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Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(Ukrainian: українці, ukrayintsi, [ukrɑˈjinʲtsʲi]) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the seventh-largest[48] nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine
Ukraine
applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens.[49] The people of Ukraine have historically been known as " Rusyns
Rusyns
(Ruthenians)" and "Cossacks", among others. According to most dictionary definitions, a descriptive name for the "inhabitants of Ukraine" is Ukrainian or Ukrainian people.[50]

Contents

1 Ethnonym 2 Geographic distribution 3 Origin

3.1 Genetics

4 Sub-ethnic groups 5 History

5.1 Early history 5.2 Soviet period 5.3 Historical maps of Ukraine

6 Ethnic/national identity 7 Culture

7.1 Languages 7.2 Religions 7.3 Music 7.4 Dance 7.5 Symbols

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Footnotes 9.3 Sources 9.4 Online sources

10 External links

Ethnonym[edit] Further information: Name of Ukraine The ethnonym Ukrainians
Ukrainians
became widely accepted only in the 20th century after their territory obtained distinctive statehood in 1917.[citation needed] From the 14th to the 16th centuries, the Western portions of the European part of what is now known as Russia, the territories of northern Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus
Belarus
(Western Rus') were largely known as Rus', continuing the tradition of Kievan Rus'. People of these territories were usually called Rus or Rusyns
Rusyns
(known as Ruthenians
Ruthenians
in Western and Central Europe).[51][52] The Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
appeared in the 14th – 16th centuries (with some prototypical features already evident in the 11th century), but at that time, it was mostly known[citation needed] as Ruthenian, like its brothers. In the 16th – 17th centuries, with the establishment of the Zaporizhian Sich, the notion of Ukraine
Ukraine
as a separate country with a separate ethnic identity came into being.[53] However, the ethnonym Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and the linguonym Ukrainian were used only occasionally, and the people of Ukraine usually continued to call themselves and their language Ruthenian. After the decline of the Zaporizhian Sich
Zaporizhian Sich
and the establishment of Imperial Russian hegemony in Ukraine, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
became more widely known by the Russian regional name, Little Russians
Russians
(Malorossy), with the majority of Ukrainian élites espousing Little Russian identity.[54][55][56] This official name (usually regarded now[citation needed] as colonial and humiliating) did not spread widely among the peasantry which constituted the majority of the population.[57] Ukrainian peasants still referred to their country as Ukraine
Ukraine
(a name associated with the Zaporizhian Sich, with the Hetmanate and with their struggle against Poles, Russians, Turks and Crimean Tatars) and to themselves and their language as Ruthenians/Ruthenian.[55][56][need quotation to verify] With the publication of Ivan Kotliarevsky's Eneyida (Aeneid) in 1798, which established the modern Ukrainian language, and with the subsequent Romantic revival of national traditions and culture, the ethnonym Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and the notion of a Ukrainian language came into more prominence at the beginning of the 19th century and gradually replaced the words "Rusyns" and "Ruthenian(s)". In areas outside the control of the Russian/Soviet state until the mid-20th century (Western Ukraine), Ukrainians
Ukrainians
were known by their pre-existing names for much longer.[54][55][56][58] The appellation Ukrainians
Ukrainians
initially came into common usage in Central Ukraine[59][60] and did not take hold in Galicia and Bukovyna
Bukovyna
until the latter part of the 19th century, in Transcarpathia until the 1930s, and in the Prešov Region
Prešov Region
until the late 1940s.[61][62][63] The modern name ukrayintsi (Ukrainians) derives from Ukrayina (Ukraine), a name first documented in 1187.[64] Several scientific theories attempt to explain the etymology of the term. According to the traditional theory (especially predominant in Russia), it derives from the Proto-Slavic root *kraj-, which has two meanings, one meaning the homeland as in "nash rodnoi kraj" (our homeland), and the other "edge, border", and originally had the sense of "periphery", "borderland" or "frontier region" etc.[65][66][67] According to some new alternative Ukrainian historians such as Hryhoriy Pivtorak, Vitaly Sklyarenko and other scholars, translate the term "u-kraine" as "in-land", "home-land" or "our-country".[65] The name in this context derives from the word "u-kraina" in the sense of "domestic region", "domestic land" or "country" (inside the country).[68][69][70] In the last three centuries the population of Ukraine
Ukraine
experienced periods of Polonization
Polonization
and Russification, but preserved a common culture and a sense of common identity.[71][72]

Geographic distribution[edit] "Ethnographical Map of Ukraine" printed just after World War II. Land inhabited by a plurality of ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
is colored rose. Population of ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Ukraine
Ukraine
by oblast (2001) Part of a series onUkrainians Diaspora seeTemplate:Ukrainian diaspora

Sub-national groups Boikos · Hutsuls · Lemkos · Poleszuks

Closely-related peoples East Slavs
East Slavs
(parent group) Rusyns · Poleszuks · Kuban
Kuban
CossacksPannonian Rusyns

Culture Architecture · Art · Cinema · Cuisine Dance · Language · Literature · Music Sport · Theater

Religion Eastern Orthodox (Ukrainian) Greek Catholicism Roman Catholicism Judaism
Judaism
(among ethnic Jews)

Languages and dialects Ukrainian Russian · Canadian Ukrainian · Rusyn · Pannonian RusynBalachka · Surzhyk · Lemko

History · Rulers List of Ukrainiansvte Main article: Ukrainian diaspora Most ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
live in Ukraine, where they make up over three-quarters of the population. The largest population of Ukrainians outside of Ukraine
Ukraine
lives in Russia
Russia
where about 1.9 million Russian citizens identify as Ukrainian, while millions of others (primarily in southern Russia
Russia
and Siberia) have some Ukrainian ancestry.[73] The inhabitants of the Kuban, for example, have vacillated among three identities: Ukrainian, Russian (an identity supported by the Soviet regime), and "Cossack".[49] Approximately 800,000 people of Ukrainian ancestry live in the Russian Far East
Far East
in an area known historically as "Green Ukraine".[74] According to some previous assumptions, an estimated number of almost 2.4 million people of Ukrainian origin live in North America (1,359,655 in Canada
Canada
and 1,028,492 in the United States). Large numbers of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
live in Brazil
Brazil
(600,000),[nb 1] Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(338,022), Moldova
Moldova
(325,235), Argentina
Argentina
(305,000), (Germany) (272,000), Italy
Italy
(234,354), Belarus
Belarus
(225,734), Uzbekistan (124,602), the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(110,245), Spain
Spain
(90,530–100,000) and Romania
Romania
(51,703–200,000). There are also large Ukrainian communities in such countries as Latvia, Portugal, France, Australia, Paraguay, the UK, Israel, Slovakia, Kyrgyzstan, Austria, Uruguay
Uruguay
and the former Yugoslavia. Generally, the Ukrainian diaspora
Ukrainian diaspora
is present in more than one hundred and twenty countries of the world. The number of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Poland
Poland
amounted to some 51,000 people in 2011 (according to the Polish Census).[75] Since 2014, the country has experienced a large increase in immigration from Ukraine.[76][77] More recent data put the number of Ukrainian workers at 1.2[78] – 1.3 million in 2016.[79][nb 2] In the last decades of the 19th century, many Ukrainians
Ukrainians
were forced by the Tsarist autocracy
Tsarist autocracy
to move to the Asian regions of Russia, while many of their counterpart Slavs
Slavs
under Austro-Hungarian rule emigrated to the New World
New World
seeking work and better economic opportunities.[80] Today, large ethnic Ukrainian minorities reside in Russia, Canada, the United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan, Italy and Argentina.[81] According to some sources, around 20 million people outside Ukraine
Ukraine
identify as having Ukrainian ethnicity,[82][83][84] however the official data of the respective countries calculated together doesn't show more than 10 million. Ukrainians
Ukrainians
have one of the largest diasporas in the world.[citation needed]

Origin[edit] Further information: Early Slavs, East Slavs, Ruthenians, and Prehistoric Ukraine The East Slavs
East Slavs
emerged from the undifferentiated early Slavs
Slavs
in the Slavic migrations
Slavic migrations
of the 6th and 7th centuries CE. The state of Kievan Rus' united the East Slavs
East Slavs
during the 9th to 13th centuries. East Slavic tribes cited[by whom?] as "proto-Ukrainian" include the Volhynians, Derevlianians, Polianians, and Siverianians and the less significant Ulychians, Tivertsians, and White Croats.[85] The Gothic historian Jordanes
Jordanes
and 6th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
authors named two groups that lived in the south-east of Europe: Sclavins (western Slavs) and Antes. Polianians are identified as the founders of the city of Kiev
Kiev
and as playing the key role in the formation of the Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
state.[86] At the beginning of the 9th century, Varangians
Varangians
used the waterways of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
for military raids and trade, particularly the trade route from the Varangians
Varangians
to the Greeks. Until the 11th century these Varangians
Varangians
also served as key mercenary troops for a number of princes in medieval Kiev, as well as for some of the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors, while others occupied key administrative positions in Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
society, and eventually became slavicized.[87][88] Besides other cultural traces, several Ukrainian names show traces of Norse origins as a result of influences from that period.[89][90] Differentiation between separate East Slavic groups began to emerge in the later medieval period, and an East Slavic dialect continuum developed within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the Ruthenian language
Ruthenian language
emerging as a written standard. The active development of a concept of a Ukrainian nation and a Ukrainian language began with the Ukrainian National Revival in the early 19th century. In the Soviet era (1917–1991), official historiography emphasized "the cultural unity of 'proto-Ukrainians' and 'proto-Russians' in the fifth and sixth centuries".[91]

Genetics[edit] The Ukrainian gene-pool includes the following Y-haplogroups, in order from the most prevalent:[92]

R1a
R1a
(43%) I (23% I2a) R1b
R1b
(8%) E1b1b
E1b1b
(7%) I1 (5%) N1 (5%) J2 (4%) G (3%) T (1%) Roughly all R1a
R1a
Ukrainians
Ukrainians
carry R1a-Z282; R1a-Z282 has been found significantly only in Eastern Europe.[93] Chernivtsi Oblast is the only region in Ukraine
Ukraine
where Haplogroup
Haplogroup
I2a occurs more frequently than R1a, much less frequent even in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast.[94] In comparison to their northern and eastern neighbors, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
have a similar percentage of Haplogroup R1a-Z280 (43%) in their population—compare Belarusians, Russians, and Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and (55%, 46%, and 42% respectively). Populations in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
which have never been Slavic do as well. Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Chernivtsi Oblast (near the Romanian border) have a higher percentage of I2a as opposed to R1a, which is typical of the Balkan region, but a smaller percentage than Russians
Russians
of the N1c1 lineage found among Finnic, Baltic, and Siberian populations, and also less R1b
R1b
than West Slavs.[95][96][97] In terms of haplogroup distribution, the genetic pattern of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
most closely resembles that of Belarusians. The presence of the N1c lineage is explained by a contribution of the assimilated Finno-Ugric tribes.[98]

Sub-ethnic groups[edit] See also: Category:Ethnic groups in Ukraine Portrait of Hutsuls, living in the Carpathian mountains, 1902 Among Ukrainians, there are several distinct subethnic groups, especially in western Ukraine: places like Zakarpattia and Halychyna. Among them the most known are Hutsuls,[99] Volhynians, Boykos and Lemkos
Lemkos
(otherwise known as Rusyns
Rusyns
– a derivative of Ruthenians),[100] each with peculiar area of settlement, dialect, dress, anthropological type and folk traditions. There are several theories about the origin of each of these groups. Some of these subethnic groups were strongly influenced by the neighboring nations, but according to all relevant indicators they belong to the mainstream of Ukrainian people.

History[edit] Further information: History of Ukraine Early history[edit] Kostiantyn Ostrozkyi (prince, upper left), Kyrylo Rozumovskyi (hetman, upper right), Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa
(hetman, lower left), Ivan Paskevich (serene prince, field marshal, lower right) Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks
Cossacks
to Sultan Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
of Turkey. Painted by Ilya Repin
Ilya Repin
from 1880 to 1891. Two pikes on the left are wrapped in the traditional colors of Ukraine
Ukraine
– blue/yellow and red/black. Ukraine
Ukraine
has had a very turbulent history, a fact explained by its geographical position. In the 9th century the Varangians
Varangians
from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
conquered the proto-Slavic tribes on the territory of today's Ukraine, Belarus, and western Russia
Russia
and laid the groundwork for the Kievan Rus’
Kievan Rus’
state. The ancestors of the Ukrainian nation such as Polianians had an important role in the development and culturalization of Kievan Rus’
Kievan Rus’
state. The internecine wars between Rus' princes, which began after the death of Yaroslav the Wise,[101] led to the political fragmentation of the state into a number of principalities. The quarreling between the princes left Kievan Rus’
Kievan Rus’
vulnerable to foreign attacks, and the invasion of the Mongols in 1236. and 1240. finally destroyed the state. Another important state in the history of the Ukrainians
Ukrainians
is Kingdom of Galicia– Volhynia
Volhynia
(1199–1349).[102][103] The third important state for Ukrainians
Ukrainians
is Cossack
Cossack
Hetmanate. The Cossacks
Cossacks
of Zaporizhia since the late 15th century controlled the lower bends of the river Dnieper, between Russia, Poland
Poland
and the Tatars of Crimea, with the fortified capital, Zaporizhian Sich. Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky
Bohdan Khmelnytsky
is one of the most celebrated and at the same time most controversial political figures in Ukraine's early-modern history. A brilliant military leader, his greatest achievement in the process of national revolution was the formation of the Cossack Hetmanate state of the Zaporozhian Host (1648–1782). The period of the Ruin in the late 17th century in the history of Ukraine
Ukraine
is characterized by the disintegration of Ukrainian statehood and general decline. During the Ruin Ukraine
Ukraine
became divided along the Dnieper River into Left-Bank Ukraine
Ukraine
and Right-Bank Ukraine, and the two-halves became hostile to each other. Ukrainian leaders during the period are considered to have been largely opportunists and men of little vision who could not muster broad popular support for their policies.[104] There were roughly 4 million Ukrainians
Ukrainians
at the end of the 17th century.[105] At the final stages of the First World War, a powerful struggle for an independent Ukrainian state developed in the central Ukrainian territories, which, until 1917, were part of the Russian Empire. The newly established Ukrainian government, the Central Rada, headed by Mykhailo Hrushevsky, issued four universals, the Fourth of which, dated 22 January 1918, declared the independence and sovereignty of the Ukrainian National Republic
Ukrainian National Republic
(UNR) on 25 January 1918. The session of the Central Rada
Central Rada
on 29 April 1918 ratified the Constitution of the UNR and elected Hrushevsky president.[71]

Soviet period[edit] See also: Executed Renaissance
Executed Renaissance
and Ukrainization § Early 1930s (reversal of Ukrainization policies) A girl in Kharkiv
Kharkiv
during the Holodomor During 1932–1933 millions of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
were starved to death by a Soviet regime which led to a famine, known as the Holodomor.[106] The Soviet regime remained silent about the Holodomor
Holodomor
and provided no aid to the victims or the survivors. But news and information about what was going on reached the West and evoked public responses in Polish-ruled Western Ukraine
Ukraine
and in the Ukrainian diaspora. Since the 1990s the independent Ukrainian state, particularly under President Viktor Yushchenko, the Ukrainian mass media and academic institutions, many foreign governments, most Ukrainian scholars, and many foreign scholars have viewed and written about the Holodomor
Holodomor
as genocide and issued official declarations and publications to that effect. Modern scholarly estimates of the direct loss of human life due to the famine range between 2.6 million[107][108] (3–3.5 million)[109] and 12 million[110] although much higher numbers are usually published in the media and cited in political debates.[111] As of March 2008, the parliament of Ukraine
Ukraine
and the governments of several countries, including the United States
United States
have recognized the Holodomor
Holodomor
as an act of genocide.[nb 3]

Historical maps of Ukraine[edit] The Ukrainian state has occupied a number of territories since its initial foundation. Most of these territories have been located within Eastern Europe, however, as depicted in the maps in the gallery below, has also at times extended well into Eurasia
Eurasia
and South-Eastern Europe. At times there has also been a distinct lack of a Ukrainian state, as its territories were on a number of occasions, annexed by its more powerful neighbours.

Historical maps of Ukraine
Ukraine
and its predecessors

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Territory of Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
(6th century).

European territory inhabited by East Slavic tribes in 8th and 9th century.

Historical map of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and territory of Ukraine: last 20 years of the state (1220–1240).

The Kingdom of Galicia– Volhynia
Volhynia
or Kingdom of Halych-Volynia (1245–1349).

Historical map of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Rus' (Ukraine) and Samogitia until 1434.

Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth
or Commonwealth of Three Nations (1658).

Historical map of Ukrainian Cossack Hetmanate
Cossack Hetmanate
and territory of Zaporozhian Cossacks
Cossacks
under rule of Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(1751).

Ethnic/national identity[edit] Cossack
Cossack
Mamay, one of several national personifications of Ukrainians. Portrait of Ukrainian woman in national dress, 1860. The watershed period in the development of modern Ukrainian national consciousness was the struggle for independence during the creation of the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
from 1917 to 1921.[112] A concerted effort to reverse the growth of Ukrainian national consciousness was begun by the regime of Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
in the late 1920s, and continued with minor interruptions until the most recent times. The man-made Famine- Genocide
Genocide
of 1932–33, the deportations of the so-called kulaks, the physical annihilation of the nationally conscious intelligentsia, and terror in general were used to destroy and subdue the Ukrainian nation.[113] Even after Joseph Stalin's death the concept of a Russified though multiethnic Soviet people was officially promoted, according to which the non-Russian nations were relegated to second-class status. Despite this, many Ukrainians
Ukrainians
played prominent roles in the Soviet Union, including such public figures as Semyon Timoshenko. The creation of a sovereign and independent Ukraine
Ukraine
in 1991, however, pointed to the failure of the policy of the "merging of nations" and to the enduring strength of the Ukrainian national consciousness. Today, one of the consequences of these acts is Ukrainophobia.[114] Biculturalism is especially present in southeastern Ukraine
Ukraine
where there is a significant Russian minority. Historical colonization of Ukraine
Ukraine
is one reason that creates confusion about national identity to this day.[115] Many citizens of Ukraine
Ukraine
have adopted the Ukrainian national identity in the past 20 years. According to the concept of nationality dominant in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
the Ukrainians
Ukrainians
are people whose native language is Ukrainian (an objective criterion) whether or not they are nationally conscious, and all those who identify themselves as Ukrainian (a subjective criterion) whether or not they speak Ukrainian.[116] Attempts to introduce a territorial-political concept of Ukrainian nationality on the Western European model (presented by political philosopher Viacheslav Lypynsky) were unsuccessful until the 1990s. Territorial loyalty has also been manifested by the historical national minorities living in Ukraine. The official declaration of Ukrainian sovereignty of 16 July 1990 stated that "citizens of the Republic of all nationalities constitute the people of Ukraine."[117][118]

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Ukraine Ukrainian traditional clothes Due to Ukraine's geographical location, its culture primarily exhibits Eastern European influence as well as Central European to an extent (primarily in the western region). Over the years it has been influenced by movements such as those brought about during the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire and the Renaissance. Today, the country is somewhat culturally divided with the western regions bearing a stronger Central European influence and the eastern regions showing a significant Russian influence. A strong Christian culture was predominant for many centuries, although Ukraine
Ukraine
was also the center of conflict between the Catholic, Orthodox and Islamic spheres of influence.

Languages[edit] Main article: Ukrainian language See also: Ivan Kotliarevsky, Russification
Russification
of Ukraine, and Surzhyk Spread of Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
in the beginning of 20th century Population of those whose mother tongue is Ukrainian in Ukraine (2001) Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayins'ka mova, [ukraˈjinʲsʲka ˈmɔʋa]) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. It is the only official state language of Ukraine. Written Ukrainian uses the Ukrainian alphabet, one of many based on the Cyrillic alphabet. The Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
traces its origins to the Old East Slavic language of the medieval state of Kievan Rus'. In its earlier stages it was called Ruthenian in Latin. Ukrainian, along with all other East Slavic languages, is a lineal descendant of the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
(10th–13th century).[119] While the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
placed officials in key Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
areas, practised forced resettlement, and even renamed urban centers to suit their own language, the Mongols did not attempt to annihilate Kievan Rus society and culture. The second onslaught began with the destruction of Kiev
Kiev
by the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in 1240. This khanate formed the western part of a great Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
that had been founded by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in the early 13th century. After the Mongol
Mongol
destruction of Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
in the 13th century, literary activity in Ukraine declined. A revival began in the late 18th century in eastern Ukraine with overlapping literary and academic phases at a time when nostalgia for the Cossack
Cossack
past and resentment at the loss of autonomy still lingered on. The language has persisted despite several periods of bans and/or discouragement throughout centuries as it has always nevertheless maintained a sufficient base among the people of Ukraine, its folklore songs, itinerant musicians, and prominent authors. According to the 2001 Ukrainian census, 67.5% of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(citizens of Ukraine) and 85.2% of ethnic Ukrainians
Ukrainians
named Ukrainian as their mother-tongue, and 14.8% named Russian as their mother-tongue.[120] This census does not cover Ukrainians living in other countries.[121]

Religions[edit] Main article: Religion in Ukraine The historic Saint Sophia's Cathedral, Kiev. Ukraine
Ukraine
was inhabited by pagan tribes until Byzantine
Byzantine
rite Christianity
Christianity
was introduced by the turn of the first millennium. It was imagined by later writers who sought to put Kievan Christianity
Christianity
on the same level of primacy as Byzantine
Byzantine
Christianity
Christianity
that Apostle Andrew himself had visited the site where the city of Kiev
Kiev
would be later built. However it was only by the 10th century that the emerging state, the Kievan Rus', became influenced by the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire; the first known conversion was by the Princess Saint Olga
Saint Olga
who came to Constantinople
Constantinople
in 945 or 957. Several years later, her grandson, Knyaz Vladimir baptised his people in the Dnieper River. This began a long history of the dominance of the Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
in Ruthenia (Ukraine). Ukrainians
Ukrainians
are predominantly Orthodox Christians. In the eastern and southern areas of Ukraine
Ukraine
the Ukrainian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
under the jurisdiction of the Moscow Patriarchate
Moscow Patriarchate
is the most common. In central and western Ukraine
Ukraine
there is support for the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kiev
Kiev
Patriarchate headed by Patriarch Filaret and also in the western areas of Ukraine
Ukraine
and with smaller support throughout the country there is support for the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church headed by Metropolitan Mefodiy.

Ukrainian Greek Catholic procession In the Western region known as Galicia the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, one of the Eastern Rite Catholic Churches
Eastern Rite Catholic Churches
has a strong membership. Since the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
there has been a growth of Protestant
Protestant
churches[nb 4] and Rodnovery, a contemporary Slavic modern pagan religion.[122] There are also ethnic minorities that practice other religions, i.e. Crimean Tatars
Crimean Tatars
(Islam), and Jews
Jews
and Karaim (Judaism). A 2016 survey conducted by the Razumkov Centre
Razumkov Centre
found that majority of Ukrainian populations was adhering to Christianity (81.9%).[47] Of these Christians, 65.4% are Eastern Orthodox (25.0% of the Kiev
Kiev
Patriarchate and 15.0% of the Moscow Patriarchate and 1.8% of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, and 23.2% are simply Orthodox), 7.1% are simply Christians, 6.5% are Greek Catholics, 1.0% are Latin Rite
Latin Rite
Catholics and a further 1.9% are Protestants. As of 2016, 16.3% of the population does not claim a religious affiliation, and 1.7% adheres to other religions.[47] According to the same survey, 70% of the population of Ukraine
Ukraine
declared to be believers, while 6.3% declared to be non-believers, and 2.7% declared to be atheists.[47]

Music[edit] Odessa Opera House Main article: Music of Ukraine Ukrainian music incorporates a diversity of external cultural influences. It also has a very strong indigenous Slavic and Christian uniqueness whose elements were used among many neighboring nations.[123][124] Ukrainian folk oral literature, poetry, and songs (such as the dumas) are among the most distinctive ethnocultural features of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
as a people. Religious music existed in Ukraine
Ukraine
before the official adoption of Christianity, in the form of plainsong "obychnyi spiv" or "musica practica". Traditional Ukrainian music is easily recognized by its somewhat melancholy tone. It first became known outside of Ukraine during the 15th century as musicians from Ukraine
Ukraine
would perform before the royal courts in Poland
Poland
(latter in Russia). A large number of famous musicians around the world was educated or born in Ukraine, among them are famous names like Dmitry Bortniansky, Sergei Prokofiev, Myroslav Skoryk, etc. Ukraine
Ukraine
is also the rarely acknowledged musical heartland of the former Russian Empire, home to its first professional music academy, which opened in the mid-18th century and produced numerous early musicians and composers.[125]

Dance[edit] Main article: Ukrainian dance Ukrainian Dance Hopak. Ukrainian dance
Ukrainian dance
refers to the traditional folk dances of the peoples of Ukraine. Today, Ukrainian dance
Ukrainian dance
is primarily represented by what ethnographers, folklorists and dance historians refer to as "Ukrainian Folk-Stage Dances", which are stylized representations of traditional dances and their characteristic movements that have been choreographed for concert dance performances. This stylized art form has so permeated the culture of Ukraine, that very few purely traditional forms of Ukrainian dance
Ukrainian dance
remain today. Ukrainian dance
Ukrainian dance
is often described as energetic, fast-paced, and entertaining, and along with traditional Easter eggs (pysanky), it is a characteristic example of Ukrainian culture recognized and appreciated throughout the world.

Symbols[edit] Main articles: Flag of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Coat of arms of Ukraine

Coat of arms of Ukraine

Flag of Ukraine

The national symbols of the Ukrainians
Ukrainians
are the Flag of Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Coat of arms of Ukraine. The national flag of Ukraine
Ukraine
is a blue and yellow bicolour rectangle. The colour fields are of same form and equal size. The colours of the flag represent a blue sky above yellow fields of wheat.[126][127][128] The flag was designed for the convention of the Supreme Ruthenian Council, meeting in Lviv in October 1848. Its colours were based on the coat-of-arms of the Galicia- Volhynia
Volhynia
Principality.[129] The Coat of arms of Ukraine
Ukraine
features the same colours found on the Ukrainian flag: a blue shield with yellow trident—the symbol of ancient Slavic tribes that once lived in Ukraine, later adopted by Ruthenian and Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
rulers.

See also[edit]

Ukraine
Ukraine
portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ukrainians.

List of Ukrainian rulers List of Ukrainians Cossacks Green Ukraine Lemkos Rusyns Ruthenians Polonization Russification
Russification
of Ukraine Soviet population transfers Ukrainian dialects Ukrainians
Ukrainians
in Russia References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ see also Prudentópolis, Brazil.

^ Ukrainian citizens may take up employment in Poland
Poland
without obtaining a work permit for a maximum period of 6 months within a year on the basis of a declaration of intention to entrust a job to a foreigner. In 2016, over 1.262 million such declarations were issued for Ukrainian nationals.[1][2]

^ Sources differ on interpreting various statements from different branches of different governments as to whether they amount to the official recognition of the Famine
Famine
as Genocide
Genocide
by the country. For example, after the statement issued by the Latvian Sejm on 13 March 2008, the total number of countries is given as 19 (according to Ukrainian BBC: "Латвія визнала Голодомор ґеноцидом"), 16 (according to Korrespondent, Russian edition: "После продолжительных дебатов Сейм Латвии признал Голодомор геноцидом украинцев"), "more than 10" (according to Korrespondent, Ukrainian edition: "Латвія визнала Голодомор 1932–33 рр. геноцидом українців")

^ For more information, see History of Christianity
Christianity
in Ukraine
Ukraine
and Religion in Ukraine

Footnotes[edit]

^ "People groups: Ukrainian". Joshua Project. Retrieved 15 March 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

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^ Russia’s Language Could Be Ticket in for Migrants A large portion of Ukrainians
Ukrainians
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Ukrainians
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Ukrainians
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Ukraine
– History of the Flag". Crwflags.com. Retrieved 15 March 2016.

Sources[edit] .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Wilson, Andrew (2002). The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation (2nd ed.). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09309-4. Magocsi, Paul R. (1996). A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. ISBN 978-0-300-09309-4.

Online sources[edit]

Vasyl Balushok, "How Rusyns
Rusyns
Became Ukrainians", Zerkalo Nedeli
Zerkalo Nedeli
(the Mirror Weekly), July 2005. Available in Russian and in Ukrainian. Vasyl Balushok, "When was the Ukrainian nation born?", Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), April 23 – May 6, 2005. Available in Russian and in Ukrainian. Dmytro Kyianskyi, "We are more "Russian" then they are: history without myths and sensationalism", Zerkalo Nedeli
Zerkalo Nedeli
(the Mirror Weekly), January 27 – February 2, 2001. Available in Russian and in Ukrainian. Oleg Chirkov, "External migration – the main reason for the presence of a non-Ukrainian ethnic population in contemporary Ukraine". Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), January 26 – February 1, 2002. Available in Russian and in Ukrainian. Halyna Lozko, "Ukrainian ethnology. Ethnographic division of Ukraine" Available in Ukrainian.

External links[edit] Ukrainian World Congress. Ukrainian diaspora
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at Encyclopedia of Ukraine Races of Europe 1942–1943 Hammond's Racial map of Europe, 1919 "National Alumni" 1920, vol.7 Peoples of Europe / Die Voelker Europas 1914 ‹See Tfd›(in German) Ethno-Linguistic Map of Europe Before 1914 Linguistic Divisions of Europe in 1914 ‹See Tfd›(in German) Ethnic Territory of the Ukrainian people in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries vteUkraine articlesHistoryChronology East Slavs Kuyaba Kievan Rus' Mongol
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