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Trichromacy
Trichromacy
Trichromacy
or trichromaticism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.[1] Organisms with trichromacy are called trichromats. The normal explanation of trichromacy is that the organism's retina contains three types of color receptors (called cone cells in vertebrates) with different absorption spectra. In actuality the number of such receptor types may be greater than three, since different types may be active at different light intensities
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Trichromate
Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO2− 4. Dichromate salts contain the dichromate anion, Cr 2O2− 7. They are oxoanions of chromium in the 6+ oxidation state . They are moderately strong oxidizing agents. In an aqueous solution, chromate and dichromate ions can be interconvertible.Contents1 Chemical properties1.1 Acid–base properties 1.2 Oxidation–reduction properties2 Applications 3 Natural occurrence and production 4 Safety 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksChemical properties[edit]potassium chromatepotassium dichromateChromates react with hydrogen peroxide giving products in which peroxide, O2− 2, replaces one or more oxygen atoms. In acid solution the unstable blue peroxo complex Chromium(VI) oxide peroxide, CrO(O2)2, is formed; it is an uncharged covalent molecule which may be extracted into ether
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Thomas Young (scientist)
Thomas Young (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was an English polymath and physician. Young made notable scientific contributions to the fields of vision, light, solid mechanics, energy, physiology, language, musical harmony, and Egyptology. He "made a number of original and insightful innovations"[1] in the decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
(specifically the Rosetta Stone) before Jean-François Champollion
Jean-François Champollion
eventually expanded on his work. He was mentioned by, among others, William Herschel, Hermann von Helmholtz, James Clerk Maxwell, and Albert Einstein
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Dog
Canis
Canis
familiaris Linnaeus, 1758[2][3]Montage showing the morphological variation of the dog.The domestic dog ( Canis
Canis
lupus familiaris or Canis
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Ferret
Mustela
Mustela
furo Linnaeus, 1758The ferret ( Mustela
Mustela
putorius furo) is the domesticated form of the European polecat, a mammal belonging to the same genus as the weasel, Mustela
Mustela
of the family Mustelidae.[1] They typically have brown, black, white, or mixed fur. They have an average length of 51 cm (20 in) including a 13 cm (5.1 in) tail, weigh about 1.5–4 pounds (0.7–2 kg), and have a natural lifespan of 7 to 10 years.[2] Ferrets are sexually dimorphic predators with males being substantially larger than females. Several other Mustelids also have the word ferret in their common names, including an endangered species, the black-footed ferret. The history of the ferret's domestication is uncertain, like that of most other domestic animals, but it is likely that ferrets have been domesticated for at least 2,500 years
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Spotted Hyena
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena,[3] is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa. It is listed as being of least concern by the IUCN
IUCN
on account of its widespread range and large numbers estimated between 27,000 and 47,000 individuals.[1] The species is, however, experiencing declines outside of protected areas due to habitat loss and poaching.[1] The species may have originated in Asia,[4] and once ranged throughout Europe
Europe
for at least one million years until the end of the Late Pleistocene.[5] The spotted hyena is the largest known member of the Hyaenidae, and is further physically distinguished from other species by its vaguely bear-like build,[6] its rounded ears,[7] its less prominent mane, its spotted pelt,[8] its more dual purposed dentition,[9] its fewer nipples[10] and the presence of a pseudo-penis in the female
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Honeybee
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax. In the early 21st century, only seven species of honey bee are recognized, with a total of 44 subspecies,[1] though historically six to eleven species are recognized. The best known honey bee is the Western honey bee
Western honey bee
which has been domesticated for honey production and crop pollination. Honey bees represent only a small fraction of the roughly 20,000 known species of bees.[2] Some other types of related bees produce and store honey, including the stingless honey bees, but only members of the genus Apis are true honey bees
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Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
(UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 100 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Flushing (physiology)
For a person to flush is to become markedly red in the face and often other areas of the skin, from various physiological conditions. Flushing is generally distinguished, despite a close physiological relation between them, from blushing, which is milder, generally restricted to the face, cheeks or ears, and generally assumed to reflect emotional stress, such as embarrassment, anger, or romantic stimulation
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Opsin
Opsins are a group proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina. Five classical groups of opsins are involved in vision, mediating the conversion of a photon of light into an electrochemical signal, the first step in the visual transduction cascade
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Responsivity
Responsivity measures the input–output gain of a detector system. In the specific case of a photodetector, responsivity measures the electrical output per optical input. The responsivity of a photodetector is usually expressed in units of either amperes or volts per watt of incident radiant power. For a system that responds linearly to its input, there is a unique responsivity. For nonlinear systems, the responsivity is the local slope. Many common photodetectors respond linearly as a function of the incident power. Responsivity is a function of the wavelength of the incident radiation and of the sensor properties, such as the bandgap of the material of which the photodetector is made
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Hermann Von Helmholtz
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields
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Biological
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological,[1] or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources. Different from totally synthesized pharmaceuticals, they include vaccines, blood, blood components, allergenics, somatic cells, gene therapies, tissues, recombinant therapeutic protein, and living cells used in cell therapy. Biologics can be composed of sugars, proteins, or nucleic acids or complex combinations of these substances, or may be living cells or tissues. They (or their precursors or components) are isolated from living sources—human, animal, plant, fungal, or microbial. Terminology surrounding biopharmaceuticals varies between groups and entities, with different terms referring to different subsets of therapeutics within the general biopharmaceutical category
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Gunnar Svaetichin (scientist)
Gunnar Svaetichin
Gunnar Svaetichin
(1915-1981) was a Swedish-Finnish-Venezuelan physiologist who, in 1956,[2] showed by examining the external layers of fish retinas that electroretinograms display particular sensitivity to three different groups of wavelengths in the areas of blue, green and red. This provided the first biological demonstration in support of the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory
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Human Eye
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Human eyes help to provide a three dimensional, moving image, normally coloured in daylight. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth
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Photosensitive Pigment
Photopsins (also known as Cone opsins) are the photoreceptor proteins found in the cone cells of the retina that are the basis of color vision. Iodopsin, the cone pigment system in chicken retina, is a close analog of the visual purple rhodopsin that is used in night vision. Iodopsin consists of the protein component and a bound chromophore, retinal.Contents1 Function 2 Types 3 History 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksFunction[edit] Opsins are Gn-x protein-coupled receptors of the retinylidene protein family
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