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Triassic
The TRIASSIC ( /traɪˈæsɪk/ ) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.902 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya . The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic Era . Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events . The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event , which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, called dinosaurs , first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic
Jurassic
Period
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Sandstone
SANDSTONE is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments . Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen\'s reaction series . Like uncemented sand , sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs
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Parts Per Million
In science and engineering , the PARTS-PER NOTATION is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities , e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction . Since these fractions are quantity-per-quantity measures, they are pure numbers with no associated units of measurement . Commonly used are PPM (parts-per-million, 10−6), PPB (parts-per-billion, 10−9), PPT (parts-per-trillion , 10−12) and PPQ (parts-per-quadrillion, 10−15). This notation is not part of the SI system and its meaning is ambiguous. CONTENTS* 1 Overview * 1.1 In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy * 2 Parts-per expressions * 3 Criticism * 3.1 Long and short scales * 3.2 Thousand
Thousand
vs. trillion * 3.3 Mass fraction vs. mole fraction vs
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Carbon Dioxide
CARBON DIOXIDE (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth\'s atmosphere as a trace gas . The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm ) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes , hot springs and geysers , and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater , rivers and lakes , ice caps , glaciers and seawater . It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas . Carbon
Carbon
dioxide is odorless at normally encountered concentrations, however, at high concentrations, it has a sharp and acidic odor
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Europe
EUROPE is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere
Eastern Hemisphere
. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia
Eurasia
. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Annum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun
Sun
. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are generally recognized: spring , summer , autumn and winter . In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below
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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom" ANTHEM: " Deutschlandlied
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Oxygen
OXYGEN is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table , a highly reactive nonmetal , and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds . By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium . At standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen , a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth\'s atmosphere . As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth\'s crust
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Mudstone
CONTENTS * 1 Siliciclastic mudstone * 2 Carbonate mudstone * 2.1 The identification of carbonate mudstone * 3 Mudstone
Mudstone
Mineralogy
Mineralogy
on Mars
Mars
* 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References SILICICLASTIC MUDSTONE Mudstone
Mudstone
formation on Lyme Regis East Beach MUDSTONE, a type of mudrock , is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds . Grain size is up to 0.0625 mm (0.0025 in) with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope. With increased pressure over time, the platey clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering. This finely bedded material that splits readily into thin layers is called shale , as distinct from mudstone
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Geologic Period
A GEOLOGIC PERIOD is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of divisions into which geologists have split the Earth\'s history . Eons and eras are larger subdivisions than periods while periods themselves may be divided into epochs and ages . The rocks formed during a period belong to a stratigraphic unit called a system . CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Correlation issues * 3 See also * 4 References STRUCTUREThe twelve currently recognised periods of the present eon – the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
– are defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy
Stratigraphy
(ICS) by reference to the stratigraphy at particular locations around the world
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Gondwana
In paleogeography , GONDWANA ( /ɡɒndˈwɑːnə/ ), also GONDWANALAND, is the name given to an ancient supercontinent . It is believed to have sutured about 600 to 530 million years ago , joining East Gondwana
Gondwana
to West Gondwana. Gondwana
Gondwana
formed prior to Pangaea , and later became part of it. Around 335 to 250 million years ago , Gondwana
Gondwana
and Laurasia
Laurasia
joined together to form the supercontinent Pangaea, which existed until approximately 215 to 175 million years ago . Gondwana
Gondwana
then separated from Laurasia
Laurasia
(the mid- Mesozoic era ) in the breakup of Pangaea, drifting farther south after the split. Gondwana
Gondwana
itself then also broke apart
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Supercontinent
In geology , a SUPERCONTINENT is the assembly of most or all of Earth 's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass. However, the definition of a supercontinent can be ambiguous. Many earth scientists use the term "supercontinent" to mean "a clustering of nearly all continents". This definition leaves room for interpretation when labeling a continental body and is easier to apply to Precambrian
Precambrian
times. Using the first definition provided here, Gondwana
Gondwana
is not considered a supercontinent, because the landmasses of Baltica
Baltica
, Laurentia and Siberia also existed at the same time but physically separate from each other. The landmass of Pangaea is the collective name describing all of these continental masses when they were most recently in proximity to one another. This would classify Pangaea as a supercontinent
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Laurasia
LAURASIA ( /lɔːˈreɪʒə/ or /lɔːˈreɪʃiə/ ) was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana ) that formed part of the Pangaea
Pangaea
supercontinent around 335 to 175 million years ago (Mya ). It separated from Gondwana 215 to 175 Mya (beginning in the late Triassic
Triassic
period ) during the breakup of Pangaea, drifting farther north after the split. The name combines the names of Laurentia , the name given to the North American craton , and Eurasia
Eurasia
. As suggested by the geologic naming, Laurasia
Laurasia
included most of the land masses which make up today's continents of the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
, chiefly Laurentia , Baltica , Siberia , Kazakhstania , and the North China and East China cratons
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Red Bed
RED BEDS (or REDBEDS) are sedimentary rocks , which typically consist of sandstone , siltstone , and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides . Frequently, these red-colored sedimentary strata locally contain thin beds of conglomerate , marl , limestone , or some combination of these sedimentary rocks. The ferric oxides, which are responsible for the red color of red beds, typically occur as a coating on the grains of sediments comprising red beds. Classic examples of red beds are the Permian
Permian
and Triassic
Triassic
strata of the western United States and the Devonian
Devonian
Old Red Sandstone
Sandstone
facies of Europe
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Friedrich August Von Alberti
FRIEDRICH AUGUST VON ALBERTI (September 4, 1795 – September 12, 1878) was a German geologist whose ground-breaking 1834 publication recognized the unity of the three characteristic strata that compose the sedimentary deposits of the Triassic
Triassic
period in Northern Europe
Northern Europe
. From the fossils contained in the three distinct layers— of red bed sandstones, capped by chalk ( Muschelkalk
Muschelkalk
), followed by black shales— that are found throughout Germany
Germany
and Northwest Europe, and are called the 'Trias' (Latin trias meaning triad), Alberti detected that they formed a single stratigraphic formation ; today it would be termed a system . He identified the Triassic
Triassic
as bearing a unique fossil fauna, bounded by the Permian extinction below and by another extinction above
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