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VLF
VERY LOW FREQUENCY or VLF is the ITU designation for radio frequencies (RF) in the range of 3 to 30 kilohertz (kHz), corresponding to wavelengths from 100 to 10 kilometres, respectively. The band is also known as the MYRIAMETRE BAND or MYRIAMETRE WAVE as the wavelengths range from one to ten myriametres (an obsolete metric unit equal to 10 kilometres). Due to its limited bandwidth , audio (voice) transmission is highly impractical in this band, and therefore only low data rate coded signals are used. The VLF band is used for a few radio navigation services, government time radio stations (broadcasting time signals to set radio clocks ) and for secure military communication. Since VLF waves can penetrate at least 40 meters (120 ft) into saltwater, they are used for military communication with submarines
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Band V
BAND V (meaning Band 5) is the name of a radio frequency range within the ultra high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum . It is not to be confused with the V band in the extremely high frequency part of the spectrum. Sources differ on the exact frequency range of UHF Band V. For example, the Broadcast engineer's reference book and the BBC
BBC
define the range as 614 to 854 MHz
MHz
. The IPTV India Forum define the range as 582 to 806 MHz
MHz
and the DVB Worldwide website refers to the range as 585 to 806 MHz
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Band VI
BAND or BAND may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Science and technology * 2 Music * 3 Clothing, jewelry, and accessories * 4 Organizations * 5 Places * 6 Society and government * 7 Other uses * 8 See also SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY* Band (radio) , a range of frequencies or wavelengths in radio and radar, specifically: * Shortwave bands * UMTS frequency bands used for cellphones * LTE
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Band IV
BAND IV is the name of a radio frequency range within the ultra high frequency part of the electromagnetic spectrum . Sources differ on the exact frequency range of the band. For example, the Swiss Federal Office of Communications, the Broadcast engineer's reference book and Ericsson
Ericsson
India Ltd all define the range of Band IV from 470 to 582 MHz
MHz
. An EICTA paper defines the range as 474 to 602 MHz, whilst the BBC
BBC
define the range as 470 to 614 MHz. Band IV is primarily used for analogue and digital ( DVB-T
DVB-T
, ATSC
ATSC
and ISDB
ISDB
) television broadcasting, as well as services intended for mobile devices such as DVB-H
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Band III
BAND III is the name of the range of radio frequencies within the very high frequency (VHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 174 to 240 megahertz (MHz). It is primarily used for radio and television broadcasting. It is also called HIGH-BAND VHF, in contrast to Bands I and II. CONTENTS* 1 Broadcast Television
Television
* 1.1 North America * 1.2 Europe * 1.3 Russia and other former members of OIRT * 2 Radio
Radio
* 3 Worldwide usage * 3.1 Europe * 3.2 North America * 4 References BROADCAST TELEVISIONNORTH AMERICAThe band is subdivided into seven channels for television broadcasting, each occupying 6 MHz. CHANNEL FREQUENCY RANGE 7 174-180 MHz 8 180-186 MHz 9 186-192 MHz 10 192-198 MHz 11 198-204 MHz 12 204-210 MHz 13 210-216 MHzEUROPEEuropean Band III allocations vary from country to country, with channel widths of 7 or 8 MHz
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Band I
BAND I is a range of radio frequencies within the very high frequency (VHF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum . Band I ranges from 47 to 68 MHz
MHz
for the European Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Area, and from 54 to 88 MHz
MHz
for the Americas and it is primarily used for broadcasting service (television broadcasting ) in line to ITU Radio Regulations (article 1.38). Channel spacings vary from country to country, with spacings of 6, 7 and 8 MHz
MHz
being common
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Band II
BAND or BAND may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Science and technology * 2 Music * 3 Clothing, jewelry, and accessories * 4 Organizations * 5 Places * 6 Society and government * 7 Other uses * 8 See also SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY* Band (radio) , a range of frequencies or wavelengths in radio and radar, specifically: * Shortwave bands * UMTS frequency bands used for cellphones * LTE
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C Band (NATO)
BAND or BAND may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Science and technology * 2 Music * 3 Clothing, jewelry, and accessories * 4 Organizations * 5 Places * 6 Society and government * 7 Other uses * 8 See also SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY* Band (radio) , a range of frequencies or wavelengths in radio and radar, specifically: * Shortwave bands * UMTS frequency bands used for cellphones * LTE
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Stanford University
STANFORD UNIVERSITY (STANFORD; officially LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY , colloquially THE FARM) is a private research university in Stanford , California
California
, adjacent to Palo Alto
Palo Alto
and between San Jose and San Francisco
San Francisco
. Its 8,180-acre (12.8 sq mi; 33.1 km2) campus is one of the largest in the United States
United States
. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in America. Due to its academic strength, wealth, and proximity to Silicon Valley it is often cited as one of the world's most prestigious universities. The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford
Jane Stanford
in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. , who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year
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Myriametre
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths . Objects of sizes in different order of magnitude
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Kilohertz
The HERTZ (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) and is defined as one cycle per second . It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
Hertz
, the first person to provide conclusive proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves . Hertz
Hertz
are commonly expressed in multiples : kilohertz (103 Hz, kHz), megahertz (106 Hz, MHz), gigahertz (109 Hz, GHz), and terahertz (1012 Hz, THz). Some of the unit's most common uses are in the description of sine waves and musical tones , particularly those used in radio - and audio-related applications. It is also used to describe the speeds at which computers and other electronics are driven
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International Telecommunications Union
The INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION (ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH UNION (French: Union Télégraphique Internationale)), is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies . The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum , promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits , works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards
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Meter
The METRE (international spelling ) or METER (American spelling ) (from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in the International System of Units (SI). The SI unit symbol is M. The metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299 792 458 seconds . The metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole . In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a prototype metre bar (the actual bar used was changed in 1889). In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a certain number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86 . In 1983, the current definition was adopted. The imperial inch is defined as 0.0254 metres (2.54 centimetres or 25.4 millimetres). One metre is about  3 3⁄8 inches longer than a yard , i.e. about  39 3⁄8 inches
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Wavelength
In physics , the WAVELENGTH of a sinusoidal wave is the SPATIAL PERIOD of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency . It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase , such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves , as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda (λ). The concept can also be applied to periodic waves of non-sinusoidal shape. The term wavelength is also sometimes applied to modulated waves, and to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids
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W Band
The W BAND of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 75 to 110 GHz
GHz
, wavelength ≈2.7–4 mm . It sits above the U.S. IEEE
IEEE
-designated V band (50–75 GHz) in frequency, and overlaps the NATO designated M band (60–100 GHz). The W band is used for satellite communications, millimeter-wave radar research, military radar targeting and tracking applications, and some non-military applications. A number of passive millimeter-wave cameras for concealed weapons detection operate at 94 GHz. A frequency around 77 GHz
GHz
is used for automotive cruise control radar . The atmospheric radio window at 94 GHz
GHz
is used for imaging millimeter-wave radar applications in astronomy, defense, and security applications
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Palmer Station
The PALMER STATION is a United States
United States
research station in Antarctica located on Anvers Island , the only US station located north of the Antarctic Circle
Antarctic Circle
. Initial construction of the station finished in 1968. The station, like the other U.S. Antarctic stations, is operated by the United States
United States
Antarctic Program (USAP) of the National Science Foundation . The base is only about as distant from the equator as Fairbanks, Alaska . CONTENTS * 1 Station description * 2 Science * 3 Station supply and transport * 4 In popular culture * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links STATION DESCRIPTIONThe station is named for Nathaniel B. Palmer , usually recognized as the first American to see Antarctica. The maximum population that Palmer Station
Palmer Station
can accommodate is 46 people
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