judicial system, the oldest in America, consists of a hierarchy from the Supreme Court of Virginia
Supreme Court of Virginia
and the Court of Appeals of Virginia to the Circuit Courts , the trial courts of general jurisdiction, and the lower General District Courts and Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts .

The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly. The Virginia
Virginia
State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia
Virginia
. The Virginia Capitol Police is the oldest police department in the United States. The Virginia National Guard consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia
Virginia
Air National Guard . Since the resumption of capital punishment in Virginia
Virginia
in 1982, 107 people have been executed , the second highest number in the nation. The "total crime risk" is 28% lower than the national average. Since Virginia
Virginia
ended prisoner parole in 1995, the rate of recidivism has fallen to 28.3%, among the lowest nationwide. Virginia
Virginia
is an open-carry state .

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Virginia See also: Democratic Party of Virginia
Virginia
, Green Party of Virginia , Independent Greens of Virginia , Libertarian Party of Virginia , Political party strength in Virginia , and Republican Party of Virginia

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS RESULTS YEAR REPUBLICANS DEMOCRATS

2016 44.43% _1,769,443_ 49.75% _1,981,473_

2012 47.28% _1,822,522_ 51.16% _1,971,820_

2008 46.33% _1,725,005_ 52.63% _1,959,532_

2004 53.68% _1,716,959_ 45.48% _1,454,742_

2000 52.47% _1,437,490_ 44.44% _1,217,290_

1996 47.10% _1,138,350_ 45.15% _1,091,060_

1992 44.97% _1,150,517_ 40.59% _1,038,650_

1988 59.74% _1,309,162_ 39.23% _859,799_

1984 62.29% _1,337,078_ 37.09% _796,250_

1980 53.03% _989,609_ 40.31% _752,174_

Over the 20th century, Virginia
Virginia
shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment. Up until the 1970s, Virginia
Virginia
was a racially divided one-party state dominated by the Byrd Organization . The legacy of slavery in the state effectively disfranchised African Americans until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s. Enfranchisement and immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have placed growing importance on minority voting, while voters that identify as "white working-class" declined by three percent between 2008 and 2012. Regional differences play a large part in Virginia
Virginia
politics. Rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to its "southern strategy ", while urban and growing suburban areas, including much of Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
, form the Democratic Party base . Democratic support also persists in union-influenced Roanoke in Southwest Virginia
Southwest Virginia
, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg , and the southeastern Black Belt Region .

Political party strength in Virginia has likewise been in flux. In the 2007 state elections , Democrats regained control of the State Senate , and narrowed the Republican majority in the House of Delegates to eight seats. Yet elections in 2009 resulted in the election of Republican Bob McDonnell as Governor by a seventeen-point margin, the election of a Republican Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General , as well as Republican gains of six seats in the House of Delegates. In 2011, the Republican caucus took over two-thirds (68–32) of the seats in the House of Delegates, and a majority of the Senate based on the Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling as the tie-breaker. Following the 2013 elections , Democrat Terry McAuliffe was elected Governor by two percentage points, and Democrat Ralph Northam was elected Lieutenant Governor by double digits. Republicans, however, maintained their super-majority (68–32) in the House of Delegates. State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield .

In federal elections since 2006, both parties have seen successes. Republican Senator George Allen lost close races in 2006 , to Democratic newcomer Jim Webb , and again in 2012 , to Webb's replacement, former Governor Tim Kaine
Tim Kaine
. In 2008 , Democrats won both United States Senate
United States Senate
seats; former Governor Mark Warner
Mark Warner
was elected to replace retiring Republican John Warner
John Warner
. The state went Republican in 13 out of 14 presidential elections from 1952 to 2004, including 10 in a row from 1968 to 2004. However, Democrat Barack Obama
Barack Obama
carried Virginia's 13 electoral votes in both the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections. In the 2010 elections , Republicans won three United States House of Representatives seats from the Democrats. Of the state's eleven seats in the House of Representatives, Republicans hold seven and Democrats hold four. Virginia
Virginia
is considered a "swing state " in future presidential elections.

In the 2016 Presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
carried Virginia, marking the third consecutive win for the Democratic Party at the presidential level and the first time the state gave its electoral votes to a Democrat, who did not win the national Electoral Vote, since 1924 . In contrast, the state gave Donald J. Trump
Donald J. Trump
the smallest percentage of Virginian votes for any Republican Party presidential nominee since Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
in 1948 .

SPORTS

See also: Sports teams in Virginia The Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
Hokies football team has the second-longest bowl game streak in the nation.

Virginia
Virginia
is the most populous U.S. state
U.S. state
without a major professional sports league franchise. The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state, the proximity of teams in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and North Carolina
North Carolina
, and a reluctance to publicly finance stadiums. However, in recent years, the city of Virginia Beach has proposed a new arena designed to lure a major league franchise. Norfolk is host to two minor league teams: The AAA Norfolk Tides and the ECHL
ECHL
's Norfolk Admirals . The San Francisco Giants
San Francisco Giants
' AA team , the Richmond Flying Squirrels
Richmond Flying Squirrels
, began play at The Diamond in 2010, replacing the AAA Richmond Braves , who relocated after 2008. Additionally, the Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals
, Boston Red Sox
Boston Red Sox
, Cleveland Indians , Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves , Pittsburgh Pirates
Pittsburgh Pirates
, New York Yankees
New York Yankees
, and Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia.

The Washington Redskins
Washington Redskins
have Redskins Park, their headquarters, in Ashburn and their training facility is in Richmond, and the Washington Capitals
Washington Capitals
train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex in Ballston . Virginia
Virginia
has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Kingsmill Championship , an LPGA Tour
LPGA Tour
tournament. NASCAR
NASCAR
currently schedules Sprint Cup races on two tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway and Richmond International Raceway . Virginia
Virginia
natives currently competing in the series include Denny Hamlin
Denny Hamlin
and Elliott Sadler .

Virginia
Virginia
does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics. Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers
Virginia Cavaliers
and Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities. Their rivalry is followed statewide. Twelve other universities compete in NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
, particularly in the Atlantic 10 Conference
Atlantic 10 Conference
, Big South Conference
Big South Conference
, and Colonial Athletic Association
Colonial Athletic Association
. Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association , and two others compete in the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference . Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion
Dominion
Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference
USA South Athletic Conference
of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football , men's basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem .

STATE SYMBOLS

Main article: List of Virginia state symbols The state slogan, " Virginia is for Lovers ," was developed in 1968 and is featured on the state's welcome signs

The state nickname is its oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law. Virginia
Virginia
was given the title " Dominion
Dominion
" by King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
at the time of The Restoration
The Restoration
, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War
English Civil War
, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title. Charles' supporters were called Cavaliers , and "The Cavalier
Cavalier
State" nickname was popularized after the American Civil War
American Civil War
to romanticize the antebellum period. Sports teams from the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
are called the Cavaliers . The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States
United States
, including four of the first five.

The state's motto, _Sic Semper Tyrannis _, translates from Latin as "Thus Always to Tyrants", and is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag. While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930. The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century. The Virginia
Virginia
reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance . In March 2015, after 20 years without a state song , Virginia
Virginia
received two: " Our Great Virginia " (official traditional state song) and " Sweet Virginia Breeze " (official popular state song). In 1940, Virginia
Virginia
made " Carry Me Back to Old Virginny " the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus.

* Mammal : Virginia big-eared bat * Beverages : Milk
Milk
, Rye Whiskey * Boat : Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
deadrise * Bird : Cardinal

* Dance : Square dancing * Dog : American Foxhound
American Foxhound
* Fish : Brook trout
Brook trout
, striped bass * Flower /Tree : Dogwood

* Fossil : _ Chesapecten jeffersonius _ * Insect : Tiger swallowtail * Motto : Sic Semper Tyrannis * Nickname : The Old Dominion

* Shell : Eastern oyster
Eastern oyster
* Slogan: Virginia is for Lovers * Songs : " Our Great Virginia ", " Sweet Virginia Breeze " * Tartan : Virginia
Virginia
Quadricentennial

SEE ALSO

* United States
United States
portal * Virginia
Virginia
portal

* National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia
National Register of Historic Places listings in Virginia
* History of Virginia * History of Virginia on stamps * History of Kentucky
Kentucky
* History of West Virginia
West Virginia
* Virginia
Virginia
in the American Civil War
American Civil War

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Factpack" (PDF). Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
. January 11, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 28, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2008. * ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017. * ^ "Median Annual Household Income". _The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation_. Retrieved December 9, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey . 2001. Archived from the original on November 2, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011. * ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988
North American Vertical Datum of 1988
. * ^ https://www.nationalgeographic.org/maps/united-states-regions/ * ^ "Old Dominion". Encyclopedia Virginia. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2016". U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
. December 22, 2016. Archived from the original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 22, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Balz, Dan (October 12, 2007). "Painting America Purple". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2007. * ^ "About the General Assembly". _Website: Virginia
Virginia
General Assembly_. State of Virginia. Retrieved June 5, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Somashekhar, Sandhya (March 4, 2008). "Government Takes Top Honors in Efficiency". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved March 11, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ The Encyclopedia of Virginia
Virginia
1999 , pp. 2–15 * ^ "2000 Census of Population and Housing" (PDF). _United States Census Bureau _. April 2004. p. 71. Retrieved November 3, 2009. * ^ "Supreme Court Rules for Virginia
Virginia
in Potomac Conflict". _The Sea Grant Law Center_. University of Mississippi
University of Mississippi
. 2003. Retrieved November 24, 2007. * ^ Hubbard, Jr. 2009 , p. 140. * ^ Van Zandt 1976 , pp. 92–95. * ^ "Fact Sheet 102–98 – The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level". United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
. November 18, 1998. Retrieved August 24, 2009. * ^ Burnham & Burnham 2004 , pp. 7, 56–57. * ^ "Rivers and Watersheds". _The Geology of Virginia_. College of William and Mary . February 23, 2007. Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2008. * ^ Heinemann et al. 2007 , p. 3. * ^ Pazzaglia 2006 , pp. 135–138. * ^ "Virginia\'s Agricultural Resources". _Natural Resource Education Guide_. Virginia
Virginia
Department of Environmental Quality. January 21, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008. * ^ Burnham & Burnham 2004 , p. 277. * ^ "Physiographic Regions of Virginia". _The Geology of Virginia_. College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary
. February 16, 2007. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2008. * ^ Palmer 1998 , pp. 49–51. * ^ "Largest Earthquake
Earthquake
in Virginia". United States
United States
Geological Survey . January 25, 2008. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008. * ^ "Magnitude 5.8 – Virginia". United States Geological Survey
United States Geological Survey
. August 23, 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011. * ^ "Coal" (PDF). Virginia
Virginia
Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy. July 31, 2008. Retrieved February 26, 2014. * ^ "Comparison of Annually Reported Tonnage Data". Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. April 10, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2014. * ^ "Caves" (PDF). Virginia
Virginia
Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 17, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009. * ^ Mayell, Hillary (November 13, 2001). " Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Crater Offers Clues to Ancient Cataclysm". National Geographic Society
National Geographic Society
. Retrieved March 11, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Burnham Michaels, Patrick J. (January 20, 2000). "Virginia\'s Climate". _Department of Environmental Sciences_. University of Virginia
University of Virginia
. Retrieved October 20, 2008. * ^ "Thunderstorms and Lightening". _ Virginia
Virginia
Department of Emergency Management_. April 2, 2001. Archived from the original on December 7, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011. * ^ "The Natural Communities of Virginia". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Conservation and Recreation. 2006. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008. * ^ Ricketts, Lauryn (February 7, 2008). "Tornadoes DO happen in Virginia!". TV3 Winchester. Archived from the original on March 14, 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2009. * ^ "Advisory 01/07: The Hot Get Hotter? Urban Warming and Air Quality". University of Virginia
University of Virginia
Climatology Office. Archived from the original on September 22, 2002. Retrieved July 30, 2007. * ^ "Report Card: Virginia". _State of the Air: 2011_. American Lung Association . April 27, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011. * ^ "Fairfax County Residents Can Play Their Part to Reduce Air Pollution". Fairfax County, Virginia
Fairfax County, Virginia
. May 26, 2004. Retrieved September 29, 2008. * ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (June 25, 2008). "Debating Coal\'s Cost in Rural Va.". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved November 15, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Virginia\'s Forest Resources". _Natural Resource Education Guide_. Virginia
Virginia
Department of Environmental Quality. January 21, 2008. Retrieved February 8, 2008. * ^ " Shenandoah National Park
Shenandoah National Park
— Forests". National Park Service
National Park Service
. July 25, 2006. Retrieved September 10, 2007. * ^ Carroll & Miller 2002 , pp. xi−xii. * ^ "Species Information: Mammals". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2008. * ^ " Shenandoah National Park
Shenandoah National Park
— Birds". National Park Service
National Park Service
. July 25, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2007. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Fishes". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2008. * ^ "Bay Biology". Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Program . January 5, 2006. Archived from the original on February 11, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008. * ^ "Virginia". National Park Service
National Park Service
. 2008. Retrieved November 29, 2008. * ^ Carroll & Miller 2002 , p. 158. * ^ "Park Locations". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Conservation and Recreation. November 9, 2007. Retrieved January 26, 2008. * ^ Smith 2008 , pp. 152–153, 356. * ^ Shapiro, Laurie Gwen (June 22, 2014). "Pocahontas: Fantasy and Reality". _ Slate
Slate
Magazine_. Retrieved June 23, 2014. * ^ Wallenstein 2007 , pp. 406–407. * ^ Kunkle, Fredrick; Vogel, Steve (May 14, 2007). "President Bush Caps Celebration Of Success in Face of Adversity". _The Washington Post _. Retrieved November 11, 2009. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Military Dead Database Introduction". _Library of Virginia_. Government of Virginia . 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009. * ^ Abrams 1999 , p. xv. * ^ Wood, Karenne , ed. (2007). _The Virginia
Virginia
Indian Heritage Trail_ (PDF) (second ed.). Charlottesville, Virginia: Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. ISBN 0-9786604-3-9 . Archived from the original (PDF) on July 4, 2009. * ^ Heinemann et al. 2007 , pp. 4–11. * ^ Cotton, Lee (July 1999). " Powhatan
Powhatan
Indian Lifeways". National Park Service . Archived from the original on September 24, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008. * ^ Glanville, Jim. "16th Century Spanish Invasions of Southwest Virginia" (pdf). Reprinted from the _Historical Society of Western Virginia
Virginia
Journal_, XVII(l): 34–42,2009 . * ^ Wallenstein 2007 , pp. 8–9. * ^ Moran 2007 , p. 8. * ^ Stewart 2008 , p. 22. * ^ Vollmann 2002 , pp. 695–696. * ^ Conlin 2009 , pp. 30–31. * ^ Gordon 2004 , p. 17. * ^ Hoffer 2006 , p. 132; Grizzard & Smith 2007 , pp. 128–133 * ^ "The lost colony and Jamestown droughts.", Stahle, D. W., M. K. Cleaveland, D. B. Blanton, M. D. Therrell, and D. A. Gay. 1998. _Science_ 280:564–567. * ^ Wallenstein 2007 , p. 22. * ^ Hashaw 2007 , pp. 76–77, 239–240. * ^ Higginbotham, A. Leon (1975). _In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period_. Greenwood Press. * ^ Foner, Philip S. (1980). "History of Black Americans: From Africa to the emergence of the cotton kingdom". Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. * ^ Hashaw 2007 , pp. 211–215. * ^ Heinemann et al. 2007 , pp. 51–59. * ^ Heinemann et al. 2007 , pp. 76–77. * ^ Anderson 2000 , p. 23. * ^ Anderson 2000 , pp. 42–43. * ^ "Signers of the Declaration (Richard Henry Lee)". National Park Service . April 13, 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2008. * ^ Gutzman 2007 , pp. 24–29. * ^ Heinemann et al. 2007 , pp. 125–133. * ^ _A_ _B_ Schwartz, Stephan A. (May 2000). "George Mason: Forgotten Founder, He Conceived the Bill of Rights". _Smithsonian _ (31.2): 142. * ^ Cooper 2007 , p. 58. * ^ Heinemann et al. 2007 , pp. 131–133. * ^ Wallenstein 2007 , p. 104. * ^ _A_ _B_ Robertson 1993 , pp. 8–12 * ^ Davis 2006 , pp. 125, 208–210. * ^ "Census Data for Year 1860". University of Virginia
University of Virginia
. 2007. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2010. * ^ Morgan 1998 , p. 490. * ^ Goodwin 2012 , pp. 4. * ^ Tripp, Steve. "Lynchburg During the Civil War". _Encyclopedia of Virginia_. Library of Virginia. Retrieved May 28, 2013. * ^ Robertson 1993 , p. 170. * ^ Heinemann et al. 2007 , pp. 249–250. * ^ Morgan 1992 , pp. 160–166. * ^ Dailey, Gilmore & Simon 2000 , pp. 90–96. * ^ Wallenstein 2007 , pp. 253–254. * ^ Davis 2006 , pp. 328–329. * ^ "Our Heritage". Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman
. December 20, 2011. Retrieved March 28, 2012. * ^ Feuer 1999 , pp. 50–52. * ^ Goodwin 2012 , p. 238. * ^ Greenspan 2009 , pp. 37–43. * ^ Wallenstein 2007 , pp. 340–341. * ^ Wallenstein 2007 , pp. 357. * ^ Heinemann et al. 2007 , pp. 359–366. * ^ Accordino 2000 , pp. 76–78. * ^ Kelly, Christopher (November 29, 2001). "Forensic feat IDs nearly all Pentagon victims". Stripe. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2009. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
(USA): State, Major Cities, & Places". City Population. February 19, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2014. * ^ "County & County Equivalent Areas". United States Census
United States Census
Bureau . April 19, 2005. Archived from the original on November 28, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2007. * ^ Niemeier, Bernie (September 28, 2009). "Unique structural issues make progress in Virginia
Virginia
difficult". _ Virginia
Virginia
Business_. Retrieved October 3, 2009. * ^ "Dillon\'s Rule: Legal Framework for Decision Making" (PDF). University of Virginia. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Davis, Marc (January 31, 2008). "Chesapeake, Suffolk on track to pass neighbors in terms of population". _The Virginian-Pilot _. Retrieved October 20, 2008. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". _ United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
_. April 1, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "NNSY History". United States Navy
United States Navy
. August 27, 2007. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2010. * ^ "All About Suffolk". Suffolk . February 12, 2007. Archived from the original on April 22, 2008. Retrieved February 19, 2008. * ^ Somashekhar, Sandhya; Gardner, Amy (July 5, 2009). "To Be or Not to Be Fairfax County?". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved August 18, 2009. * ^ "Doing Business in Fairfax County". Fairfax County Economic Development Authority. June 26, 2007. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2007. * ^ Hager, Hannah (November 12, 2010). "Loudoun named richest county in the nation, again". _Loudoun Times-Mirror_. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ Battiata, Mary (November 27, 2005). "Silent Streams". _The Washington Post
Washington Post
_. Retrieved April 12, 2008. * ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (CBSA-EST2009-01)". _2009 Population Estimates_. United States
United States
Census Bureau . March 23, 2010. Archived from the original (CSV ) on January 11, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2010. * ^ "Results from the 1860 Census". The Civil War Home Page. Archived from the original on June 4, 2004. * ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved December 22, 2016. * ^ "State Resident Population—Components of Change: 2000 to 2007" (PDF). United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
. December 27, 2007. Retrieved April 6, 2010. * ^ "Center Of Population Project". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . 2000. Retrieved September 27, 2016. * ^ Aisch, Gregor; Gebeloff, Robert; Quealy, Kevin. "Where We Came From and Where We Went, State by State". _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
– Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 25, 2008. Retrieved April 17, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ http://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045215/51 * ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". _The Plain Dealer _. Retrieved August 16, 2012. * ^ Miller et al. 2003 , pp. 6, 147. * ^ Lieberson, Stanley & Waters, Mary C. (1986). "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites". _Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science_. 487 (79): 82–86. doi :10.1177/0002716286487001004 . * ^ Fischer, David Hackett (1989). _Albion\'s Seed: Four British Folkways in America _. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 633–639. ISBN 0-19-503794-4 . * ^ W. J. Rorabaugh, Donald T. Critchlow, Paula C. Baker (2004). _America\'s promise: a concise history of the United States_. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 29. ISBN 0-7425-1189-8 . * ^ "Scots-Irish Sites in Virginia". Virginia
Virginia
Is For Lovers. January 3, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2008. * ^ "Scots-Irish Heritage – Virginia
Virginia
Is For Lovers". Virginia.org. 2011. Retrieved November 13, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ Keller, Christian B. (2001). " Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Virginia Germans during the Civil War". _ Virginia
Virginia
Magazine of History and Biography_. Virginia
Virginia
Historical Society. 109: 37–86. Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008. * ^ "Total Ancestry Reported". _2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates_. U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
. 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Raby, John (February 3, 2011). "Virginians in the census: 8 million total, 1M in Fairfax County". _The Virginian-Pilot _. Associated Press
Associated Press
. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved February 4, 2011. * ^ Pinn 2009 , p. 175; Chambers 2005 , pp. 10–14 * ^ Frey, William H. (May 2004). "The New Great Migration: Black Americans\' Return to the South, 1965–2000" (PDF). _The Living Cities Census Series_. Brookings Institution
Brookings Institution
: 1–3. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2008. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
ranks highest in U.S. for black-white marriages". The Virginian-Pilot . * ^ Cai, Qian (February 2008). "Hispanic Immigrants And Citizens In Virginia". _Numbers Count_. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2012. * ^ Wilder, Layla (March 28, 2008). "Centreville: The Gazette". _Gazette_. Retrieved February 15, 2016. * ^ Wilder, Layla (August 1, 2015). "Centreville: The census". _census_. Retrieved February 15, 2016. * ^ Wood, Joseph (January 1997). " Vietnamese American
Vietnamese American
Place Making in Northern Virginia". _Geographical Review_. 87 (1): 58–72. JSTOR 215658 . doi :10.2307/215658 . * ^ Wilder, Layla (March 28, 2008). "Centreville: The New Koreatown?". _Fairfax County Times_. Retrieved November 30, 2009. * ^ Firestone, Nora (June 12, 2008). "Locals celebrate Philippine Independence Day". _ The Virginian-Pilot _. Retrieved September 30, 2008. * ^ Schulte, Brigid (November 23, 2007). "As Year\'s End Nears, Disappointment". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved June 25, 2008. * ^ Exner, Rich. "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". _cleveland.com_. Advance Ohio. Retrieved July 5, 2016. * ^ Clay III, Edwin S.; Bangs, Patricia (May 9, 2005). "Virginia\'s Many Voices". Fairfax County, Virginia
Fairfax County, Virginia
. Archived from the original on December 21, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2007. * ^ Miller, John J. (August 2, 2005). "Exotic Tangier". _National Review _. Retrieved October 9, 2008. * ^ "Virginia". Modern Language Association . Retrieved August 20, 2013. * ^ Joseph 2006 , p. 63. * ^ _A_ _B_ "American Religious Identification Survey". Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture. 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved December 12, 2013. * ^ Vegh, Steven G. (November 10, 2006). "2nd Georgia church joins moderate Va. Baptist
Baptist
association". _ The Virginian-Pilot _. Retrieved December 18, 2007. * ^ "SBCV passes 500 mark". Baptist
Baptist
Press . November 20, 2007. Archived from the original on February 19, 2011. Retrieved December 18, 2007. * ^ Boorstein, Michelle (March 10, 2014). "Supreme Court won\'t hear appeal of dispute over Episcopal Church\'s property in Va.". _The Washington Post
Washington Post
_. Retrieved May 1, 2014. * ^ Walker, Lance (March 14, 2014). "USA-Virginia". _Mormon Newsroom_. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
. Retrieved May 1, 2014. * ^ Olitzky 1996 , p. 359. * ^ Alfaham, Sarah (September 11, 2008). "Muslims\' visibility in region growing". _ Richmond Times-Dispatch _. Charlottesville Daily Progress . Retrieved May 2, 2009. * ^ " Megachurch
Megachurch
Search Results". Hartford Institute for Religion Research. 2008. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2008. * ^ "The Virginia
Virginia
Department of Labor and Industry: Frequently Asked Questions: Labor & Employment Law". Retrieved November 13, 2011.

* ^ " Virginia
Virginia
State Energy Profiles". _Energy Information Administration_. United States Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
. June 26, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2008. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
facts". National Geographic . April 2, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
State Unemployment Rate and Total Unemployed". Department of Numbers. December 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2013. * ^ "Best Places to Live 2011 – Top 25: Fastest job growth – from MONEY Magazine". CNN. July 14, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2012.

* ^ "Total Gross Domestic Product by State for Virginia". Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2014. * ^ "Per capita personal income". _Regional Economic Information System_. Bureau of Economic Analysis . April 2007. Retrieved November 24, 2007. * ^ Matt Woolsey, America\'s Richest Counties, Forbes.com, 01.22.08, 6:00 p.m. ET Forbes.com Web site. Retrieved on February 8, 2008. * ^ "Best Places to Live 2011 – Top 25: Biggest earners – from MONEY Magazine". CNN. July 14, 2010. Retrieved February 18, 2012. * ^ Frank, Robert. "Top states for millionaires per capita". CNBC. Retrieved January 25, 2014. * ^ Vogel, Steve (May 27, 2007). "How the Pentagon Got Its Shape". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved April 21, 2009. * ^ Helderman, Rosalind S. (May 6, 2010). "Virginia\'s love-hate relationship with federal spending". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved May 26, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Sauter, Michael B.; Uible, Lisa; Nelson, Lisa; Hess, Alexander E. M. (August 3, 2012). "States That Get The Most Federal Money". Fox Business Network
Fox Business Network
. Retrieved May 1, 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ Ellis, Nicole Anderson (September 1, 2008). "Virginia weighs its dependence on defense spending". _ Virginia
Virginia
Business_. Retrieved May 26, 2010. * ^ Fox, Justin (February 8, 2007). "The Federal Job Machine". _Time _. Retrieved November 7, 2007. * ^ " Bob McDonnell says Virginia
Virginia
is No. 1 state in veterans per capita". Richmond Times-Dispatch . * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Finally Comes Into Play". CBS News
CBS News
. October 17, 2008. Retrieved October 20, 2008. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Transportation Modeling Program". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Transportation . * ^ "Salaries of Virginia
Virginia
state employees 2012–13". _Richmond Times-Dispatch_. June 30, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2014. * ^ Poersch, Gregory (April 2, 2008). "1 of Out of 11 Workers in Virginia
Virginia
in Tech Industry, Highest Concentration in the Nation, AeA Says". _American Electronics Association_. Reuters
Reuters
. Retrieved October 7, 2007. * ^ Censer, Marjorie (October 4, 2011). " Virginia
Virginia
loses tech jobs but maintains highest concentration in U.S.". _TechAmerica_. Washington Post
Washington Post
. Retrieved December 14, 2012. * ^ Richards, Gregory (February 24, 2007). "Computer chips now lead Virginia
Virginia
exports". _ The Virginian-Pilot _. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2008. * ^ "State Exports from Virginia". _census.gov_. United States Census . Retrieved July 23, 2016. * ^ Soldner, Allan (August 8, 2014). " Virginia
Virginia
has the Fastest Internet Speed within the US, Report Shows". _The Week_. Retrieved August 8, 2014. * ^ Bacqué, Peter (December 13, 2013). "Va. Power certifies West Creek as potential data center site". _ Richmond Times-Dispatch _. Retrieved February 25, 2014. * ^ "Red Hot in NoVa: Burst of Leasing, New Construction in Ashburn". Data Center Frontier. * ^ "Bay Area Data Centers Move Quickly on Expansion Plans". The Registry. * ^ Austin, Scott (August 4, 2010). "Interactive Map: The United States of Venture Capital". _The Wall Street Journal_. Retrieved August 6, 2010. * ^ Badenhausen, Kurt (September 23, 2009). "The Best States for Business". _ Forbes
Forbes
_. Retrieved March 27, 2010. * ^ Cohn, Scott (June 28, 2011). " Virginia
Virginia
named America\'s Top State for Business in 2011". _ CNBC
CNBC
_. Retrieved June 28, 2011. * ^ "Best and Worst States for Business Owners". _Fundivo_. * ^ "20 Minn. companies make newest Fortune 500". _Rochester Post-Bulletin _. Associated Press
Associated Press
. May 5, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2011. * ^ Clabaugh, Jeff (September 4, 2013). " Virginia
Virginia
tourism sets record". _Washington Business Journal_. Retrieved September 5, 2013. * ^ Scott McCaffrey. "Fairfax Narrowly Misses Out on No. 1 Ranking in Va. Tourism Spending". Sun Gazette. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Governor McAuliffe Announces Creation of Virginia Oyster
Oyster
Trail". Office of the Governor. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Agriculture — Facts and Figures". Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. 2012. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2012. * ^ McNatt, Linda (October 17, 2007). "Tomato moves into the top money-making spot in Virginia". _ The Virginian-Pilot _. Retrieved October 18, 2007. * ^ "Virginia" (PDF). _2007 Census of Agriculture_. United States Census Bureau . July 17, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2009. * ^ McBryde, John. "Virginia\'s Bountiful Seafood Harvest". * ^ _A_ _B_ "Assessment of the Profitability and Viability of Virginia
Virginia
Wineries" (PDF). _MKF Research LLC_. Virginia
Virginia
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008. * ^ "About the United States
United States
Wine and Grape Industry". National Association of American Wineries. * ^ "Sales and Use Tax". _ Virginia
Virginia
Department of Taxation_. April 25, 2014. Archived from the original on September 20, 2014. Retrieved September 23, 2014. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Tax Facts" (PDF). Virginia
Virginia
Department of Taxation. July 1, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 7, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011. * ^ McGraw 2005 , p. 14. * ^ Fischer ">(PDF). _Smithsonian Folklife Festival 2007_. Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
. July 5, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2008. * ^ Williamson 2008 , p. 41. * ^ Gray & Robinson 2004 , pp. 81, 103. * ^ Kirkpatrick, Mary Alice. "Summary of Jurgen: A Comedy of Justice". _Library of Southern Literature_. University of North Carolina . Retrieved August 18, 2009. * ^ Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (November 2, 2006). "William Styron, Novelist, Dies at 81". _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_. Retrieved August 18, 2009. * ^ Dirda, Michael (November 7, 2004). "A Coed in Full". _The Washington Post
Washington Post
_. Retrieved October 3, 2009. * ^ Jackman, Tom (May 27, 2012). "Fairfax native Matt Bondurant\'s book is now the movie \'Lawless\'". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved May 28, 2012. * ^ Fain, Travis (June 27, 2014). "Gov. taps new OIG, elections chief, hires House member". _Daily Press _. Retrieved July 9, 2014. * ^ "State Arts Agency Funding and Grant Making" (PDF) (Press release). National Assembly of State Arts Agencies. March 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2010. * ^ Smith 2008 , pp. 22–25. * ^ Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006 , pp. 88, 206, 292. * ^ "Mission & History". _ Virginia Foundation for the Humanities _. 2007. Archived from the original on August 27, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2007. * ^ Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006 , pp. 165–166. * ^ Goodwin 2012 , p. 154. * ^ Rice, Ruth (November 27, 2006). "Holiday magic: Arcadia play tells tale of Christmas poem". _ The Tribune-Democrat _. Retrieved July 7, 2010. * ^ "The Roots and Branches of Virginia
Virginia
Music". _Folkways_. Smithsonian Institution. 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2014. * ^ Pace, Reggie (August 14, 2013). "12 Virginia
Virginia
Bands You Should Listen to Now". _Paste _. Retrieved January 29, 2014. * ^ Howard, Burnham & Burnham 2006 , pp. 29, 121, 363, 432. * ^ _A_ _B_ Scott & Scott 2004 , pp. 307–308 * ^ Goodwin 2012 , pp. 25, 287. * ^ Meyer, Marianne (June 7, 2007). "Live!". _The Washington Post _. Retrieved November 7, 2008. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Lake Festival". Virginia
Virginia
Tourism Corporation. 2008. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved September 8, 2008. * ^ Goodwin 2012 , pp. 25–26. * ^ "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). September 12, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2014. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
TV Stations". _MondoTimes_. 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ "FM Query". Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
. May 6, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ "AM Query". Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
. May 6, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ "Highest Circulation Virginia
Virginia
Newspapers". _Mondo Newspapers_. 2014. Retrieved February 26, 2014. * ^ " USA Today
USA Today
posts small circulation gain as it undergoes a revamp to counter Internet threat". _Reading Eagle_. Associated Press . April 20, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2012. * ^ "Monticello and the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
in Charlottesville". UNESCO
UNESCO
. October 15, 2008. Retrieved October 14, 2008. * ^ "State Education Data Profiles". National Assessment of Educational Progress . 2005. Retrieved December 25, 2007. * ^ "Quality Counts 2011" (PDF). _ Education Week _. January 11, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2011. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
School Report Card". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Education . 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2008. * ^ Sieff, Kevin (October 1, 2010). " Virginia
Virginia
high school graduation rate increases". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ Will, George F. (June 6, 2010). "Why should education be exempt from recession budgeting?". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved May 10, 2011. * ^ "State Report Cards" (PDF). _ Virginia
Virginia
Department of Education _. April 28, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Public Schools — By Division". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Education . 2010. Archived from the original on May 3, 2010. Retrieved April 6, 2010. * ^ "Governor\'s School Program". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Education . 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2010. * ^ "State Recognized Accredited Schools" (PDF). Virginia
Virginia
Council for Private Education. February 20, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ "Non-Accredited Schools" (PDF). Virginia
Virginia
Council for Private Education. March 8, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 13, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ "Home-Schooled Students and Religious Exemptions" (XLS). Virginia Department of Education . December 16, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "College Navigator — Search Results". _National Center for Education Statistics _. United States
United States
Department of Education . 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ "Top Public National Universities 2017". _U.S. News and World Report _. April 15, 2017. Retrieved May 20, 2017. * ^ "History & Traditions". College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary
. 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2008. * ^ "Rankings — Fine Arts — Graduate Schools". _U.S. News and World Report _. April 15, 2010. Archived from the original on July 8, 2010. Retrieved July 2, 2010. * ^ "Regional Universities South Rankings". U.S. News and World Report . Retrieved May 21, 2017. * ^ Conley, Jay (August 12, 2007). "\'Just like the guys\': A decade of women at VMI". _ The Roanoke Times _. Retrieved October 22, 2008. * ^ Conley, Jay (August 22, 2008). "HVMI retains U.S. News\' rank as No. 3". _ The Roanoke Times _. Retrieved September 30, 2008. * ^ "In head count, George Mason
George Mason
edges VCU". Richmond Times-Disbatch. 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2009. * ^ "Fast Facts". Virginia's Community Colleges. 2008. Archived from the original on February 19, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2009. * ^ National Liberal Arts Colleges Ranking (U.S. News), accessed May 21, 2017 * ^ "Sentara Norfolk General Hospital-Sentara Heart Hospital, Norfolk, Va.". _Best Hospitals_. U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
. 2007. Archived from the original on July 17, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2008. * ^ Szabo, Liz (May 12, 2004). "America\'s first \'test-tube baby\'". _ USA Today
USA Today
_. Retrieved February 6, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Virginia". _America's Health Rankings 2013_. United Health Foundation. Retrieved August 28, 2014. * ^ Kumar, Anita (August 4, 2009). "Infant Mortality in Virginia Falls to All-Time Low". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved August 4, 2009. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
– 2009 Overweight and Obesity (BMI)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . 2010. Archived from the original on December 6, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
– 2007 Exercise". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . 2010. Archived from the original on December 6, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ "Measuring Virginia\'s Obesity Rates". Virginia
Virginia
Performs. 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2009. * ^ "Va. restaurant owners bracing for smoke ban". _The Washington Times _. Associated Press
Associated Press
. November 30, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ "Quick Facts". _American Human Development Project_. Social Science Research Council. 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2012. * ^ "Hospital Compare". United States
United States
Department of Health and Human Services . December 11, 2010. Retrieved April 12, 2011. * ^ " University of Virginia
University of Virginia
Medical Center, Charlottesville". _Best Hospitals_. U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
. 2007. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2008. * ^ Walker, Keith (December 9, 2008). "Va. gets high disaster preparedness marks". Inside NoVA. Retrieved December 10, 2008. * ^ "Metro considers building \'inner loop\' of new stations to ease congestion in system\'s core". The Washington Post
The Washington Post
. * ^ "FY 2015-FY 2024 Proposed Capital Improvement Plan". Retrieved October 3, 2014. * ^ O'Leary, Amy A. (April 1998). "Beyond the Byrd Road Act: VDOT\'s Relationship with Virginia\'s Urban Counties" (PDF). _Virginia Department of Transportation _. Retrieved October 3, 2009. * ^ "Virginia\'s Highway System". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Transportation . January 12, 2011. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2011. * ^ Mummolo, Jonathan (September 19, 2007). "A Ranking Writ In Brake Lights: D.C. 2nd in Traffic". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved March 29, 2008. * ^ "Measuring Traffic Congestion in Virginia". Virginia
Virginia
Performs. April 9, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2009. * ^ Badger, Emily. "The American decline in driving actually began way earlier than you think". The Washington Post
The Washington Post
. * ^ Buske, Jennifer (October 14, 2010). "VRE sets ridership record". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved April 12, 2011. * ^ Hosh, Kafia A. (April 15, 2011). "Federal, Va. officials object to underground Metro station at Dulles airport". _The Washington Post _. Retrieved May 6, 2011. * ^ "Ferry Information". Virginia Department of Transportation . December 4, 2007. Retrieved February 14, 2008. * ^ "Airports". Virginia
Virginia
Department of Aviation. 2006. Retrieved April 12, 2008. * ^ "Port/Maritime". Virginia
Virginia
Performs. 2009. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2009. * ^ Goodwin 2012 , p. 305. * ^ Ruane, Michael E. (December 17, 2006). "At Va. Spaceport, Rocket Launches 1,000 Dreams". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved September 10, 2009. * ^ Hart, Kim (April 21, 2007). "Travel agency launches tourists on out-of-this-world adventures". _ The Seattle Times
The Seattle Times
_. Retrieved May 26, 2008. * ^ Helderman, Rosalind S.; Jenkins, Chris L. (May 7, 2006). "Latest Budget Standoff Met With Shrugs". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved November 24, 2007. * ^ Strum, Albert L.; Howard, A. E. Dick (June 1977). "Commentaries on the Constitution of Virginia
Constitution of Virginia
by A. E. Dick Howard". _The American Political Science Review_. 71 (2): 714–715. JSTOR
JSTOR
1978427 . doi :10.2307/1978427 . * ^ " Virginia
Virginia
Courts In Brief" (PDF). Virginia
Virginia
Judicial System. May 5, 2009. Retrieved August 17, 2009. * ^ Lettner, Kimberly (2008). "Message from the Chief". The Division of Capitol Police. Retrieved September 10, 2009. * ^ Listman, Jr., John W.; Carter, III, Lt. Col. Chester C. (August 20, 2007). "Serving Commonwealth and Country". Virginia
Virginia
Army National Guard . Retrieved February 11, 2008. * ^ Williams, Carol J. (September 23, 2010). "Virginia\'s execution of a woman may signal shift in national thinking". _Los Angeles Times _. Retrieved September 24, 2010. * ^ "Quick Facts for Virginia". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. 2009. Retrieved September 11, 2009. * ^ Rosenwald, Michael S. (April 13, 2011). "Va. returning prisoners to jail at lower-than-average rate, study shows". _The Washington Post
Washington Post
_. * ^ Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – New York". US Election Atlas. Retrieved January 10, 2010. * ^ Sweeney, James R. (1999). ""Sheep without a Shepherd": The New Deal Faction in the Virginia
Virginia
Democratic Party". _Presidential Studies Quarterly_. 29 (2): 438. doi :10.1111/1741-5705.00043 . Retrieved March 31, 2008. * ^ Burchett, Michael H. (Summer 1997). "Promise and prejudice: Wise County, Virginia and the Great Migration, 1910–1920". _The Journal of Negro History_. 82 (3): 312–327. JSTOR
JSTOR
2717675 . doi :10.2307/2717675 . * ^ Eisman, Dale (October 25, 2006). "Webb, Allen court Hispanic, white-collar voters in N. Va.". _ The Virginian-Pilot _. Retrieved March 29, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Przybyla, Heidi (November 7, 2012). "Obama Repeats Win in Former Republican Stronghold Virginia". _ Bloomberg Businessweek
Bloomberg Businessweek
_. Retrieved November 24, 2012. * ^ Turque, Bill; Wiggins, Ovetta; Stewart, Nikita (February 13, 2008). "In Virginia, Results Signal A State in Play for November". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved September 29, 2008. * ^ Miller, Gary; Schofield, Norman (May 2003). "Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States". _The American Political Science Review_. 97 (2): 245–260. JSTOR
JSTOR
3118207 . doi :10.1017/s0003055403000650 . * ^ Craig, Tim (December 11, 2007). "Tensions Could Hurt Majority in Va. Senate". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved December 23, 2007. * ^ Clemons, Michael L.; Jones, Charles E. (July 2000). "African American Legislative Politics in Virginia". _Journal of Black Studies _. 30 (6, Special
Special
Issue: African American State Legislative Politics): 744–767. JSTOR
JSTOR
2645922 . doi :10.1177/002193470003000603 . * ^ Craig, Tim; Kumar, Anita (November 8, 2007). "Kaine Hails \'Balance\' in New Political Landscape". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved November 7, 2007. * ^ Helderman, Rosalind S.; Kumar, Anita (November 4, 2009). "GOP reclaims Virginia". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved November 4, 2009. * ^ Lewis, Bob (November 10, 2011). "GOP claims Va. Senate majority after Dem concedes". _ The Boston Globe
The Boston Globe
_. Associated Press
Associated Press
. Retrieved November 15, 2011. * ^ "Decision 2013: Virginia
Virginia
general election results". _The Washington Post
Washington Post
_. November 6, 2013. Archived from the original on November 8, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013. * ^ "McAuliffe wins nailbiter Virginia
Virginia
governor\'s race". _CBS News _. November 6, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Bycoffe, Aaron (November 6, 2013). "2013 Elections: Governor, Mayor, Congress". _ Huffington Post
Huffington Post
_. Retrieved November 6, 2013. * ^ Lavender, Paige (November 6, 2013). " Virginia
Virginia
Election Results: Terry McAuliffe
Terry McAuliffe
Beats Ken Cuccinelli In Governor\'s Race". _Huffington Post _. Retrieved November 6, 2013. * ^ "2013: Virginia House of Delegates
Virginia House of Delegates
election results". _Virginia Board of Elections_. November 12, 2013. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013. * ^ Murray, Mark (April 16, 2009). " Shad Planking kicks Virginia race into gear". MSNBC
MSNBC
. Retrieved May 7, 2009. * ^ Lewis, Bob (November 11, 2012). "In the aftermath of the 2012 election, battleground Virginia\'s political winners and losers". _ Washington Post
Washington Post
_. Associated Press
Associated Press
. Retrieved November 24, 2012. * ^ Kumar, Anita (November 5, 2008). "Warner Rolls Past His Fellow Former Governor". _ The Washington Post
The Washington Post
_. Retrieved November 5, 2008. * ^ Bitter, Andy (November 28, 2015). "Bowl-bound Hokies rally to top UVa again". _ The Roanoke Times _. Retrieved December 1, 2015. * ^ Minium, Harry (July 19, 2001). "Region Works to Attract Franchise Area Makes "Short List" for Existing Team\'s Move" (PDF). _ The Virginian-Pilot _. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2007. * ^ Utt, Ronald D. (October 2, 1998). "Cities in Denial: The False Promise of Subsidized Tourist and Entertainment Complexes". _The Heritage Foundation _. Archived from the original on March 13, 2009. Retrieved October 3, 2009. * ^ Phillips, Michael (August 17, 2013). " Virginia
Virginia
contemplates making play for new Redskins stadium". _ Richmond Times-Dispatch _. Retrieved September 5, 2013. * ^ O'Connor, John (April 2, 2010). "Squirrels will nest at Diamond for several years". _ Richmond Times-Dispatch _. Retrieved April 27, 2010. * ^ "Baseball in Virginia". Virginia is for Lovers . 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011. * ^ Phillips, Michael (August 22, 2013). " Washington Redskins
Washington Redskins
go home to spruced-up facility". _ The Roanoke Times _. Retrieved September 5, 2013. * ^ " NASCAR
NASCAR
in Virginia". _ Virginia is for Lovers _. 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011. * ^ Sylwester, MaryJo; Witosky, Tom (February 18, 2004). "Athletic spending grows as academic funds dry up". _ USA Today
USA Today
_. Retrieved August 16, 2010. * ^ Brady, Erik (December 14, 2006). " Virginia
Virginia
town is big game central". _ USA Today
USA Today
_. Retrieved February 6, 2008. * ^ Welch 2006 , pp. 1–3. * ^ "Capitol Classroom". Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
. December 13, 2007. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2008. * ^ "Listen: Virginia
Virginia
Now Has 2 State Songs". _Patch_. March 27, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015. * ^ Berrier, Ralph (January 11, 2008). "Carry me back to the state song search". _ The Roanoke Times _. Retrieved September 10, 2009.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Abrams, Ann Uhry (1999). _The pilgrims and Pocahontas: rival myths of American origin_. Boulder, CO: Westview Press . ISBN 0-8133-3497-7 . * Accordino, John J. (2000). _Captives of the Cold War
Cold War
Economy_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group . ISBN 0-275-96561-9 . * Anderson, Fred (2000). _Crucible of War: The Seven Years\' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766_. New York: Random House
Random House
. ISBN 0-375-40642-5 . * Burnham, Bill; Burnham, Mary (2004). _Hiking Virginia: A Guide to Virginia\'s Greatest Hiking Adventures_. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 0-7627-2747-0 . * Carroll, Steven; Miller, Mark (2002). _Wild Virginia: A Guide to Thirty Roadless Recreation Areas Including Shenandoah National Park_. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 0-7627-2315-7 . * Chambers, Douglas B. (2005). _Murder at Montpelier: Igbo Africans in Virginia_. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi . ISBN 1-57806-706-5 . * Conlin, Joseph R. (2009). _The American Past: A Survey of American History_. Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning . ISBN 0-495-56609-8 . * Cooper, Jean L. (2007). _A Guide to Historic Charlottesville and Albemarle County, Virginia_. Charleston, SC: The History Press
The History Press
. ISBN 1-59629-173-7 . * Dailey, Jane Elizabeth; Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth ; Simon, Bryant (2000). _Jumpin\' Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights_. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press
Princeton University Press
. ISBN 0-691-00193-6 . * Davis, David Brion (2006). _Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World
New World
_. New York: Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 0-19-514073-7 . * _The Encyclopedia of Virginia_. 1 (4 ed.). St. Clair Shores, MI: Somerset Publishers. 1999. ISBN 0-403-09753-3 . * Feuer, A.B. (1999). _The U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
in World War I: combat at sea and in the air_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-96212-1 . * Fischer, David Hackett ; Kelly, James C. (2000). _Bound Away: Virginia
Virginia
and the Westward Movement_. Charlottesville: University of Virginia
Virginia
Press . ISBN 0-8139-1774-3 . * Goodwin, Bill (2012). _Frommer\'s Virginia_ (11 ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
John Wiley & Sons
. ISBN 1-118-22449-3 . * Gordon, John Steele (2004). _An Empire of Wealth: The Epic History of American Economic Power_. New York: HarperCollins
HarperCollins
. ISBN 0-06-009362-5 . * Gray, Richard J.; Robinson, Owen (2004). _A Companion to the Literature and Culture of the American South_. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell . ISBN 0-631-22404-1 . * Greenspan, Anders (2009). _Creating Colonial Williamsburg: The Restoration of Virginia's Eighteenth-Century Capital_ (2 ed.). Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press . ISBN 0-8078-3343-6 . * Grizzard, Frank E.; Smith, D. Boyd (2007). _Jamestown Colony: a political, social, and cultural history_. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO . ISBN 1-85109-637-X . * Gutzman, Kevin R. C. (2007). _Virginia's American Revolution: From Dominion
Dominion
to Republic, 1776–1840_. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books . ISBN 0-7391-2131-6 . * Hashaw, Tim (2007). _The Birth of Black America_. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers . ISBN 0-7867-1718-1 . * Heinemann, Ronald L.; Kolp, John G.; Parent, Jr., Anthony S.; Shade, William G. (2007). _Old Dominion, New Commonwealth_. Charlottesville: University of Virginia
University of Virginia
Press . ISBN 0-8139-2609-2 . * Hoffer, Peter Charles (2006). _The Brave New World: A History of Early America_. Baltimore: JHU Press . ISBN 0-8018-8483-7 . * Howard, Blair; Burnham, Mary; Burnham, Bill (2006). _The Virginia Handbook_ (3 ed.). Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing. ISBN 1-58843-512-1 .

* Hubbard, Jr., Bill (2009). _American Boundaries: The Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press . ISBN 0-226-35591-8 . * Joseph, John Earl (2006). _Language and Politics_. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press
Edinburgh University Press
. ISBN 0-7486-2453-8 . * McGraw, Eliza (June 24, 2005). _Two Covenants: Representations of Southern Jewishness_. Baton Rouge: Louisiana
Louisiana
State University Press . ISBN 0-8071-3043-5 . * Miller, Kerby A.; Schrier, Arnold; Boling, Bruce D.; Doyle, David N. (2003). _Irish immigrants in the land of Canaan_. New York: Oxford University Press . ISBN 0-19-504513-0 . * Moran, Michael G. (2007). _Inventing Virginia: Sir Walter Raleigh and the Rhetoric of Colonization, 1584–1590_. New York: Peter Lang . ISBN 0-8204-8694-9 . * Morgan, Lynda (1992). _Emancipation in Virginia's Tobacco Belt, 1850–1870_. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press
University of Georgia Press
. ISBN 0-8203-1415-3 . * Morgan, Philip D. (1998). _Slave Counterpoint_. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press . ISBN 0-8078-4717-8 . * Palmer, Tim (1998). _America by Rivers_. Washington, D.C.: Island Press . ISBN 1-55963-264-X . * Pazzaglia, Frank James (2006). _Excursions in Geology and History: Field Trips in the Middle Atlantic States_. Boulder, CO: Geological Society of America . ISBN 0-8137-0008-6 . * Pinn, Anthony B. (2009). _African American Religious Cultures_. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO
ABC-CLIO
. ISBN 1-57607-470-6 . * Olitzky, Kerry (1996). _The American Synagogue: A Historical Dictionary and Sourcebook_. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press . ISBN 0-313-28856-9 . * Scott, David L.; Scott, Kay W. (2004). _Guide to the National Park Areas_. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. ISBN 0-7627-2988-0 . * Smith, Julian (2008). _Moon Virginia: Including Washington, D.C._ (4 ed.). Berkeley, CA: Avalon Travel . ISBN 1-59880-011-6 . * Robertson, James I. (1993). _Civil War Virginia: Battleground for a Nation_. Charlottesville: University of Virginia