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Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
Tetrahydrocannabivarin
(THCV, THV) is a homologue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) having a propyl (3-carbon) side chain instead of a pentyl (5-carbon) group on the molecule, which makes it produce very different effects from THC.[1] This terpeno-phenolic compound is found naturally in Cannabis, sometimes in significant amounts. The psychoactive effects of THCV in Cannabis
Cannabis
preparations are not well characterized. At lower doses, THCV may act as a CB1 antagonist
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Route Of Administration
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.[1] Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is
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Decarboxylation
Decarboxylation
Decarboxylation
is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2). Usually, decarboxylation refers to a reaction of carboxylic acids, removing a carbon atom from a carbon chain. The reverse process, which is the first chemical step in photosynthesis, is called carboxylation, the addition of CO2 to a compound. Enzymes that catalyze decarboxylations are called decarboxylases or, the more formal term, carboxy-lyases (EC number 4.1.1).Contents1 In organic chemistry1.1 Hydrodecarboxylation2 In biochemistry 3 Case studies 4 ReferencesIn organic chemistry[edit] The term "decarboxylation" literally means removal of a carboxyl group (-COOH) and its replacement with a hydrogen atom. The term relates the state of the reactant and product
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Nepal
Nepal
Nepal
(/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[12] Nepali: नेपाल  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl),[13] is a landlocked country in South Asia
South Asia
located in the Himalaya. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[2][14] It borders China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan
Bhutan
is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim
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Afghanistan
Coordinates: 33°N 65°E / 33°N 65°E / 33; 65Islamic Republic of Afghanistanد افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت‬ (Pashto) Da Afġānistān Islāmī Jumhoryat جمهوری اسلامی افغانستان‬ (Dari) Jomhūrīyyeh Eslāmīyyeh AfġānestānFlagCoat of armsMotto: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله‬ "Lā ʾilāha ʾillā llāh, Muhammadun rasūlu llāh" "There is no God but Allah; Muhammad
Muhammad
is the messenger of Allah. (Shahada)Anthem: Millī Surūd ملي سرود‬ (English: "National Anthem")Capital and larg
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by
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Oral Administration
Oral administration
Oral administration
is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os (P.O.) is sometimes used as an abbreviation for medication to be taken orally. Many medications are taken orally because they are intended to have a systemic effect, reaching different parts of the body via the bloodstream, for example.[1]Contents1 Terminology 2 Scope 3 Facilitating methods 4 See also 5 ReferencesTerminology[edit] "Per os" (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions. P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram
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Murinae
Abditomys Abeomelomys Aethomys Anisomys Anonymomys †Antemus †Anthracomys Apodemus Apomys Archboldomys Arvicanthis Baiyankamys Bandicota Batomys †Beremendimys Berylmys Bullimus Bunomys †Canariomys Carpomys †Castillomys †Castromys †Chardinomys Chiromyscus Chiropodomys Chiruromys Chrotomys Coccymys Colomys Conilurus †Coryphomys Crateromys Crossomys Cremnomys Crunomys Dacnomys Dasymys Dephomys Desmomys †Dilatomys Diomys Diplothrix Echiothrix Eropeplus †Euryotomys Golunda Grammomys Hadromys Haeromys Hapalomys Heimyscus †Hooijeromys †Huaxiamys †Huerzelerimys Hybomys Hydromys Hylomyscus Hyomys Hyorhinomys Kadarsanomys †Karnimata Komodomys †Kritimys Lamottemys Leggadina Lemniscomys Lenomys Lenothrix Leopoldamys Leporillus Leptomys Limnomys Lorentzimys Macruromys Madromys Malacomys Mallomys †Malpaisomys Mammelomys Margaretamys Mastacomys Mastomys Maxomys Melasmothrix Melomys Mesembriomys Micalaemys Microhydromys Micromys †Mikrotia Millardia Mirzamys Muriculus M
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Geranyl Pyrophosphate
Geranyl pyrophosphate
Geranyl pyrophosphate
(GPP), also known as geranyl diphosphate (GDP), is an intermediate in the HMG-CoA reductase pathway
HMG-CoA reductase pathway
used by organisms in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, cholesterol, terpenes and terpenoids.[1] Isopentenyl pyrophosphate
Isopentenyl pyrophosphate
(IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) are condensed by geranyl pyrophosphate synthase (dimethylallyltranstransferase) to produce geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and pyrophosphate
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GW Pharmaceuticals
GW Pharmaceuticals is a British biopharmaceutical company known for its multiple sclerosis treatment product nabiximols (brand name, Sativex). Sativex is the first natural cannabis plant derivative to gain market approval in any country.[4] Another cannabis-based product, Epidiolex, for treatment of epilepsy, underwent phase 3 clinical trials in 2015.[5][6]Contents1 History1.1 Background1.1.1 HortaPharm2 Marketed products2.1 Sativex3 Products in development3.1 Epidiolex4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Background[edit] Doctors Geoffrey Guy and Brian Whittle founded GW Pharmaceuticals in 1998
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Stereoisomer
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.[1][2] This contrasts with structural isomers, which share the same molecular formula, but the bond connections or their order differs. By definition, molecules that are stereoisomers of each other represent the same structural isomer.Contents1 Enantiomers 2 Diastereomers2.1 Cis–trans and E-Z isomerism3 Conformers 4 Anomers 5 Atropisomers 6 More definitions 7 Le Bel-van't Hoff rule 8 ReferencesEnantiomers[edit] Main articles: Chirality (chemistry)
Chirality (chemistry)
and Enantiomer Enantiomers, also known as optical isomers, are two stereoisomers that are related to each other by a reflection: they are mirror images of each other that are non-superimposable. Human hands are a macroscopic analog of this
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Convention On Psychotropic Substances
The Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Convention on Psychotropic Substances
of 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria
Austria
on 21 February 1971. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 did not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics,[1] since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis, coca, and opium-like effects. During the 1960s such drugs became widely available, and government authorities opposed this for numerous reasons, arguing that along with negative health effects, drug use led to lowered moral standards. The Convention, which contains import and export restrictions and other rules aimed at limiting drug use to scientific and medical purposes, came into force on 16 August 1976. As of 2013, 183 member states are Parties to the treaty
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin)
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Federal Analog Act
The Federal Analogue Act, 21 U.S.C. § 813, is a section of the United States Controlled Substances Act
Controlled Substances Act
passed in 1986 which allowed any chemical "substantially similar" to a controlled substance listed in Schedule I or II to be treated as if it were also listed in those schedules, but only if intended for human consumption. These similar substances are often called designer drugs.Contents1 Definition 2 Case law2.1 United States v. Forbes 2.2 United States v
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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