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UKRAINIANS (Ukrainian : українці, _ukrayintsi_, ) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine
Ukraine
, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe
Europe
. The Constitution of Ukraine
Ukraine
applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens. Also among historical names of the people of Ukraine, Rusyns (Ruthenians), Cossacks
Cossacks
, etc. can be found. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is _Ukrainian_ or _Ukrainian people_. Rusyns are another related group found in western Ukraine, which are frequently referred to as being an ethnic subgroup of Ukrainians. The Rusyns are also further divided into subgroups of tribes consisiting of the Hutsuls
Hutsuls
, Boykos , and Lemkos
Lemkos
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Ethnonym * 2 Geographic distribution

* 3 Origin

* 3.1 Genetics

* 4 Sub-ethnic groups

* 5 History

* 5.1 Soviet period * 5.2 Historical maps of Ukraine
Ukraine

* 6 Ethnic/National Identity

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Languages * 7.2 Religions * 7.3 Music * 7.4 Dance * 7.5 Symbols

* 8 See also

* 9 References

* 9.1 Notes * 9.2 Footnotes * 9.3 Sources * 9.4 Online sources

* 10 External links

ETHNONYM

Further information: Name
Name
of Ukraine
Ukraine

The ethnonym _Ukrainians_ became widely accepted only in the 20th century after their territory obtained distinctive statehood in 1917 . From the 14th to the 16th centuries, the Western portions of the European part of what is now known as Russia
Russia
, the territories of northern Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus
Belarus
(Western Rus\' ) were largely known as _Rus'_, continuing the tradition of Kievan Rus\' . People of these territories were usually called _Rus _ or _ Rusyns _ (known as Ruthenians in Western and Central Europe
Europe
). The Ukrainian language appeared in the 14th – 16th centuries (with some prototypical features already evident in the 11th century), but at that time, it was mostly known as Ruthenian , like its brothers. In the 16th – 17th centuries, with the establishment of the Zaporizhian Sich , the notion of Ukraine
Ukraine
as a separate country with a separate ethnic identity came into being. However, the ethnonym _Ukrainians_ and the linguonym _Ukrainian_ were used only occasionally, and the people of Ukraine
Ukraine
usually continued to call themselves and their language _Ruthenian_. After the decline of the Zaporizhian Sich and the establishment of Imperial Russian hegemony in Ukraine, Ukrainians became more widely known by the Russian regional name, _Little Russians_ (_Malorossy_), with the majority of Ukrainian élites espousing Little Russian identity . This official name (usually regarded now as colonial and humiliating) did not spread widely among the peasantry which constituted the majority of the population. Ukrainian peasants still referred to their country as Ukraine
Ukraine
(a name associated with the Zaporizhian Sich , with the Hetmanate and with their struggle against Poles, Russians, Turks and Crimean Tatars) and to themselves and their language as Ruthenians /Ruthenian . With the publication of Ivan Kotliarevsky 's _Eneyida_ (Aeneid) in 1798, which established the modern Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
, and with the subsequent Romantic revival of national traditions and culture, the ethnonym _Ukrainians_ and the notion of a Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
came into more prominence at the beginning of the 19th century and gradually replaced the words "Rusyns" and "Ruthenian(s)". In areas outside the control of the Russian/Soviet state until the mid-20th century (Western Ukraine ), Ukrainians
Ukrainians
were known by their pre-existing names for much longer. The appellation _Ukrainians_ initially came into common usage in Central Ukraine
Ukraine
and did not take hold in Galicia and Bukovyna until the latter part of the 19th century, in Transcarpathia until the 1930s, and in the Prešov Region until the late 1940s.

The modern name _ukrayintsi_ (Ukrainians) derives from _Ukrayina_ ( Ukraine
Ukraine
), a name first documented in 1187. Several scientific theories attempt to explain the etymology of the term.

According to the traditional theory (especially predominant in Russia), it derives from the Proto-Slavic root *kraj-, which has two meanings, one meaning the homeland as in "_nash rodnoi kraj_" (our homeland), and the other "edge, border", and originally had the sense of "periphery", "borderland" or "frontier region" etc.

According to some new alternative Ukrainian historians such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Vitaly Sklyarenko and other scholars, translate the term "u-kraine" as "in-land", "home-land" or "our-country". The name in this context derives from the word "u-kraina" in the sense of "domestic region", "domestic land" or "country" (inside the country).

In the last few centuries the population of Ukraine
Ukraine
experienced periods of Polonization and Russification
Russification
, but preserved a common culture and a sense of common identity.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

"Ethnographical Map of Ukraine" printed just after World War II . Land inhabited by a plurality of ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
is colored rose . Population of ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Ukraine
Ukraine
by oblast (2001)

Part of a series on

UKRAINIANS

DIASPORA

see Template: Ukrainian diaspora

SUB-NATIONAL GROUPS

Boykos · Hutsuls
Hutsuls
· Lemkos
Lemkos
· Poleszuks

CLOSELY-RELATED PEOPLES

East Slavs
East Slavs
(parent group) Rusyns · Poleszuks · Kuban
Kuban
Cossacks
Cossacks
Pannonian Rusyns

CULTURE

Architecture · Art · Cinema · Cuisine Dance · Language · Literature · Music Sport · Theater

RELIGION

Eastern Orthodox (Ukrainian ) Greek Catholicism Roman Catholicism Judaism
Judaism
(among ethnic Jews)

LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS

Ukrainian Russian · Canadian Ukrainian
Canadian Ukrainian
· Rusyn · Pannonian Rusyn Balachka · Surzhyk · Lemko

History · Rulers List of Ukrainians

* v * t * e

Main article: Ukrainian diaspora

Most ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
live in Ukraine
Ukraine
, where they make up over three-quarters of the population. The largest population of ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
outside of Ukraine
Ukraine
lives in Russia
Russia
where about 1.9 million Russian citizens consider themselves ethnic Ukrainians, while millions of others (primarily in southern Russia
Russia
and Siberia
Siberia
) have some Ukrainian ancestry. The inhabitants of the Kuban
Kuban
, for example, have vacillated among three identities, Ukrainian, Russian (an identity supported by the Soviet regime ), and " Cossack
Cossack
". Approximately 800,000 people of Ukrainian ancestry live in the Russian Far East in an area known historically as "Green Ukraine
Ukraine
".

According to some previous assumptions, an estimated number of almost 2.1 million people of Ukrainian origin live in North America (1.2 million in Canada
Canada
and 890,000 in the United States
United States
). Large numbers of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
live Brazil
Brazil
(500,000), Moldova
Moldova
(375,000), Kazakhstan (about 333,000), Argentina
Argentina
(300,000), Belarus
Belarus
(estimates from 250,000 to 300,000), Portugal
Portugal
(52,300), Romania
Romania
(estimates from 60,000 to 90,000) and Slovakia
Slovakia
(55,000). There are also Ukrainian diasporas in the UK , Australia
Australia
, Germany
Germany
, Latvia
Latvia
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, Austria
Austria
, Italy , Ireland
Ireland
, Sweden
Sweden
and the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
.

The number of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Poland
Poland
amounted to some 51,000 people in 2011 (according to Polish Census ). Since 2014, the country has experienced a large increase in immigration from Ukraine. More recent data put the number of Ukrainian workers at 1.2 – 1.3 million in 2016.

In the last decades of the 19th century, many Ukrainians
Ukrainians
were forced by the Tsarist autocracy to move to the Asian regions of Russia, while many of their counterpart Slavs
Slavs
under Austro-Hungarian rule emigrated to the New World seeking work and better economic opportunities. Today, large ethnic Ukrainian minorities reside in Russia
Russia
, Canada
Canada
, the United States
United States
, Brazil
Brazil
, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
, Italy
Italy
and Argentina
Argentina
. According to some sources, around 20 million people outside Ukraine identify as having Ukrainian ethnicity, however the official data of the respective countries calculated together doesn't show more than 10 million. Ukrainians
Ukrainians
have one of the largest diasporas in the world.

ORIGIN

Further information: Early Slavs , East Slavs
East Slavs
, Ruthenians , and Prehistoric Ukraine
Ukraine

The East Slavs
East Slavs
emerged from the undifferentiated early Slavs
Slavs
with the Slavic migrations in the 6th and 7th centuries CE. The East Slavs
East Slavs
were united in the Kievan Rus\' during the 9th to 13th centuries. East Slavic tribes cited as "proto-Ukrainian" include the Volhynians , Derevlianians , Polianians , and Siverianians and the less significant Ulychians , Tivertsians , and White Croats . The Gothic historian Jordanes and 6th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
authors named two groups that lived in the south-east of Europe: _Sclavins_ (western Slavs) and Antes . Polianians are identified as the founders of the city of Kiev
Kiev
and as playing the key role in the formation of the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
state. At the beginning of the 9th century, Varangians used the waterways of Eastern Europe
Europe
for military raids and trade, particularly the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks
Greeks
. Until the 11th century these Varangians also served as key mercenary troops for a number of princes in medieval Kiev
Kiev
, as well as for some of the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors , while others occupied key administrative positions in Kievan Rus' society, and eventually became slavicized. Besides other cultural traces, several Ukrainian names show traces of Norse origins as a result of influences from that period.

Differentiation between separate East Slavic groups began to emerge in the later medieval period, and an East Slavic dialect continuum developed within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , with the Ruthenian language emerging as a written standard. The active development of a concept of a Ukrainian nation and a Ukrainian language began with the Ukrainian National Revival in the early 19th century. In the Soviet era (1917–1991), official historiography emphasized "the cultural unity of 'proto-Ukrainians' and 'proto-Russians' in the fifth and sixth centuries".

GENETICS

The Ukrainian gene-pool includes the following Y-haplogroups, in order from the most prevalent: R1a (43%) I (23% I2a), R1b (8%), E1b1b (7%), I1 (5%), N1 (5%), J2 (4%), G (3%), T (1%). Roughly all R1a Ukrainians
Ukrainians
carry R1a -Z282; R1a-Z282 has been found significantly only in Eastern Europe. Chernivtsi Oblast
Oblast
is the only region in Ukraine where Haplogroup I2a occurs more frequently than R1a, much less frequent even in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast
Oblast
. In comparison to their northern and eastern neighbors, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
have a similar percentage of Haplogroup R1a-Z280 (43%) in their population—compare Belarusians , Russians
Russians
, and Lithuanians and (55%, 46%, and 42% respectively). Populations in Eastern Europe
Europe
which have never been Slavic do as well. Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Chernivtsi Oblast
Oblast
(near the Romanian border) have a higher percentage of I2a as opposed to R1a, which is typical of the Balkan region, but a smaller percentage than Russians
Russians
of the N1c1 lineage found among Finnic, Baltic, and Siberian populations, and also less R1b than West Slavs . In terms of haplogroup distribution, the genetic pattern of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
most closely resembles that of Belarusians. The presence of the N1c lineage is explained by a contribution of the assimilated Finno-Ugric tribes.

SUB-ETHNIC GROUPS

See also: Category:Ethnic groups in Ukraine
Ukraine
Portrait of Hutsuls , living in the Carpathian mountains, 1902

Among Ukrainians, there are several distinct subethnic groups, especially in western Ukraine: places like Zakarpattia and Halychyna . Among them the most known are Hutsuls
Hutsuls
, Volhynians , Boykos and Lemkos
Lemkos
(otherwise known as Rusyns – a derivative of Ruthenians ), each with peculiar area of settlement, dialect, dress, anthropological type and folk traditions. There are several theories about the origin of each of these groups. Some of these subethnic groups were strongly influenced by the neighboring nations, but according to all relevant indicators they belong to the mainstream of Ukrainian people.

HISTORY

Further information: History of Ukraine
Ukraine
Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks
Cossacks
to Sultan Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
of Turkey. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891. Two pikes on the left are wrapped in the traditional colors of Ukraine
Ukraine
– blue/yellow and red/black. Traditional village fair in Ukraine, 19th century.

Ukraine
Ukraine
has had a very turbulent history, a fact explained by its geographical position. In the 9th century the Varangians from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
conquered the proto-Slavic tribes on the territory of today's Ukraine, Belarus, and western Russia
Russia
and laid the groundwork for the Kievan Rus’ state. The ancestors of the Ukrainian nation such as Polianians had an important role in the development and culturalization of Kievan Rus’ state. The internecine wars between Rus' princes, which began after the death of Yaroslav the Wise , led to the political fragmentation of the state into a number of principalities. The quarreling between the princes left Kievan Rus’ vulnerable to foreign attacks, and the invasion of the Mongols in 1236. and 1240. finally destroyed the state. Another important state in the history of the Ukrainians
Ukrainians
is Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia (1199–1349).

The third important state for Ukrainians
Ukrainians
is Cossack Hetmanate
Cossack Hetmanate
. The Cossacks
Cossacks
of Zaporizhia since the late 15th century controlled the lower bends of the river Dnieper, between Russia, Poland
Poland
and the Tatars of Crimea , with the fortified capital, Zaporizhian Sich . Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky is one of the most celebrated and at the same time most controversial political figures in Ukraine's early-modern history. A brilliant military leader, his greatest achievement in the process of national revolution was the formation of the Cossack Hetmanate
Cossack Hetmanate
state of the Zaporozhian Host (1648–1782). The period of the Ruin in the late 17th century in the history of Ukraine is characterized by the disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline. During the Ruin Ukraine
Ukraine
became divided along the Dnieper River into Left-Bank Ukraine
Ukraine
and Right-Bank Ukraine
Ukraine
, and the two halves became hostile to each other. Ukrainian leaders during the period are considered to have been largely opportunists and men of little vision who could not muster broad popular support for their policies. There were roughly 4 million Ukrainians
Ukrainians
at the end of the 17th century.

At the final stages of the First World War, a powerful struggle for an independent Ukrainian state developed in the central Ukrainian territories, which, until 1917, were part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. The newly established Ukrainian government, the Central Rada , headed by Mykhailo Hrushevsky
Mykhailo Hrushevsky
, issued four universals, the Fourth of which, dated 22 January 1918, declared the independence and sovereignty of the Ukrainian National Republic (UNR) on 25 January 1918. The session of the Central Rada on 29 April 1918 ratified the Constitution of the UNR and elected Hrushevsky president.

SOVIET PERIOD

See also: Soviet famine of 1932–33 A girl in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
during the Holodomor

During 1932–1933 millions of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
were forced in starvation to death by a Soviet regime which led to a famine , known as the Holodomor . The Soviet regime remained silent about the Holodomor and provided no aid to the victims or the survivors. But news and information about what was going on reached the West and evoked public responses in Polish-ruled Western Ukraine
Ukraine
and in the Ukrainian diaspora . Since the 1990s the independent Ukrainian state, particularly under President Viktor Yushchenko , the Ukrainian mass media and academic institutions, many foreign governments, most Ukrainian scholars, and many foreign scholars have viewed and written about the Holodomor as genocide and issued official declarations and publications to that effect. Modern scholarly estimates of the direct loss of human life due to the famine range between 2.6 million (3–3.5 million) and 12 million although much higher numbers are usually published in the media and cited in political debates. As of March 2008, the parliament of Ukraine
Ukraine
and the governments of several countries, including the United States
United States
have recognized the Holodomor as an act of genocide .

HISTORICAL MAPS OF UKRAINE

The Ukrainian state has occupied a number of territories since its initial foundation. Most of these territories have been located within Eastern Europe
Europe
, however, as depicted in the maps in the gallery below, has also at times extended well into Eurasia
Eurasia
and South-Eastern Europe. At times there has also been a distinct lack of a Ukrainian state, as its territories were on a number of occasions, annexed by its more powerful neighbours.

HISTORICAL MAPS OF UKRAINE AND ITS PREDECESSORS

European territory inhabited by East Slavic tribes in 8th and 9th century.

Territory of Slavic peoples (6th century).

Historical map of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and territory of Ukraine: last 20 years of the state (1220–1240).

The Kingdom of Galicia– Volhynia or Kingdom of Halych-Volynia (1245–1349).

Historical map of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
, Rus' (Ukraine) and Samogitia until 1434.

Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth or Commonwealth of Three Nations (1658).

Historical map of Ukrainian Cossack Hetmanate
Cossack Hetmanate
and territory of Zaporozhian Cossacks
Cossacks
under rule of Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1751).

ETHNIC/NATIONAL IDENTITY

Cossack
Cossack
Mamay , one of several national personifications of Ukrainians. Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(of Dnieper lowlands) in national attires, drawing of George Narbut , 1907.

The watershed period in the development of modern Ukrainian national consciousness was the struggle for independence during the creation of the Ukrainian People\'s Republic from 1917 to 1921. A concerted effort to reverse the growth of Ukrainian national consciousness was begun by the regime of Joseph Stalin in the late 1920s, and continued with minor interruptions until the most recent times. The man-made Famine- Genocide
Genocide
of 1932–33 , the deportations of the so-called kulaks , the physical annihilation of the nationally conscious intelligentsia, and terror in general were used to destroy and subdue the Ukrainian nation. Even after Joseph Stalin's death the concept of a Russified though multiethnic Soviet people was officially promoted, according to which the non-Russian nations were relegated to second-class status. Despite this, many Ukrainians
Ukrainians
played prominent roles in the Soviet Union, including such public figures as Semyon Timoshenko .

The creation of a sovereign and independent Ukraine
Ukraine
in 1991, however, pointed to the failure of the policy of the "merging of nations" and to the enduring strength of the Ukrainian national consciousness. Today, one of the consequences of these acts is Ukrainophobia .

Biculturalism is especially present in southeastern Ukraine
Ukraine
where there is a significant Russian minority. Historical colonization of Ukraine
Ukraine
is one reason that creates confusion about national identity to this day. Many citizens of Ukraine
Ukraine
have adopted the Ukrainian national identity in the past 20 years. According to the concept of nationality dominant in Eastern Europe
Europe
the Ukrainians
Ukrainians
are people whose native language is Ukrainian (an objective criterion) whether or not they are nationally conscious, and all those who identify themselves as Ukrainian (a subjective criterion) whether or not they speak Ukrainian.

Attempts to introduce a territorial-political concept of Ukrainian nationality on the Western European model (presented by political philosopher Viacheslav Lypynsky ) were unsuccessful until the 1990s. Territorial loyalty has also been manifested by the historical national minorities living in Ukraine. The predominant belief in Ukraine
Ukraine
today is that all permanent inhabitants of Ukraine
Ukraine
are Ukrainians
Ukrainians
regardless of their ethnic origins or the language in which they communicate. The official declaration of Ukrainian sovereignty of 16 July 1990 stated that "citizens of the Republic of all nationalities constitute the people of Ukraine."

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Ukraine
Ukraine

Due to Ukraine
Ukraine
's geographical location, its culture primarily exhibits Eastern European influence as well as Central European to an extent (primarily in the western region). Over the years it has been influenced by movements such as those brought about during the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire and the Renaissance. Today, the country is somewhat culturally divided with the western regions bearing a stronger Central European influence and the eastern regions showing a significant Russian influence. A strong Christian
Christian
culture was predominant for many centuries, although Ukraine
Ukraine
was also the center of conflict between the Catholic, Orthodox and Islamic spheres of influence.

LANGUAGES

Main article: Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
See also: Russification
Russification
of Ukraine and Surzhyk Spread of Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
in the beginning of 20th century Population of those whose mother tongue is Ukrainian in Ukraine
Ukraine
(2001)

Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, _ukrayins'ka mova_, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages . It is the only official state language of Ukraine
Ukraine
. Written Ukrainian uses the Ukrainian alphabet , one of many based on the Cyrillic alphabet .

The Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
traces its origins to the Old East Slavic language of the medieval state of Kievan Rus\' . In its earlier stages it was called Ruthenian in Latin. Ukrainian, along with all other East Slavic languages, is a lineal descendant of the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
(10th–13th century).

While the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
placed officials in key Kievan Rus areas, practised forced resettlement, and even renamed urban centers to suit their own language, the Mongols did not attempt to annihilate Kievan Rus society and culture. The second onslaught began with the destruction of Kiev
Kiev
by the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in 1240. This khanate formed the western part of a great Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
that had been founded by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in the early 13th century. After the Mongol
Mongol
destruction of Kievan Rus in the 13th century, literary activity in Ukraine declined. A revival began in the late 18th century in eastern Ukraine with overlapping literary and academic phases at a time when nostalgia for the Cossack
Cossack
past and resentment at the loss of autonomy still lingered on.

The language has persisted despite several periods of bans and/or discouragement throughout centuries as it has always nevertheless maintained a sufficient base among the people of Ukraine, its folklore songs, itinerant musicians , and prominent authors.

According to the 2001 Ukrainian census, 85.2% of all people of Ukrainian ethnicity living in Ukraine
Ukraine
named Ukrainian as their mother-tongue, and 14.8% named Russian as their mother-tongue. This census does not cover Ukrainians
Ukrainians
living in other countries.

RELIGIONS

Main article: Religion in Ukraine
Ukraine
The historic Saint Sophia\'s Cathedral, Kiev
Kiev
.

Ukraine
Ukraine
was inhabited by pagan tribes until Byzantine
Byzantine
rite Christianity
Christianity
was introduced by the turn of the first millennium. It was imagined by later writers who sought to put Kievan Christianity
Christianity
on the same level of primacy as Byzantine
Byzantine
Christianity
Christianity
that Apostle Andrew himself had visited the site where the city of Kiev
Kiev
would be later built.

However it was only by the 10th century that the emerging state, the Kievan Rus\' , became influenced by the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire ; the first known conversion was by the Princess Saint Olga who came to Constantinople
Constantinople
in 945 or 957. Several years later, her grandson, Knyaz Vladimir baptised his people in the Dnieper River . This began a long history of the dominance of the Eastern Orthodoxy in Ruthenia (Ukraine ).

Ukrainians
Ukrainians
are predominantly Orthodox Christians. In the eastern and southern areas of Ukraine
Ukraine
the Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate is the most common. In central and western Ukraine
Ukraine
there is support for the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kiev
Kiev
Patriarchate headed by Patriarch Filaret and also in the western areas of Ukraine
Ukraine
and with smaller support throughout the country there is support for the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church headed by Metropolitan Mefodiy .

In the Western region known as Galicia the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church , one of the Eastern Rite Catholic churches has a strong membership. Since the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
there has been a growth of Protestant
Protestant
churches and Rodnovery , a contemporary Slavic modern pagan religion. There are also ethnic minorities that practice other religions, i.e. Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
( Islam
Islam
), and Jews
Jews
and Karaim (Judaism ).

A 2016 survey conducted by the Razumkov Centre found that majority of Ukrainian populations was adhering to Christianity
Christianity
(81.9%). Of these Christians
Christians
, 65.4% are Eastern Orthodox (25.0% of the Kiev Patriarchate and 15.0% of the Moscow Patriarchate and 1.8% of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church , and 23.2% are simply Orthodox), 7.1% are simply Christians
Christians
, 6.5% are Greek Catholics , 1.0% are Latin Rite
Latin Rite
Catholics and a further 1.9% are Protestants . As of 2016, 16.3% of the population does not claim a religious affiliation, and 1.7% adheres to other religions. According to the same survey, 70% of the population of Ukraine
Ukraine
declared to be believers, while 6.3% declared to be non-believers, and 2.7% declared to be atheists .

MUSIC

Odessa Opera House Main article: Music of Ukraine
Ukraine

Ukrainian music is considered one of the most influential high-quality music in the world and its content covers diverse and multiple component elements of the music that is found in Western and Eastern musical civilization. It also has a very strong indigenous Slavic and Christian
Christian
uniqueness whose elements were used among many neighboring nations.

Ukrainian folk oral literature, poetry, and songs (such as the dumas) are among the most distinctive ethnocultural features of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
as a people. Religious music existed in Ukraine
Ukraine
before the official adoption of Christianity
Christianity
, in the form of plainsong "obychnyi spiv" or "musica practica". Traditional Ukrainian music is easily recognized by its somewhat melancholy tone. It first became known outside of Ukraine during the 15th century as musicians from Ukraine
Ukraine
would perform before the royal courts in Poland
Poland
(latter in Russia
Russia
).

A large number of famous musicians around the world was educated or born in Ukraine, among them are famous names like Dmitry Bortniansky , Sergei Prokofiev , Myroslav Skoryk , etc. Ukraine
Ukraine
is also the rarely acknowledged musical heartland of the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, home to its first professional music academy, which opened in the mid-18th century and produced numerous early musicians and composers.

DANCE

Main article: Ukrainian dance _ Ukrainian Dance Hopak _.

Ukrainian dance refers to the traditional folk dances of the peoples of Ukraine. Today, Ukrainian dance is primarily represented by what ethnographers , folklorists and dance historians refer to as "Ukrainian Folk-Stage Dances", which are stylized representations of traditional dances and their characteristic movements that have been choreographed for concert dance performances. This stylized art form has so permeated the culture of Ukraine
Ukraine
, that very few purely traditional forms of Ukrainian dance remain today.

Ukrainian dance is often described as energetic, fast-paced, and entertaining, and along with traditional Easter eggs (_pysanky _), it is a characteristic example of Ukrainian culture recognized and appreciated throughout the world.

SYMBOLS

Main articles: Flag of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Coat of arms of Ukraine
Ukraine

*

Coat of arms of Ukraine
Ukraine
*

Flag of Ukraine
Ukraine

The national symbols of the Ukrainians
Ukrainians
are the Flag of Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Coat of arms of Ukraine
Ukraine
.

The national flag of Ukraine
Ukraine
is a blue and yellow bicolour rectangle. The colour fields are of same form and equal size. The colours of the flag represent a blue sky above yellow fields of wheat. The flag was designed for the convention of the Supreme Ruthenian Council, meeting in Lviv
Lviv
in October 1848. Its colours were based on the coat-of-arms of the Galicia- Volhynia Principality.

The Coat of arms of Ukraine
Ukraine
features the same colours found on the Ukrainian flag : a blue shield with yellow trident —the symbol of ancient Slavic tribes that once lived in Ukraine, later adopted by Ruthenian and Kievan Rus rulers.

SEE ALSO

* _ Ukraine
Ukraine
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to UKRAINIANS _.

* List of Ukrainian rulers * List of Ukrainians * Cossacks
Cossacks
* Green Ukraine
Ukraine
* Lemkos
Lemkos
* Rusyns * Ruthenians * Soviet population transfers * Ukrainian dialects
Ukrainian dialects
* Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Russia
Russia

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Statistics include non-primary ancestry reports. "Ukrainians" being of partial descent figured in numbers. * ^ see also Prudentópolis , Brazil. * ^ Ukrainian citizens may take up employment in Poland
Poland
without obtaining work permit for a maximum period of 6 months within a year on the basis of a declaration of intention to entrust a job to a foreigner. In 2016, over 1,262 mln of such declarations were issued for Ukrainian nationals. * ^ Sources differ on interpreting various statements from different branches of different governments as to whether they amount to the official recognition of the Famine
Famine
as Genocide
Genocide
by the country. For example, after the statement issued by the Latvian Sejm on March 13, 2008, the total number of countries is given as 19 (according to _Ukrainian BBC
BBC
_: "Латвія визнала Голодомор ґеноцидом"), 16 (according to _ Korrespondent _, Russian edition: "После продолжительных дебатов Сейм Латвии признал Голодомор геноцидом украинцев"), "more than 10" (according to _Korrespondent_, Ukrainian edition: "Латвія визнала Голодомор 1932–33 рр. геноцидом українців") * ^ For more information, see History of Christianity
Christianity
in Ukraine and Religion in Ukraine
Ukraine

FOOTNOTES

* ^ "People groups: Ukrainian". _Joshua Project_. Retrieved 15 March 2016. * ^ Vic Satzewich (2003). _The Ukrainian Diaspora_. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-134-43495-4 . * ^ "Number and composition population of Ukraine: population census 2001". _State Statistics Committee of Ukraine
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* ^ Kulchytsky, Stanislav (23–29 November 2002). Сколько нас погибло от Голодомора 1933 года? (in Russian). Zerkalo Nedeli . Archived from the original on 28 November 2006. Kulchytsky, Stanislav (23–29 November 2002). Скільки нас загинуло під Голодомору 1933 року? . _ZERKALO NEDELI _ (IN UKRAINIAN). ARCHIVED FROM THE ORIGINAL ON 1 FEBRUARY 2003. * ^ Rosefielde, Steven. "Excess Mortality in the Soviet Union: A Reconsideration of the Demographic Consequences of Forced Industrialization, 1929–1949." Soviet Studies 35 (July 1983): 385–409 * ^ Peter Finn, Aftermath of a Soviet Famine, _The Washington Post _, April 27, 2008, "There are no exact figures on how many died. Modern historians place the number between 2.5 million and 3.5 million. Yushchenko and others have said at least 10 million were killed." * ^ "Ukrainian National Republic". Encyclopediaofukraine.com. 1993. Retrieved 15 March 2016. * ^ "Famine- Genocide
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SOURCES

* Wilson, Andrew (2002). _The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation_ (2nd ed.). New Haven, Connecticut : Yale University Press . ISBN 0-300-09309-8 . * Magocsi, Paul R. (1996). _A History of Ukraine_. Toronto
Toronto
: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press . ISBN 0-300-09309-8 .

ONLINE SOURCES

* Vasyl Balushok, _"How Rusyns Became Ukrainians"_, Zerkalo Nedeli (_the Mirror Weekly_), July 2005. Available in Russian and in Ukrainian. * Vasyl Balushok, _"When was the Ukrainian nation born?"_, Zerkalo Nedeli (_the Mirror Weekly_), April 23 – May 6, 2005. Available in Russian and in Ukrainian. * Dmytro Kyianskyi, _"We are more "Russian" then they are: history without myths and sensationalism"_, Zerkalo Nedeli (_the Mirror Weekly_), January 27 – February 2, 2001. Available in Russian and in Ukrainian. * Oleg Chirkov, _"External migration – the main reason for the presence of a non-Ukrainian ethnic population in contemporary Ukraine"_. Zerkalo Nedeli (_the Mirror Weekly_), January 26 – February 1, 2002. Available in Russian and in Ukrainian. * Halyna Lozko, _"Ukrainian ethnology. Ethnographic division of Ukraine"_ Available in Ukrainian.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Ukrainian World Congress. * Ukrainian diaspora in Canada
Canada
and USA. * Ukrainians
Ukrainians
at _Encyclopedia of Ukraine
Ukraine
_ * Races of Europe
Europe
1942–1943 * Hammond\'s Racial map of Europe, 1919 "National Alumni" 1920, vol.7 * Peoples of Europe
Europe
/ Die Voelker Europas 1914 (in German) * Ethno-Linguistic Map of Europe
Europe
Before 1914 * Linguistic Divisions of Europe
Europe
in 1914 (in German) * Ethnic Territory of the Ukrainian people in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

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