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MAHāYāNA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, under some classifications) main existing branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice. The Buddhist tradition of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
is sometimes classified as a part of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, but some scholars may consider it as a different branch altogether.

According to the teachings of Mahāyāna traditions, "Mahāyāna" also refers to the path of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings, also called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the " Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Vehicle". A bodhisattva who has accomplished this goal is called a samyaksaṃbuddha , or "fully enlightened Buddha". A samyaksaṃbuddha can establish the Dharma
Dharma
and lead disciples to enlightenment. Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhists teach that enlightenment can be attained in a single lifetime, and this can be accomplished even by a layperson.

The Mahāyāna tradition is the largest major tradition of Buddhism existing today, with 53.2% of practitioners, compared to 35.8% for Theravada
Theravada
and 5.7% for Vajrayana
Vajrayana
in 2010.

In the course of its history, Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
spread from India to various other South , East and Southeast Asian countries such as Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Nepal
Nepal
, Bhutan
Bhutan
, China
China
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Mongolia
Mongolia
, Korea
Korea
, Japan
Japan
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
. Major traditions of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
today include Chan Buddhism , Korean Seon , Japanese Zen , Pure Land Buddhism , and Nichiren Buddhism
Nichiren Buddhism
. It may also include the Vajrayana
Vajrayana
traditions of Tiantai , Tendai
Tendai
, Shingon Buddhism
Buddhism
, and Tibetan Buddhism , which add esoteric teachings to the Mahāyāna tradition.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Earliest Mahayana sutras * 2.3 Earliest inscriptions * 2.4 Early Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.5 Late Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism

* 3 Doctrine

* 3.1 Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* 3.2 Expedient means * 3.3 Liberation * 3.4 Buddha nature

* 4 Scriptures

* 4.1 Āgamas * 4.2 Turnings of the Dharma
Dharma
Wheel * 4.3 Early canon

* 5 Theravāda school

* 5.1 Role of the Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
* 5.2 Theravāda and Hīnayāna

* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Sources * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

According to Jan Nattier, the term _Mahāyāna_ ("Great Vehicle") was originally an honorary synonym for _Bodhisattvayāna_ ("Bodhisattva Vehicle") — the vehicle of a bodhisattva seeking buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. The term _Mahāyāna_ was therefore formed independently at an early date as a synonym for the path and the teachings of the bodhisattvas. Since it was simply an honorary term for _Bodhisattvayāna_, the creation of the term _Mahāyāna_ and its application to Bodhisattvayāna did not represent a significant turning point in the development of a Mahāyāna tradition.

The earliest Mahāyāna texts often use the term _Mahāyāna_ as a synonym for _Bodhisattvayāna_, but the term _Hīnayāna _ is comparatively rare in the earliest sources. The presumed dichotomy between _Mahāyāna_ and _Hīnayāna_ can be deceptive, as the two terms were not actually formed in relation to one another in the same era.

Among the earliest and most important references to the term _Mahāyāna_ are those that occur in the _Lotus Sūtra _ (Skt. _Saddharma Puṇḍarīka Sūtra_) dating between the 1st century BCE and the 1st century CE. Seishi Karashima has suggested that the term first used in an earlier Gandhāri Prakrit version of the _Lotus Sūtra_ was not the term _mahāyāna_ but the Prakrit word _mahājāna_ in the sense of _mahājñāna_ (great knowing). At a later stage when the early Prakrit word was converted into Sanskrit, this _mahājāna_, being phonetically ambivalent, was mistakenly converted into _mahāyāna_, possibly because of what may have been a double meaning in the famous Parable of the Burning House , which talks of three vehicles or carts (Skt: _yāna_).

HISTORY

Ancient Buddhist stūpas in Borobodur , Indonesia
Indonesia
. Early statue of the Buddha from Gandhāra , 1st–2nd century CE.

ORIGINS

The origins of Mahāyāna are still not completely understood. The earliest Western views of Mahāyāna assumed that it existed as a separate school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna" schools. The earliest Mahāyāna texts often depict strict adherence to the path of a bodhisattva, and engagement in the ascetic ideal of a monastic life in the wilderness, akin to the ideas expressed in the _Rhinoceros Sūtra _.

The earliest textual evidence of "Mahāyāna" comes from sūtras originating around the beginning of the common era. Jan Nattier has noted that some of the earliest Mahāyāna texts such as the _Ugraparipṛccha Sūtra _ use the term "Mahāyāna", yet there is no doctrinal difference between Mahāyāna in this context and the early schools, and that "Mahāyāna" referred rather to the rigorous emulation of Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
in the path of a bodhisattva seeking to become a fully enlightened buddha.

There is also no evidence that Mahāyāna ever referred to a separate formal school or sect of Buddhism, but rather that it existed as a certain set of ideals, and later doctrines, for bodhisattvas. Paul Williams has also noted that the Mahāyāna never had nor ever attempted to have a separate Vinaya or ordination lineage from the early schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
, and therefore each bhikṣu or bhikṣuṇī adhering to the Mahāyāna formally belonged to an early school. Membership in these _nikāyas_, or monastic sects, continues today with the Dharmaguptaka nikāya in East Asia, and the Mūlasarvāstivāda nikāya in Tibetan Buddhism . Therefore, Mahāyāna was never a separate rival sect of the early schools. Paul Harrison clarifies that while monastic Mahāyānists belonged to a nikāya, not all members of a nikāya were Mahāyānists. From Chinese monks visiting India, we now know that both Mahāyāna and non-Mahāyāna monks in India often lived in the same monasteries side by side.

The Chinese monk Yijing who visited India in the 7th century CE, distinguishes Mahāyāna from Hīnayāna as follows:

Both adopt one and the same Vinaya, and they have in common the prohibitions of the five offences, and also the practice of the Four Noble Truths . Those who venerate the bodhisattvas and read the Mahayana
Mahayana
sūtras are called the Mahāyānists, while those who do not perform these are called the Hīnayānists.

Much of the early extant evidence for the origins of Mahāyāna comes from early Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahāyāna teachings were first propagated into China
China
by Lokakṣema , the first translator of Mahāyāna sūtras into Chinese during the 2nd century CE. A statue of Prajñāpāramitā personified, from Singhasari , East Java , Indonesia
Indonesia
.

EARLIEST MAHAYANA SUTRAS

Several scholars have suggested that the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras , which are among the earliest Mahayana sutras , developed among the Mahāsāṃghika along the Kṛṣṇa River in the Āndhra region of southern India.

The earliest Mahāyāna sūtras include the very first versions of the Prajñāpāramitā genre, along with texts concerning Akṣobhya Buddha , which were probably written down in the 1st century BCE in the south of India. Guang Xing states, "Several scholars have suggested that the Prajñāpāramitā probably developed among the Mahāsāṃghikas in southern India, in the Āndhra country, on the Kṛṣṇa River." A.K. Warder believes that "the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Āndhra country."

Anthony Barber and Sree Padma note that "historians of Buddhist thought have been aware for quite some time that such pivotally important Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhist thinkers as Nāgārjuna
Nāgārjuna
, Dignaga
Dignaga
, Candrakīrti , Āryadeva , and Bhavaviveka , among many others, formulated their theories while living in Buddhist communities in Āndhra." They note that the ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Kṛṣṇa Valley, including Amaravati , Nāgārjunakoṇḍā and Jaggayyapeṭa "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier." Akira Hirakawa notes the "evidence suggests that many Early Mahayana
Mahayana
scriptures originated in South India."

Some scholars think that the earliest Mahāyāna sūtras were mainly composed in the south of India, and later the activity of writing additional scriptures was continued in the north. However, the assumption that the presence of an evolving body of Mahāyāna scriptures implies the contemporaneous existence of distinct religious movement called "Mahāyāna", may be a serious misstep. Some scholars further speculate that the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras were written in response to the ultrarealism of abhidharma .

Some early Mahāyāna sūtras were translated by the Kuṣāṇa monk Lokakṣema , who came to China
China
from the kingdom of Gandhāra . His first translations to Chinese were made in the Chinese capital of Luoyang
Luoyang
between 178 and 189 CE. Some Mahāyāna sūtras translated during the 2nd century CE include the following:

* _Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra _ * _Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra _ * _Larger Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra _ * _Akṣobhyatathāgatasyavyūha Sūtra _ * _Ugraparipṛccha Sūtra _ * _Mañjuśrīparipṛcchā Sūtra _ * _Drumakinnararājaparipṛcchā Sūtra _ * _ Śūraṅgama Samādhi Sūtra _ * _Bhadrapāla Sūtra _ * _Ajātaśatrukaukṛtyavinodana Sūtra _ * _Kāśyapaparivarta Sūtra _ * _Lokānuvartana Sūtra _ * An early sūtra connected to the _Avataṃsaka Sūtra _

This corpus of texts often emphasizes ascetic practices and forest dwelling, absorbed in states of meditative concentration.

Harrison points to the enthusiasm in the Lokakṣema sūtra corpus for the extra ascetic practices, for dwelling in the forest, and above all for states of meditative absorption (_samādhi _). Meditation
Meditation
and meditative states seem to have occupied a central place in early Mahāyāna, certainly because of their spiritual efficacy but also because they may have given access to fresh revelations and inspiration. Mahāyāna Buddhist triad, including Bodhisattva Maitreya
Maitreya
, the Buddha, and Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
. 2nd–3rd century CE, Gandhāra .

EARLIEST INSCRIPTIONS

The earliest stone inscription containing a recognizably Mahāyāna formulation and a mention of the Buddha Amitābha was found in the Indian subcontinent in Mathura , and dated to around 180 CE. Remains of a statue of a Buddha bear the Brāhmī inscription: "Made in the year 28 of the reign of King Huviṣka , ... for the Blessed One, the Buddha Amitābha." There is also some evidence that Emperor Huviṣka himself was a follower of Mahāyāna Buddhism, and a Sanskrit manuscript fragment in the Schøyen Collection describes Huviṣka as having "set forth in the Mahāyāna." Evidence of the name "Mahāyāna" in Indian inscriptions in the period before the 5th century is very limited in comparison to the multiplicity of Mahāyāna writings transmitted from Central Asia to China
China
at that time.

EARLY MAHāYāNA BUDDHISM

During the period of early Mahāyāna Buddhism, four major types of thought developed: Mādhyamaka , Yogācāra , Buddha Nature (_Tathāgatagarbha_), and Buddhist Logic as the last and most recent. In India, the two main philosophical schools of the Mahāyāna were the Mādhyamaka and the later Yogācāra. During the Kushan
Kushan
Empire , Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
teachings encouraged societies to give generous donations to the Buddhist monasteries, which gave the people "religious merits".

Earlier stage forms of Mahāyāna such as the doctrines of Prajñāpāramitā, Yogācāra, Buddha Nature, and the Pure Land teachings are still popular in East Asia. In some cases these have spawned new developments, while in others they are treated in the more traditional syncretic manner. Paul Williams has noted that in this tradition in the Far East, primacy has always been given to study of the sūtras.

LATE MAHāYāNA BUDDHISM

Various classes of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
literature developed as a result of royal courts sponsoring both Buddhism
Buddhism
and Saivism . The Mañjusrimulakalpa , which later came to classified under Kriyatantra , states that mantras taught in the Shaiva, Garuda and Vaishnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught originally by Manjushri
Manjushri
. The Guhyasiddhi of Padmavajra, a work associated with the Guhyasamaja tradition , prescribes acting as a Shaiva guru and initiating members into Saiva Siddhanta scriptures and mandalas. The Samvara tantra texts adopted the pitha list from the Shaiva text _Tantrasadbhava_, introducing a copying error where a deity was mistaken for a place.

DOCTRINE

Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
seated in meditation . Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, 2nd century CE

Few things can be said with certainty about Mahāyāna Buddhism, especially its early Indian form, other than that the Buddhism practiced in China, Indonesia, Vietnam, Korea, Tibet, and Japan
Japan
is Mahāyāna Buddhism. Mahāyāna can be described as a loosely bound collection of many teachings with large and expansive doctrines that are able to exist simultaneously.

Mahāyāna constitutes an inclusive tradition characterized by plurality and the adoption of new Mahāyāna sūtras in addition to the earlier Āgama texts. Mahāyāna sees itself as penetrating further and more profoundly into the Buddha's Dharma
Dharma
. An Indian commentary on the _Mahāyānasaṃgraha _, entitled _Vivṛtaguhyārthapiṇḍavyākhyā_, gives a classification of teachings according to the capabilities of the audience:

ccording to disciples' grades, the Dharma
Dharma
is inferior and superior. For example, the inferior was taught to the merchants Trapuṣa and Ballika because they were ordinary men; the middle was taught to the group of five because they were at the stage of saints; the eightfold _Prajñāpāramitās_ were taught to bodhisattvas, and are superior in eliminating conceptually imagined forms.

There is also a tendency in Mahāyāna sūtras to regard adherence to these sūtras as generating spiritual benefits greater than those that arise from being a follower of the non-Mahāyāna approaches to Dharma. Thus the _Śrīmālādevī Sūtra _ claims that the Buddha said that devotion to Mahāyāna is inherently superior in its virtues to following the śrāvaka or pratyekabuddha paths.

The fundamental principles of Mahāyāna doctrine were based on the possibility of universal liberation from suffering for all beings (hence the "Great Vehicle") and the existence of buddhas and bodhisattvas embodying Buddha Nature . The Pure Land school of Mahāyāna simplifies the expression of faith by allowing salvation to be alternatively obtained through the grace of the Amitābha Buddha by having faith and devoting oneself to mindfulness of the Buddha . This devotional lifestyle of Buddhism
Buddhism
has greatly contributed to the success of Mahāyāna in East Asia, where spiritual elements traditionally relied upon mindfulness of the Buddha, mantras and dhāraṇīs , and reading of Mahāyāna sūtras. In Chinese Buddhism, most monks, let alone lay people, practice Pure Land, some combining it with Chán (Zen).

Most Mahāyāna schools believe in supernatural bodhisattvas who devote themselves to the perfections (Skt. _pāramitā_), ultimate knowledge (Skt. _sarvajñāna_), and the liberation of all sentient beings. Avalokiteśvara
Avalokiteśvara
, the bodhisattva of compassion. Ajaṇṭā Caves , Mahārāṣtra , India.

BODHISATTVA

Main article: Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva

The Mahāyāna tradition holds that pursuing only the release from suffering and attainment of Nirvāṇa is too narrow an aspiration, because it lacks the motivation of actively resolving to liberate all other sentient beings from Saṃsāra . One who engages in this path is called a bodhisattva. Bodhisattvas could reach nirvana, but they believe it is more important to help others on their path of finding nirvana rather than committing fully to nirvana themselves.

The defining characteristic of a bodhisattva is bodhicitta , the intention to achieve omniscient Buddhahood ( Trikaya
Trikaya
) as fast as possible, so that one may benefit infinite sentient beings. Sometimes the term bodhisattva is used more restrictively to refer to those sentient beings on the grounds . As Ananda
Ananda
Coomaraswamy notes, "The most essential part of the Mahayana
Mahayana
is its emphasis on the Bodhisattva ideal, which replaces that of the arhat , or ranks before it." According to Mahāyāna teachings, being a high-level bodhisattva involves possessing a mind of great compassion and transcendent wisdom (Skt. _prajñā_) to realize the reality of inherent emptiness and dependent origination . Mahāyāna teaches that the practitioner will finally realize the attainment of Buddhahood .

Six perfections (Skt. _pāramitā_) are traditionally required for bodhisattvas:

* _dāna -pāramitā_: the perfection of giving * _śīla -pāramitā_: the perfection of behavior and discipline * _kṣānti -pāramitā_: the perfection of forbearance * _vīrya -pāramitā_: the perfection of vigor and diligence * _dhyāna -pāramitā_: the perfection of meditation * _prajñā -pāramitā_: the perfection of transcendent wisdom

EXPEDIENT MEANS

Main article: Upaya

Expedient means (Skt. _upāya_) is found in the _ Lotus Sutra _, one of the earliest dated Mahāyāna sūtras, and is accepted in all Mahāyāna schools of thought. It is any effective method that aids awakening. It does not necessarily mean that some particular method is "untrue" but is simply any means or stratagem that is conducive to spiritual growth and leads beings to awakening and nirvana . Expedient means could thus be certain motivational words for a particular listener or even the noble eightfold path itself. Basic Buddhism
Buddhism
(what Mahāyāna would term _śravakayāna _ or _pratyekabuddhayāna _) is an expedient method for helping people begin the noble Buddhist path and advance quite far. But the path is not wholly traversed, according to some Mahāyāna schools, until the practitioner has striven for and attained Buddhahood for the liberation of all other sentient beings from suffering.

Some scholars have stated that the exercise of expedient means, "the ability to adapt one's message to the audience, is also of enormous importance in the Pāli canon." In fact the Pāli term _upāya-kosalla_ does occur in the Pāli Canon, in the _Sangiti Sutta_ of the _Digha Nikāya_.

LIBERATION

Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
includes a rich cosmology, with various Buddhas and bodhisattvas residing in different worlds and buddha-realms. The concept of the three bodies (_trikāya_) supports these constructions, making the Buddha himself a transcendental figure. Dr. Guang Xing describes the Mahāyāna Buddha as "an omnipotent divinity endowed with numerous supernatural attributes and qualities ... is described almost as an omnipotent and almighty godhead."

Under various conditions, the realms Buddha presides over could be attained by devotees after their death so, when reborn, they could strive towards buddhahood in the best possible conditions. Depending on the sect, liberation into a buddha-realm can be obtained by faith, visualization, or sometimes even by the repetition of Buddha's name. These practices are common in Pure Land Buddhism.{Dr. Guang Xing, The Three Bodies of the Buddha: The Origin and Development of the Trikaya Theory, RoutledgeCurzon, Oxford, 2005, p. 1}

BUDDHA NATURE

The Buddha flanked by bodhisattvas . Cave 4, Ajaṇṭā Caves , Mahārāṣtra , India. Main article: Buddha nature

_Buddha-nature_, _Buddha-dhatu_ or _Buddha Principle_ (Skt : _Buddha-dhātu_, _Tathāgatagarbha_; Jap : _Bussho_), is taught differently in various Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
traditions. Broadly speaking Buddha-nature is concerned with ascertaining what allows sentient beings to become Buddhas. The term, Buddha nature, is a translation of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
coinage, 'Buddha-dhātu', which seems first to have appeared in the _ Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra _, where it refers to "a sacred nature that is the basis for becoming buddhas", and where it is also spoken of as the 'Self' (_atman_).

It is called _Tathāgatagarbha_ _Buddha-dhātu_ at the stage of sentient beings because it is covered with defilements, and it is called _Dharmakāya _ at the stage of Buddhahood, because its pure nature is revealed.

The teaching of a "Buddha nature" (Skt. _tathāgatagarbha_) may be based on the "luminous mind " concept found in the _Āgamas _. The essential idea, articulated in the Buddha nature sūtras, but not accepted by all Mahāyānists, is that no being is without a concealed but indestructible interior link to the awakening of _bodhi _ and that this link is an uncreated element (_dhātu_) or principle deep inside each being, which constitutes the deathless, diamond-like "essence of the self". The _Mahāyāna Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra_ states: "The essence of the Self (_ātman_) is the subtle Buddha nature..." while the later _Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra _ states that the Buddha nature might be taken to be self (_ātman_), but it is not. In the _sagathakam_ section of that same sutra, however, the Tathagatagarbha as the Self is not denied, but affirmed: "The _Atma_ characterised with purity is the state of self-realization; this is the Tathagata's Womb (_garbha_), which does not belong to the realm of the theorisers." In the Buddha nature class of sūtras, the word "self" (_ātman_) is used in a way defined by and specific to these sūtras. (See Atman (Buddhism) .)

According to some scholars, the Buddha nature discussed in some Mahāyāna sūtras does not represent a substantial self (_ātman_); rather, it is a positive language and expression of emptiness (_śūnyatā_) and represents the potentiality to realize Buddhahood through Buddhist practices. It is the "true self " in representing the innate aspect of the individual that makes actualizing the ultimate personality possible.

The actual "seeing and knowing" of this Buddha essence is said to usher in nirvanic liberation. This Buddha essence or "Buddha nature" is stated to be found in every single person, ghost, god and sentient being. In the Buddha nature sūtras, the Buddha is portrayed as describing the Buddha essence as uncreated, deathless and ultimately beyond rational grasping or conceptualisation. Yet, it is this already real and present, hidden internal element of awakeness (_bodhi_) that, according to the Buddha nature sūtras, prompts beings to seek liberation from worldly suffering, and lets them attain the spotless bliss that lies at the heart of their being. Once the veils of negative thoughts, feelings, and unwholesome behaviour (the _kleśas _) are eliminated from the mind and character, the indwelling Buddha principle (_Buddha-dhātu_: Buddha nature) can shine forth unimpededly and transform the seer into a Buddha.

Prior to the period of these sūtras, Mahāyāna metaphysics was dominated by teachings on emptiness , in the form of Madhyamaka philosophy. The language used by this approach is primarily negative, and the Buddha nature genre of sūtras can be seen as an attempt to state orthodox Buddhist teachings of dependent origination and on the mysterious reality of nirvana using positive language instead, to prevent people from being turned away from Buddhism
Buddhism
by a false impression of nihilism. In these sūtras the perfection of the wisdom of not-self is stated to be the true self; the ultimate goal of the path is then characterized using a range of positive language that had been used in Indian philosophy previously by essentialist philosophers, but was now transmuted into a new Buddhist vocabulary that described a being who has successfully completed the Buddhist path.

A different view is propounded by Tathagatagarbha specialist, Michael Zimmermann, who sees key Buddha-nature sutras such as the _Nirvana Sutra_ and the _ Tathagatagarbha Sutra_, as well as the _Lankavatara Sutra_, enunciating an affirmative vision of an eternal, indestructible Buddhic Self. Zimmermann observes:

the existence of an eternal, imperishable self, that is, buddhahood, is definitely the basic point of the _TGS_ ... the _Mahaparinirvanasutra_ and the _Lankavatarasutra_ characterize the _tathagatagarbha_ explicitly as _atman_ .

The _ Uttaratantra _ (an exegetical treatise on Buddha nature ) sees Buddha nature not as caused and conditioned (_saṃskṛta_), but as eternal, uncaused, unconditioned, and incapable of being destroyed, although temporarily concealed within worldly beings by adventitious defilements. According to C. D. Sebastian, the _Uttaratantra's_ reference to a transcendental self (_ātma -pāramitā _) should be understood as "the unique essence of the universe", thus the universal and immanent essence of Buddha nature is the same throughout time and space.

SCRIPTURES

Statue of the Buddha with Dharmacakra
Dharmacakra
Mudra
Mudra
, symbolizing his teaching of the Dharma. Sarnath
Sarnath
, Vārāṇasī .

ĀGAMAS

Main article: Mahayana sutras

Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
takes the basic teachings of the Buddha as recorded in early scriptures as the starting point of its teachings, such as those concerning karma and rebirth, anātman , emptiness , dependent origination , and the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
. Mahāyāna Buddhists in East Asia
East Asia
have traditionally studied these teachings in the Āgamas preserved in the Chinese Buddhist canon
Chinese Buddhist canon
. "Āgama" is the term used by those traditional Buddhist schools in India who employed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for their basic canon. These correspond to the Nikāyas used by the Theravāda school. The surviving Āgamas in Chinese translation belong to at least two schools, while most of the Āgamas teachings were never translated into Tibetan.

In addition to accepting the essential scriptures of the early Buddhist schools as valid, Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
maintains large collections of sūtras that are not used or recognized by the Theravāda school. These were not recognized by some individuals in the early Buddhist schools. In other cases, Buddhist communities were divided along these doctrinal lines. In Mahāyāna Buddhism, the Mahāyāna sūtras are often given greater authority than the Āgamas. The first of these Mahāyāna-specific writings were written probably around the 1st century BCE or 1st century CE.

In the 4th century Mahāyāna abhidharma work _Abhidharmasamuccaya_, Asaṅga refers to the collection which contains the āgamas as the _Śrāvakapiṭaka_ and associates it with the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas . Asaṅga classifies the Mahāyāna sūtras as belonging to the _Bodhisattvapiṭaka_, which is designated as the collection of teachings for bodhisattvas.

TURNINGS OF THE DHARMA WHEEL

Dating back at least to the _Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra _ is a classification of the corpus of Buddhism
Buddhism
into three categories, based on ways of understanding the nature of reality, known as the "Three Turnings of the Dharma
Dharma
Wheel ". According to this view, there were three such "turnings":

* In the first turning, the Buddha taught the Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
at Varanasi
Varanasi
for those in the śravaka vehicle. It is described as marvelous and wonderful, but requiring interpretation and occasioning controversy. The doctrines of the first turning are exemplified in the _ Dharmacakra
Dharmacakra
Pravartana Sūtra _. This turning represents the earliest phase of the Buddhist teachings and the earliest period in the history of Buddhism. * In the second turning, the Buddha taught the Mahāyāna teachings to the bodhisattvas, teaching that all phenomena have no-essence, no arising, no passing away, are originally quiescent, and essentially in cessation. This turning is also described as marvelous and wonderful, but requiring interpretation and occasioning controversy. Doctrine of the second turning is established in the Prajñāpāramitā teachings, first put into writing around 100 BCE. In Indian philosophical schools, it is exemplified by the Mādhyamaka school of Nāgārjuna
Nāgārjuna
. * In the third turning, the Buddha taught similar teachings to the second turning, but for everyone in the three vehicles, including all the śravakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas. These were meant to be completely explicit teachings in their entire detail, for which interpretations would not be necessary, and controversy would not occur. These teachings were established by the _Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra_ as early as the 1st or 2nd century CE. In the Indian philosophical schools, the third turning is exemplified by the Yogācāra school of Asaṅga and Vasubandhu
Vasubandhu
.

Some traditions of Tibetan Buddhism consider the teachings of Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
and Vajrayāna to be the third turning of the Dharma Wheel. Tibetan teachers, particularly of the Gelugpa school, regard the second turning as the highest teaching, because of their particular interpretation of Yogācāra doctrine. The Buddha Nature teachings are normally included in the third turning of the wheel. The Chinese tradition has a different scheme.

The Chinese T'ien-T'ai believed the Buddha taught over Five Periods. These are:

* The Flower Garland Period. * The Agama Period. * The Correct and Equal Period (provisional Mahayana
Mahayana
Sutras, including the Amida, Mahavairochana and Vimalakirti Sutras). * The Wisdom Period (Perfection of Wisdom Sutras). * The Lotus and Nirvana Period (when Shakyamuni taught from the standpoint of his Enlightenment).

EARLY CANON

Scholars have noted that many key Mahāyāna ideas are closely connected to the earliest texts of Buddhism. The seminal work of Mahāyāna philosophy, Nāgārjuna\'s _Mūlamadhyamakakārikā _, mentions the canon's _Katyāyana Sūtra_ (SA 301) by name, and may be an extended commentary on that work. Nāgārjuna
Nāgārjuna
systematized the Mādhyamaka school of Mahāyāna philosophy. He may have arrived at his positions from a desire to achieve a consistent exegesis of the Buddha's doctrine as recorded in the canon. In his eyes the Buddha was not merely a forerunner, but the very founder of the Mādhyamaka system. Nāgārjuna
Nāgārjuna
also referred to a passage in the canon regarding "nirvanic consciousness " in two different works.

Yogācāra , the other prominent Mahāyāna school in dialectic with the Mādhyamaka school, gave a special significance to the canon's _Lesser Discourse on Emptiness_ (MA 190). A passage there (which the discourse itself emphasizes) is often quoted in later Yogācāra texts as a true definition of emptiness . According to Walpola Rahula , the thought presented in the Yogācāra school's _ Abhidharma-samuccaya _ is undeniably closer to that of the Pali
Pali
Nikayas than is that of the Theravadin Abhidhamma
Abhidhamma
.

Both the Mādhyamikas and the Yogācārins saw themselves as preserving the Buddhist Middle Way between the extremes of nihilism (everything as unreal) and substantialism (substantial entities existing). The Yogācārins criticized the Mādhyamikas for tending towards nihilism, while the Mādhyamikas criticized the Yogācārins for tending towards substantialism.

Key Mahāyāna texts introducing the concepts of bodhicitta and Buddha nature also use language parallel to passages in the canon containing the Buddha's description of "luminous mind " and may have been based on this idea.

THERAVāDA SCHOOL

Main article: Theravada
Theravada

ROLE OF THE BODHISATTVA

In the early Buddhist texts, and as taught by the modern Theravada school, the goal of becoming a teaching Buddha in a future life is viewed as the aim of a small group of individuals striving to benefit future generations after the current Buddha's teachings have been lost, but in the current age there is no need for most practitioners to aspire to this goal. Theravada
Theravada
texts do, however, hold that this is a more perfectly virtuous goal.

Paul Williams writes that some modern Theravada
Theravada
meditation masters in Thailand
Thailand
are popularly regarded as bodhisattvas.

Cholvijarn observes that prominent figures associated with the Self perspective in Thailand
Thailand
have often been famous outside scholarly circles as well, among the wider populace, as Buddhist meditation masters and sources of miracles and sacred amulets . Like perhaps some of the early Mahāyāna forest hermit monks, or the later Buddhist Tantrics, they have become people of power through their meditative achievements. They are widely revered, worshipped, and held to be arhats or (note!) bodhisattvas.

THERAVāDA AND HīNAYāNA

In the 7th century, the Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang describes the concurrent existence of the Mahāvihara and the Abhayagiri Vihara
Vihara
in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
. He refers to the monks of the Mahāvihara as the "Hīnayāna Sthaviras" (_Theras_), and the monks of the Abhayagiri Vihara
Vihara
as the "Mahāyāna Sthaviras". Xuanzang further writes:

The Mahāvihāravāsins reject the Mahāyāna and practice the Hīnayāna, while the Abhayagirivihāravāsins study both Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna teachings and propagate the _ Tripiṭaka _.

The modern Theravāda school is usually described as belonging to Hīnayāna. Some authors have argued that it should not be considered such from the Mahāyāna perspective. Their view is based on a different understanding of the concept of Hīnayāna. Rather than regarding the term as referring to any school of Buddhism
Buddhism
that hasn't accepted the Mahāyāna canon and doctrines, such as those pertaining to the role of the bodhisattva, these authors argue that the classification of a school as "Hīnayāna" should be crucially dependent on the adherence to a specific phenomenological position. They point out that unlike the now-extinct Sarvāstivāda school, which was the primary object of Mahāyāna criticism, the Theravāda does not claim the existence of independent entities (_dharmas_); in this it maintains the attitude of early Buddhism. Adherents of Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
disagreed with the substantialist thought of the Sarvāstivādins and Sautrāntikas , and in emphasizing the doctrine of emptiness , Kalupahana holds that they endeavored to preserve the early teaching. The Theravādins too refuted the Sarvāstivādins and Sautrāntikas (and other schools) on the grounds that their theories were in conflict with the non-substantialism of the canon. The Theravāda arguments are preserved in the _Kathāvatthu _.

Some contemporary Theravādin figures have indicated a sympathetic stance toward the Mahāyāna philosophy found in texts such as the _Heart Sūtra _ (Skt. _ Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya_) and Nāgārjuna's _Fundamental Stanzas on the Middle Way _ (Skt. _Mūlamadhyamakakārikā_).

SEE ALSO

* Buddha nature * Buddhist holidays * Dzogchen * Early Buddhist Schools * Faith
Faith
in Buddhism
Buddhism
* God
God
in Buddhism
Buddhism
* _ Golden Light Sutra _

* History of Buddhism
Buddhism
* _ Lotus Sutra _ * Mahayana sutras * _ Nirvana Sutra
Sutra
_ * Pure Land * Rebirth

* Schools of Buddhism * Shunyata * Silk Road transmission of Buddhism * Tathagatagarbha * Tendai
Tendai
* Zen
Zen

NOTES

* ^ "The Mahayana, 'Great Vehicle' or 'Great Carriage' (for carrying all beings to nirvana), is also, and perhaps more correctly and accurately, known as the Bodhisattvayana, the bodhisattva's vehicle." - Warder, A.K. (3rd edn. 1999). _Indian Buddhism_: p. 338 * ^ Karashima: "I have assumed that, in the earliest stage of the transmission of _the Lotus Sūtra_, the Middle Indic forn _jāṇa_ or *_jāna_ (Pkt < Skt _jñāna_, _yāna_) had stood in these places ... I have assumed, further, that the Mahāyānist terms _buddha-yānā_ ("the Buddha-vehicle"), _mahāyāna_ ("the great vehicle"), _hīnayāna_ ("the inferior vehicle") meant originally _buddha-jñāna_ ("buddha-knowledge"), _mahājñāna_ ("great knowledge") and _hīnajñāna_ ("inferior knowledge")." Karashima, Seishi (2001). Some Features of the Language of the Saddharma-puṇḍarīka-sūtra, _Indo-Iranian Journal_ 44: 207-230 * ^ "As scholars have moved away from this limited corpus, and have begun to explore a wider range of Mahayana
Mahayana
sūtras, they have stumbled on, and have started to open up, a literature that is often stridently ascetic and heavily engaged in reinventing the forest ideal, an individualistic, antisocial, ascetic ideal that is encapsulated in the apparently resurrected image of “wandering alone like a rhinoceros”. _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 494 * ^ "The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for situating the emergence of the Mahayana
Mahayana
around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all, but came from China. Already by the last quarter of the 2nd century CE, there was a small, seemingly idiosyncratic collection of substantial Mahayana
Mahayana
sutras translated into what Erik Zürcher calls 'broken Chinese' by an Indoscythian, whose Indian name has been reconstructed as Lokaksema." _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 492 * ^ Warder: "The sudden appearance of large numbers of (Mahayana) teachers and texts (in North India in the second century AD) would seem to require some previous preparation and development, and this we can look for in the South." - Warder, A.K. (3rd edn. 1999). _Indian Buddhism_: p. 335. * ^ "But even apart from the obvious weaknesses inherent in arguments of this kind there is here the tacit equation of a body of literature with a religious movement, an assumption that evidence for the presence of one proves the existence of the other, and this may be a serious misstep." - _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 493 * ^ "Certainly, we have for this period an extensive body of inscriptions from virtually all parts of India. ... But nowhere in this extensive body of material is there any reference, prior to the fifth century, to a named Mahāyāna.", _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 493 * ^ "What is particularly disconcerting here is the disconnect between expectation and reality: We know from Chinese translations that large numbers of Mahāyāna sutras were being composed in the period between the beginning of the common era and the fifth century. But outside of texts, at least in India, at exactly the same period, very different — in fact seemingly older — ideas and aspirations appear to be motivating actual behavior, and old and established Hinayana groups appear to be the only ones that are patronized and supported., _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 494 * ^ "In other words, once nontextual evidence is taken into account the picture changes dramatically. Rather than being datable to the beginning of the common era, this strand of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, at least, appeared to have no visible impact on Indian Buddhist cult practice until the 2nd century, and even then what impact it had was extremely isolated and marginal, and had no lasting or long-term consequences — there were no further references to Amitabha in Indian image inscriptions. Almost exactly the same pattern occurs (concerning Mahayana) on an even broader scale when nontextual evidence is considered." - _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 493 * ^ "There are, it seems, very few things that can be said with certainty about Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism", _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 492 * ^ "But apart from the fact that it can be said with some certainty that the Buddhism
Buddhism
embedded in China, Korea, Tibet, and Japan is Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism, it is no longer clear what else can be said with certainty about Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
itself, and especially about its earlier, and presumably formative, period in India.", _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 492 * ^ "It has become increasingly clear that Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
was never one thing, but rather, it seems, a loosely bound bundle of many, and — like Walt Whitman — was large and could contain, in both senses of the term, contradictions, or at least antipodal elements." - _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 492 * ^ Gombrich: "It is true that the term translated 'expounding in means', upaya-kausalya, is post-canonical, but the exercise of expounding to which it refers, the ability to adapt one's message to the audience, is of enormous importance in the Pali
Pali
Canon." Gombrich, Richard F. (1997). _How Buddhism
Buddhism
Began_. Munshiram Manoharlal: p. 17 * ^ The Dharmakaya
Dharmakaya
is in " Tibetan Buddhism considered to be equivalent to the mind of the Buddha", since it is synonymous with perfect enlightenment (saṃbodhi).

REFERENCES

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Buddhism: What is Mahayana
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Bodhisattva
path according to the Inquiry of Ugra_: p. 172 * ^ W. Rahula, (1996). _ Theravada
Theravada
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Mahayana
Buddhism_; in: "Gems of Buddhist Wisdom", Buddhist Missionary
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Mahayana
Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations_: pp. 4-5 * ^ Guang Xing. The Concept of the Buddha: Its Evolution from Early Buddhism
Buddhism
to the Trikaya
Trikaya
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Mahayana
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Buddhism
to the Trikaya
Trikaya
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Ananda
(1975). _Buddha and the Gospel of Buddhism_. Boston: University Books, Inc. p. 229. LCCN 64056434 . * ^ Pye, Michael (1978). Skilful Means — A concept in Mahayana Buddhism. London, UK: Gerald Duckworth cf. also p. 110 * ^ Sebastian, C. D. (2005), _ Metaphysics and Mysticism
Mysticism
in Mahayana Buddhism_. Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications: p. 278 * ^ Akira, Hirakawa (translated and edited by Paul Groner) (1993). _A History of Indian Buddhism_. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass: p. 252 * ^ _Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism_ (2004): p. 293 * ^ _A_ _B_ Boin-Webb, Sara (tr). Rahula, Walpola (tr). Asanga. _ Abhidharma
Abhidharma
Samuccaya: The Compendium of Higher Teaching._ 2001. pp. 199-200 * ^ Kitagawa, Joseph Mitsuo (2002). _The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture_. Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1762-5 : p. 80 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Keenan, John (2000). _The Scripture on the Explication of the Underlying Meaning_. Numata Center. ISBN 1-886439-10-9 : p. 49 * ^ Powers, John (1993), _Hermeneutics and tradition in the Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra_, Brill Academic Publishers, pp. 4–11, ISBN 90-04-09826-7 * ^ Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, 'Five Periods' * ^ Kalupahana, David (2006). _ Mulamadhyamakakarika of Nagarjuna._ Motilal Banarsidass: p. 5. * ^ Lindtner, Christian (1997). _Master of Wisdom._ Dharma Publishing: p. 324. * ^ Lindtner, Christian (1997). _Master of Wisdom._ Dharma Publishing: p. 322. Lindtner says that Nāgārjuna
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in the Discourses of the Buddha. In Werner, Karel ed., _The Yogi and the Mystic._ Curzon Press: p. 97. * ^ Harvey, Peter (2000). _An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics_. Cambridge University Press: p. 123. * ^ Paul Williams, _Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations._ Taylor & Francis, 1989, page 328. * ^ Baruah, Bibhuti. _Buddhist Sects and Sectarianism._ 2008. p. 53 * ^ Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. _A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna._ 2007. p. 121 * ^ Monier-Williams, Sir Monier (1889). _ Buddhism
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SOURCES

* "Mahayana". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2002.

FURTHER READING

* Beal (1871). _Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the Chinese_, London, Trübner * Lowenstein, Tom (1996). _The Vision of the Buddha_, Boston: Little Brown, ISBN 1-903296-91-9 * Schopen, G. "The inscription on the Kusan image of Amitabha and the character of the early Mahayana
Mahayana
in India", _Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 10_, 1990 * Suzuki, D. T. (1914). "The Development of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism", _The Monist _ Volume 24, Issue 4, 1914-10-01, p565-581 * Suzuki, D. T. (1908). _Outline of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism_, Open Court, Chicago * Walser, Joseph (2007). The origin of the Term Mahayana
Mahayana
and its relationship to the Agamas, Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 30 (1-2), 219-252 * Williams, Paul (1989). _ Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism_, Routledge. * Karel Werner; Jeffrey Samuels; Bhikkhu Bodhi; Peter Skilling, Bhikkhu Anālayo, David McMahan (2013). _The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Ideal: Essays on the Emergence of Mahayana_. Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 978-955-24-0396-5 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link )

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to MAHAYANA _.

_ Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia _ article _MAHāYāNA _.

* Digital Dictionary of Buddhism * Comparison of Buddhist Traditions ( Mahayana
Mahayana
- Therevada - Tibetan) * The Mahayana
Mahayana
Mahaparinirvana Sutra: complete text and analysis. * Buddhas and Bodhisattvas in Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism * Arahants, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas by Bhikkhu Bodhi * The Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
Ideal in Theravāda Theory and Practice by Jeffrey Samuels

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