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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Great Britain
GREAT BRITAIN, also known as BRITAIN, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe . With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles , the largest European island , and the ninth-largest island in the world . In 2011 the island had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan . The island of Ireland is situated to the west of it, and together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands , comprise the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, the island is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland , and constitutes most of its territory. Most of England , Scotland , and Wales are on the island. The term "Great Britain" often extends to include surrounding islands that form part of England, Scotland, and Wales, and is also sometimes loosely applied to the UK as a whole
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UK (other)
The UK is the United Kingdom, a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of continental Europe. UK or UK may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Arts and media * 2 Educational institutions * 3 Language * 4 Places * 5 Other uses * 6 See also ARTS AND MEDIA* U.K. (band) , a progressive rock supergroup * U.K. (album) , by U.K. * Universiteitskrant , a newspaper * UK Records , a record labelEDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS * University of Kentucky , United States * Kongo University (l’Université Kongo), DR Congo * Comenius University in Bratislava (Univerzita Komenského), Slovakia * Universidad Argentina John F
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Scots Language
SCOTS is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland
Scotland
and parts of Ulster
Ulster
(where the local dialect is known as Ulster
Ulster
Scots ). It is sometimes called LOWLAND SCOTS to distinguish it from Scottish Gaelic , the Celtic language which was historically restricted to most of the Highlands , the Hebrides
Hebrides
and Galloway
Galloway
after the 1500s. The Scots language
Scots language
developed during the Middle English period as a distinct entity. As there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing a language from a dialect , scholars and other interested parties often disagree about the linguistic, historical and social status of Scots and particularly its relationship to English. Although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects do exist, these often render contradictory results. Broad Scots is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with Scottish Standard English at the other. Scots is often regarded as one of the ancient varieties of English, yet it has its own distinct dialects. Alternatively, Scots is sometimes treated as a distinct Germanic language , in the way Norwegian is closely linked to, yet distinct from, Danish
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Ulster Scots Dialects
ULSTER SCOTS or ULSTER-SCOTS (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as ULLANS, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster
Ulster
in Ireland . It is generally considered a dialect or group of dialects of Scots, although groups such as the Ulster-Scots Language Society and Ulster-Scots Academy consider it a language in its own right, and the Ulster-Scots Agency and former Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure have used the terminology ULSTER-SCOTS LANGUAGE. Some definitions of Ulster
Ulster
Scots may also include Standard English spoken with an Ulster
Ulster
Scots accent. This is a situation like that of Lowland Scots and Scottish Standard English with words pronounced using the Ulster
Ulster
Scots phonemes closest to those of Standard English. Ulster
Ulster
Scots has been influenced by Hiberno-English , particularly Mid- Ulster
Ulster
English , and by Ulster
Ulster
Irish . As a result of the competing influences of English and Scots, varieties of Ulster
Ulster
Scots can be described as 'more English' or 'more Scots'
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Welsh Language
'Cymraeg' pronounced REGION Spoken throughout Wales, and in Chubut province of Argentina NATIVE SPEAKERS All UK speakers : 700,000+ (2012) * Wales
Wales
: 562,016 speakers (19.0% of the population of Wales), (data from 2011 Census); All skills (speaking, reading, or writing): 630,062 language users (reference) * England
England
: 110,000–150,000 (estimated) * Argentina
Argentina
: L2 , 1,500-5,000 (data not from 2011 census) (2017) LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Celtic * Insular Celtic * Brittonic * Western * WELSH EARLY FORMS Common Brittonic * Old Welsh * Middle Welsh WRITING SYSTEM Latin (Welsh alphabet ) Welsh Braille OFFICIAL STATUS OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN Wales
Wales
Recognised minority language in United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Argentina
Argentina
REGULATED BY Meri Huws , the Welsh Language Commissioner (since 1 April 2012) and the Welsh Government (_Llywodraeth Cymru_) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 cy ISO 639-2 wel (B) cym (T) ISO 639-3 cym GLOTTOLOG wels1247 LINGUASPHERE 50-ABA THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS
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Cornish Language
CORNISH (_Kernowek_) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language . The last first language native speakers died in the late 18th century . There are currently efforts being made to revive the language which is considered by some people to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage. Cornish is currently a recognised minority language of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , and has a growing number of second language speakers. Along with Welsh and Breton , Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. It was the main language of Cornwall
Cornwall
for centuries until it was pushed westwards by English, maintaining close links with its sister language Breton with which it was mutually intelligible until well into the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Cornish continued to function as a common community language in parts of Cornwall
Cornwall
until the late 18th century, and continued to be spoken in the home by some families into the 19th and possibly 20th centuries, overlapping the beginning of revival efforts
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Scottish Gaelic
SCOTTISH GAELIC or SCOTS GAELIC, sometimes also referred to simply as GAELIC (_Gàidhlig_ ( listen )), is a Celtic language native to Scotland
Scotland
. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx , developed out of Middle Irish . Most of modern Scotland
Scotland
was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland
Scotland
, 57,375 people (1.1% of the Scottish population aged over three years old) reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001. The highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides . Only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, there are revival efforts, and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
is neither an official language of the European Union nor of the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , which the British government has ratified, and the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 established a language development body, _Bòrd na Gàidhlig _. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken, mainly in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island

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Irish Language
IRISH (_Gaeilge_), also referred to as GAELIC or IRISH GAELIC, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people . Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people, and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish enjoys constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland , and is an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland . It is also among the official languages of the European Union . The public body Foras na Gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland. Irish was the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man , where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx respectively. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe
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Flag Of The United Kingdom
The NATIONAL FLAG OF THE UNITED KINGDOM is the UNION JACK, also known as the UNION FLAG. The current design of the Union Jack
Union Jack
dates from the union of Ireland and Great Britain in 1801. It consists of the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England
England
), edged in white, superimposed on the Cross of St Patrick
St Patrick
(patron saint of Ireland
Ireland
), which are superimposed on the Saltire
Saltire
of Saint Andrew
Saint Andrew
(patron saint of Scotland
Scotland
). Wales
Wales
, however, is not represented in the Union Flag by Wales's patron saint, Saint David, as at the time the flag was designed Wales
Wales
was part of the Kingdom of England
England
. The flag's standard height-to-length proportions are 1:2. The war flag variant used by the British Army
British Army
modifies the proportions to 3:5 and crops two of the red diagonals. The earlier flag of Great Britain was established in 1606 by a proclamation of King James VI and I of Scotland
Scotland
and England
England

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Royal Coat Of Arms Of The United Kingdom
The ROYAL COAT OF ARMS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, or the ROYAL ARMS for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch , currently Queen Elizabeth II . These arms are used by the Queen in her official capacity as monarch of the United Kingdom . Variants of the Royal Arms are used by other members of the British royal family ; and by the British government in connection with the administration and government of the country. In Scotland , there exists a separate version of the Royal Arms, a variant of which is used by the Scotland Office . The arms in banner form serve as basis for the monarch's official flag, known as the _Royal Standard _. In the standard variant used outside of Scotland, the shield is quartered, depicting in the first and fourth quarters the three passant guardant lions of England; in the second, the rampant lion and double tressure flory-counterflory of Scotland; and in the third, a harp for Ireland. The crest is a statant guardant lion wearing the St Edward\'s Crown , himself on another representation of that crown. The dexter supporter is a likewise crowned English lion; the sinister, a Scottish unicorn
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God Save The Queen
"GOD SAVE THE QUEEN" (alternatively "GOD SAVE THE KING", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms , their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies . The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant , but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made. It is the national anthem of the United Kingdom and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is also the royal anthem – played specifically in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia (since 1984), Canada (since 1980), Barbados and Tuvalu . In countries not previously part of the British Empire , the tune of "God Save the Queen" has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, though still generally connected with royal ceremony. In the United States , the melody is used for the patriotic song "My Country, \'Tis of Thee ". The melody is also used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein , " Oben am jungen Rhein ". Beyond its first verse, which is consistent, "God Save the Queen/King" has many historic and extant versions
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency . The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome . The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities , were the Inner Six ; Belgium , France , Italy , Luxembourg , the Netherlands and West Germany
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Crown Dependencies
The CROWN DEPENDENCIES are the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
in the Irish Sea , and the Bailiwicks of Jersey
Jersey
and Guernsey
Guernsey
in the English Channel . They are independently administered jurisdictions, and do not form part of either the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
or the British Overseas Territories
British Overseas Territories
. They are self-governing possessions of the Crown (defined uniquely in each jurisdiction). Internationally, the dependencies are considered "territories for which the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is responsible", rather than sovereign states . As a result, they are not member states of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
. However, they do have relationships with the Commonwealth, the European Union