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Ukraine
UKRAINE (/juːˈkreɪn/ (_ listen ); Ukrainian : Україна, tr. Ukraina_ ), sometimes called THE UKRAINE , is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe , bordered by Russia
Russia
to the east, northeast, and south, Belarus
Belarus
to the northwest, Poland
Poland
and Slovakia
Slovakia
to the west, Hungary
Hungary
, Romania
Romania
, and Moldova
Moldova
to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively. Ukraine
Ukraine
is currently in territorial dispute with Russia
Russia
over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia
Russia
annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine
Ukraine
and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine
Ukraine
has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), making it the largest country entirely within Europe
Europe
and the 46th largest country in the world. It has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world
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Ukrainian Language
UKRAINIAN /juːˈkreɪniən/ (_ listen ) (українська мова ukrayins'ka mova_) is an East Slavic language . It is the official state language of Ukraine
Ukraine
and first of two principal languages of Ukrainians ; it is one of the three official languages in the unrecognized state of Transnistria
Transnistria
, the other two being Romanian and Russian . Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script (see Ukrainian alphabet ). Historical linguists trace the origin of the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
to the Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
of the early medieval state of Kievan Rus\' . After the fall of the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
as well as the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia , the language developed into a form called the Ruthenian language . The Modern Ukrainian language has been in common use since the late 17th century, associated with the establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate . From 1804 until the Russian Revolution , the Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
was banned from schools in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, of which the biggest part of Ukraine
Ukraine
(Central, Eastern and Southern) was a part at the time
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Flag Of Ukraine
The STATE FLAG OF UKRAINE (Ukrainian : державний прапор України; translit. : derzhavnyi prapor Ukrainy; literally 'state flag of Ukraine') is a banner of two equally sized horizontal bands of blue and yellow ( Constitution of Ukraine , Article 20). As a national flag , the blue and yellow bicolour has been officially used since the 1848 Spring of Nations when it was hoisted over the Lviv
Lviv
Rathaus . It was officially adopted as a state flag for the first time in 1918 by the short-lived West Ukrainian People\'s Republic , and subsequently used by the Ukrainian People\'s Republic . When Ukraine
Ukraine
was part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, the flag was outlawed and before 1949 there was no official state flag until adoption of the red-blue flag of the Ukrainian SSR . People who hoisted the blue-yellow flags in the Soviet Ukraine were prosecuted as criminals. The blue and yellow flag was provisionally adopted for official ceremonies in September 1991 following Ukrainian independence, before finally officially being restored on 28 January 1992 by the parliament of Ukraine
Ukraine
. Ukraine
Ukraine
has celebrated Flag Day each year on August 23 since 2004
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Coat Of Arms Of Ukraine
The STATE COAT OF ARMS OF UKRAINE (Ukrainian : Державний Герб України _Derzhavniy Herb Ukrayini_), officially referred to as the SIGN OF PRINCELY STATE OF VOLODYMYR THE GREAT (Constitution of Ukraine , Article 20) or commonly the TRYZUB (Ukrainian : Тризуб, "trident ") is the national coat of arms of Ukraine, featuring the same colors found on the Ukrainian flag ; a blue shield with a gold trident . It appears on the Presidential standard of Ukraine. Blue colored tridents are considered to be irregular representation by the Ukrainian Heraldry Society . The small coat of arms was officially adopted on 19 February 1992, while constitutional provisions exist for establishing the great coat of arms, which is not yet officially adopted. The small coat of arms was designed by Andriy Grechylo , Olexiy Kokhan and Ivan Turetskyi. It is a representation of the seal-trident of Volodymyr the Great. The Great coat of arms which has not been adopted consists of the small coat of arms and the coat of arms of Zaporizhian Host (Constitution of Ukraine , Article 20)
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Shche Ne Vmerla Ukraina
SHCHE NE VMERLY UKRAINY NI SLAVA NI VOLYA (Ukrainian : Ще не вмерли України ні слава ні воля "THE GLORY AND THE FREEDOM OF UKRAINE HAS NOT YET PERISHED" ) is the national anthem of Ukraine . The anthem's music was officially adopted by Ukraine's Verkhovna Rada on January 15, 1992. The official lyrics were adopted on March 6, 2003 by the Law on the Anthem of Ukraine (Ukrainian : Закон про Гімн України). In the first half of the 20th century, during unsuccessful attempts to gain independence from Russia, Poland and Hungary, the song was the national anthem of the Ukrainian People\'s Republic , West Ukrainian People\'s Republic , and Carpatho- Ukraine , and was once again adopted by independent Ukraine following its secession from the Soviet Union. Before its re-adaptation a competition for a national anthem among three patriotic songs took place with one of the other songs being "For Ukraine" (_ Za Ukrainu _) by Mykola Voronyi . The lyrics constitute a slightly modified original first stanza of the patriotic poem written in 1862 by Pavlo Chubynsky , a prominent ethnographer from the region of Ukraine's capital , Kiev . In 1863, Mykhailo Verbytsky , a western Ukrainian composer and Greek-Catholic priest composed music to accompany Chubynsky's text
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Kiev
KIEV (/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ ) or KYIV (Ukrainian : Київ, _Kyjiv_ (_ listen ); Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
: Кыѥвъ, Kyjev_; Russian : Киев, _Kijev_ ) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine
Ukraine
, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River . The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974 (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press), making Kiev
Kiev
the 7th most populous city in Europe . Kiev
Kiev
is an important industrial, scientific , educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions and world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro
Kiev Metro
. The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi , one of its four legendary founders (see Name , below). During its history , Kiev, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century
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Armenian Language
The ARMENIAN LANGUAGE (classical : հայերէն; reformed : հայերեն _hayeren_) occupies an independent branch of the Indo-European language tree. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia
Armenia
and the Republic of Artsakh
Republic of Artsakh
. It has historically been spoken throughout the Armenian Highlands
Armenian Highlands
and today is widely spoken in the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written using the Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
, introduced in 405 AD by Mesrop Mashtots
Mesrop Mashtots
. Armenian has developed since the separation from Indo-European mother tongue in the third millennium BCE to at least the time of the first Armenian dynasty (the Yervanduni dynasty , founded in the 6th century BCE). Hellenistic influences during the Artashesian Dynasty (2nd century BCE to 1st century CE) led to word borrowings from Greek and Latin. As the state language of the Arshakuni dynasty of Armenia
Armenia
(1st to 5th century CE) was Parthian , a large portion of Armenian vocabulary has been formed from Parthian borrowings. The earliest extant form of written Armenian is from the 5th century and is known as Classical Armenian(5th to 11th century); translations of the Bible and other religious texts during this period led to extensive word borrowings from Hebrew and Syriac
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Azerbaijani Language
Azerbaijan Russia * Dagestan REGULATED BY Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 az ISO 639-2 aze ISO 639-3 aze – inclusive code Individual codes: azj – North Azerbaijani azb – South Azerbaijani slq – Salchuq qxq – Qashqai GLOTTOLOG azer1255 North Azeri–Salchuq sout2696 South Azeri–Qashqa'i LINGUASPHERE part of 44-AAB-a Location of Azerbaijani speakers in Transcaucasia regions where Azerbaijani is the language of the majority regions where Azerbaijani is the language of a significant minority THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Belarusian Language
BELARUSIAN (/bɛləˈruːsiən/ ; беларуская мова belaruskaya mova ) is an official language of Belarus
Belarus
, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Russia
Russia
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, and small parts in far-eastern Poland
Poland
. Before Belarus
Belarus
gained independence from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, the language was known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, transliterating the Russian name, белорусский язык, or alternatively as White Ruthenian (/ruːˈθiːniən/ ) or White Russian (with the meaning Rus' but not Russia). Following independence, it also became known as Belarusian. Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. To some extent, Russian , Ukrainian , and Belarusian are mutually intelligible . Its predecessor stage is known as Ruthenian (14th to 17th centuries), in turn descended from Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
(10th to 13th centuries). At the 1999 Belarus
Belarus
Census , the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
was declared as a "language spoken at home" by about 3,686,000 Belarusian citizens (36.7% of the population). About 6,984,000 (85.6%) of Belarusians declared it their "mother tongue"
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Bulgarian Language
Moldova
Moldova
Ukraine
Ukraine
Serbia
Serbia
Albania
Albania
Romania
Romania
REGULATED BY Institute for the Bulgarian language
Bulgarian language
at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Институт за български език при Българската академия на науките (БАН)) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 bg ISO 639-2 bul ISO 639-3 bul GLOTTOLOG bulg1262 LINGUASPHERE 53-AAA-hb < 53-AAA-h THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .BULGARIAN /bʌlˈɡɛəriən/ ( listen ), /bʊlˈ-/ (Bulgarian: български bǎlgarski, pronounced ) is an Indo-European language , a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family
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Crimean Tatar Language
Russia
Russia
* Republic of Crimea Recognised minority language in Ukraine
Ukraine
* Autonomous Republic of Crimea Romania
Romania
LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-2 crh ISO 639-3 crh GLOTTOLOG crim1257 LINGUASPHERE part of 44-AAB-a Crimean Tatar-speaking world THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Gagauz Language
Moldova * Gagauzia Recognised minority language in Ukraine LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-3 gag GLOTTOLOG gaga1249 LINGUASPHERE part of 44-AAB-a THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA .The GAGAUZ LANGUAGE (_Gagauz dili, Gagauzca_) is a Turkic language spoken by the Gagauz people of Moldova , Ukraine , Russia , and Turkey , and it is the official language of the Autonomous Region of Gagauzia in Moldova. Gagauz belongs to the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages, alongside Azeri , Turkmen , Crimean Tatar , and Turkish . Gagauz has two dialects , Bulgar Gagauzi and Maritime Gagauzi. Gagauz is a distinct language from Balkan Gagauz Turkish . Though it was established as a written language in 1957, Gagauz was not used in curriculum until 1959, when even then it was not used officially or in everyday life. Gagauz is a language coming from Balkan Gagauz Turkish; Balkan linguistics was the first to view the consequences of language contact as normal rather than corrupt. The term "Gagauz language" and identification of one's language as "Gagauz" were established concurrently with or even after the creation of national self-awareness
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems. The Greek language
Greek language
holds an important place in the history of the Western world
Western world
and Christianity
Christianity
; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes seminal works in the Western canon such as the epic poems _ Iliad
Iliad
_ and _ Odyssey
Odyssey
_
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Hungarian Language
HUNGARIAN is the official language of Hungary
Hungary
and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Outside Hungary
Hungary
it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries (especially in Romania
Romania
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia
Croatia
), and by Hungarian diaspora
Hungarian diaspora
communities worldwide. Like Finnish and Estonian , it belongs to the Uralic language family , its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty . It is the most widely-spoken of the several European languages
European languages
not part of the Indo-European family . The Hungarian name for the language is _magyar_ or _magyar nyelv_ ( listen (help ·info )). The word "Magyar" is used as an English and Hungarian word to refer to Hungarian people as an ethnic group
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