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Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
(Sanskrit; traditional Chinese: 世親; ; pinyin: Shìqīn; Wylie: dbyig gnyen) (fl. 4th to 5th century CE) was a very influential Buddhist monk and scholar from Gandhara. Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
was a philosopher who wrote on the Abhidharma
Abhidharma
from the perspectives of the Sarvastivada and Sautrāntika schools. Along with his half-brother Asanga, he was also one of the main founders of the Yogacara
Yogacara
school after his conversion to Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism. Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośakārikā
Abhidharmakośakārikā
("Commentary on the Treasury of the Abhidharma") is widely used in Tibetan and East Asian Buddhism
East Asian Buddhism
as the major source for non- Mahayana
Mahayana
Abhidharma
Abhidharma
philosophy
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Gandhara
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated in modern-day northern Pakistan, in the Peshawar
Peshawar
valley and Potohar plateau, and extending to Jalalabad
Jalalabad
district of modern-day Afghanistan. During the Achaemenid period and Hellenistic period, its capital city was Charsadda,[note 1] but later the capital city was moved to Peshawar[note 2] by the Kushan emperor Kanishka the Great
Kanishka the Great
in about AD 127. Gandhara
Gandhara
existed since the time of the Rigveda
Rigveda
(c. 1500–1200 BC),[1][2] as well as the Zoroastrian Avesta, which mentions it as Vaēkərəta, the sixth most beautiful place on earth, created by Ahura Mazda. Gandhara
Gandhara
was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
in the 6th century BC
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Oirats
Oirats
Oirats
(Mongolian: "ойрад", "ойрд", Oird[needs IPA]; in the past, also Eleuths[1]) are the westernmost group of the Mongols
Mongols
whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia. Although the Oirats
Oirats
originated in the eastern parts of Central Asia, the most prominent group today is located in Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia, where they are called Kalmyks. Historically, the Oirats
Oirats
were composed of four major tribes: Dzungar ( Choros
Choros
or Olots), Torghut, Dörbet, and Khoshut
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Inner Mongolian
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol
Mongol
Autonomous Region, is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country. Its border includes most of the length of China's border with Mongolia,[a] and a small section of China's border with Russia. Its capital is Hohhot; other major cities include Baotou, Chifeng, and Ordos. The Autonomous Region was established in 1947, incorporating the areas of the former Republic of China
China
provinces of Suiyuan, Chahar, Rehe, Liaobei and Xing'an, along with the northern parts of Gansu
Gansu
and Ningxia. Its area makes it the third largest subdivision of China, constituting approximately 1,200,000 km2 (463,000 sq mi) and 12% of China's total land area. It recorded a population of 24,706,321 in the 2010 census, accounting for 1.84% of Mainland China's total population
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Yugur
The Yugurs (Chinese: 裕固族; pinyin: Yùgù Zú), or Yellow Uyghurs,[1] as they are traditionally known, are a Turkic group and one of China's 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 13,719 persons according to the 2000 census.[2] The Yugur
Yugur
live primarily in Sunan Yugur Autonomous County
Sunan Yugur Autonomous County
in Gansu, China. They are Tibetan Buddhists.[3][4]Contents1 Name 2 History 3 Language 4 People 5 Religion 6 Popular culture 7 References 8 External linksName[edit] The nationality's current, official name, Yugur, derived from its autonym: the Turkic-speaking Yugur
Yugur
designate themselves as Yogïr "Yugur" or Sarïg Yogïr "Yellow Yugur", and the Mongolic-speaking Yugur
Yugur
likewise use either Yogor or Šera Yogor "Yellow Yugur". Chinese historical documents have recorded these ethnonyms as Sālǐ Wèiwùr or Xīlǎgǔr
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Maha Bodhi Society
The Maha Bodhi Society
Maha Bodhi Society
is a South Asian Buddhist society founded by the Sri Lankan Buddhist leader Anagarika Dharmapala
Anagarika Dharmapala
and the British journalist and poet Sir Edwin Arnold. The organization's self-stated initial efforts were for the resuscitation of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India, and restoring the ancient Buddhist shrines at Bodh Gaya, Sarnath
Sarnath
and Kushinara.[1][2][3] Although some Indians had remained culturally Buddhist for centuries after the decline of Buddhist philosophy, they did not self-identify as "Buddhist"
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Buddhism By Country
Buddhism
Buddhism
is a religion practiced by an estimated 488 million in the world,[1] 495 million,[2] or 535 million[3] people as of the 2010s, representing 9% to 10% of the world's total population. China
China
is the country with the largest population of Buddhists, approximately 244 million or 18.2% of its total population.[1] They are mostly followers of Chinese schools of Mahayana, making this the largest body of Buddhist traditions
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Śūraṅgama Sūtra
Zen
Zen
in JapanDōgen Hakuin EkakuSeon in KoreaTaego Bou Jinul Daewon Seongcheol Zen
Zen
in the USAD. T
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Bodhisattva
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
(/ˌboʊdiːˈsʌtvə/ BOH-dee-SUT-və)[1] is the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontane
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History Of Buddhism In India
Buddhism
Buddhism
is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
(now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama[note 1] who was deemed a "Buddha" ("Awakened One"[4])
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Trikaya
The Trikāya doctrine (Sanskrit, literally "three bodies"; Chinese: 三身; pinyin: sānshēn; Japanese pronunciation: sanjin, sanshin; Korean pronunciation: samsin; Vietnamese: tam thân, Tibetan: སྐུ་གསུམ, Wylie: sku gsum) is a Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhist teaching on both the nature of reality and the nature of Buddhahood.Contents1 Definition 2 Origins2.1 Pāli Canon 2.2 Mahāyāna3 Interpretation in Buddhist traditions3.1 Chinese Mahayana3.1.1 Pure Land 3.1.2 Chan Buddhism3.2 Tibetan Buddhism3.2.1 Fourth and Fifth Bodies - Svābhā
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Vimalakīrti Sutra
The Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra (Sanskrit: विमलकीर्तिनिर्देशसूत्र), (Standard Tibetan: འཕགས་པ་དྲི་མ་མེད་པར་གྲགས་པས་བསྟན་པ་ཞེས་བྱ་བ་མདོ།) or Vimalakīrti Sūtra is a Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhist sutra. Sometimes used in the title, the word nirdeśa means "instruction, advice". The sutra teaches, among other subjects, the meaning of nondualism. It contains a report of a teaching addressed to both arhats and bodhisattvas by the upāsaka (lay practitioner) Vimalakīrti, who expounds the doctrine of śūnyatā to them. This culminates with the wordless teaching of silence. The sutra has been influential in East Asian Buddhism
East Asian Buddhism
for its "brash humor" and flexibility
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Avatamsaka Sutra
The Avataṃsaka Sūtra (Sanskrit; alternatively, the Mahāvaipulya Buddhāvataṃsaka Sūtra) is one of the most influential Mahayana sutras of East Asian Buddhism. The title is rendered in English as Flower Garland Sutra, Flower Adornment Sutra, or Flower Ornament Scripture. It has been called by the translator Thomas Cleary "the most grandiose, the most comprehensive, and the most beautifully arrayed of the Buddhist scriptures."[1] The Avataṃsaka Sūtra describes a cosmos of infinite realms upon realms, mutually containing one another. This sutra was especially influential in East Asian Buddhism.[2] The vision expressed in this work was the foundation for the creation of the Huayan school
Huayan school
of Chinese Buddhism, which was characterized by a philosophy of interpenetration
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Sandhinirmocana Sutra
The Ārya-saṃdhi-nirmocana-sūtra (Sanskrit; traditional Chinese: 解深密經; ; pinyin: Jiě Shēnmì Jīng; Tibetan: དགོངས་པ་ངེས་འགྲེལ༏, Wylie: dgongs pa nges 'grel Gongpa Ngédrel) or Noble sūtra of the Explanation of the Profound Secrets is a Mahāyāna Buddhist text and the most important sutra of the Yogācāra school.[1][2][3] It contains explanations of key Yogācāra concepts such as the basis-consciousness (ālaya-vijñāna), and the doctrine of cognition-only (vijñapti-mātra) and the "three natures" (trisvabhāva). Étienne Lamotte considered this sutra "the link between the Prajñaparamita literature and the Yogacara
Yogacara
Vijñanavada school".[4] This sūtra was translated from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
into Chinese four times, the most complete and reliable of which is typically considered to be that of Xuanzang
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Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
(Sanskrit: Madhyamaka, Chinese: 中觀见; pinyin: Zhōngguān Jìan; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
philosophy[1] founded by Nagarjuna
Nagarjuna
(150 CE to 250 CE). According to Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
all phenomena (dharmas) are empty (śūnya) of "nature,"[2] a "substance" or "essence" (svabhāva) which gives them "solid and independent existence,"[3] because they are dependently co-arisen
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Buddhism In The West
Buddhism
Buddhism
in the West broadly encompasses the knowledge and practice of Buddhism
Buddhism
outside Asia in Europe, the Americas, Australia and New Zealand. Occasional intersections between Western civilization
Western civilization
and the Buddhist world have been occurring for thousands of years
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