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Terpenoid
The terpenoids (/ˈtɜːrpɪnɔɪd/ TUR-pin-oyd), sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways. Most are multicyclic structures that differ from one another not only in functional groups but also in their basic carbon skeletons. These lipids can be found in all classes of living things, and are the largest group of natural products. About 60% of known natural products are terpenoids. Plant terpenoids are used extensively for their aromatic qualities and play a role in traditional herbal remedies
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Cytosol
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells. It is separated into compartments by membranes. For example, the mitochondrial matrix separates the mitochondrion into many compartments. In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is surrounded by the cell membrane and is part of the cytoplasm, which also comprises the mitochondria, plastids, and other organelles (but not their internal fluids and structures); the cell nucleus is separate. The cytosol is thus a liquid matrix around the organelles. In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or in the periplasmic space. In eukaryotes, while many metabolic pathways still occur in the cytosol, others take place within organelles. The cytosol is a complex mixture of substances dissolved in water
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Cannabinoid
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on Cannabinoid receptor">cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter Neurotransmitter release">neurotransmitter release in the brain. Ligand (biochemistry)">Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by animals), the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially)
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Diterpenoid
Diterpenes are a class of chemical compounds composed of two terpene units with the molecular formula C20H32; they may also be thought of as consisting of four isoprene units. They are biosynthesized by plants, animals and fungi via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate being a primary intermediate. Diterpenes form the basis for biologically important compounds such as retinol, retinal, and phytol
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Oxygen
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O
2
. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth's crust. Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone
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Methyl Group
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the group is often abbreviated Me. Such hydrocarbon groups occur in many organic compounds. It is a very stable group in most molecules. While the methyl group is usually part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical. The anion has eight valence electrons, the radical seven and the cation six
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Hydrocarbon
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon, and thus are group 14 hydrides
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Isoprenylation
Prenylation (also known as isoprenylation or lipidation) is the addition of hydrophobic molecules to a protein or chemical compound. It is usually assumed that prenyl groups (3-methyl-but-2-en-1-yl) facilitate attachment to cell membranes, similar to lipid anchors like the GPI anchor, though direct evidence is missing. Prenyl groups have been shown to be important for protein–protein binding through specialized prenyl-binding domains
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Cell Membrane
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the Extracellular space">outside environment (the extracellular space). It consists of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈprˌtnz/ or /ˈprti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of Amino acid">amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including Enzyme catalysis">catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication"> DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the Nucleotide sequence">nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in Protein folding">protein folding into a specific Protein structure">three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide
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Sterol
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules. They occur naturally in plants, animals, and fungi, and can be also produced by some bacteria (however likely with different functions)
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Mustard Seed
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 to 2 millimetres (0.039 to 0.079 in) in diameter and may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are an important spice in many regional foods and may come from one of three different plants: black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (B. juncea), or white mustard (B. hirta/Sinapis alba). Grinding and mixing the seeds with water, vinegar or other liquids creates the yellow condiment known as prepared mustard. An archaic name for the seed is eye of newt. Often misunderstood for an actual eye of a newt, this name has been popularly associated with witchcraft ever since it was mentioned as an ingredient to a witch's brew in Shakespeare's famous play Macbeth.

Curcuminoid
A curcuminoid is a linear diarylheptanoid, with molecules such as curcumin or derivatives of curcumin with different chemical groups that have been formed to increase solubility of curcumins and make them suitable for drug formulation. These compounds are natural phenols and produce a pronounced yellow color. Many curcumin characters are unsuitable for use as drugs by themselves. They have poor solubility in water at acidic and physiological pH, and also hydrolyze rapidly in alkaline solutions. Therefore, curcumin derivatives are synthesized to increase their solubility and hence bioavailability. Curcuminoids are soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone and ethanol, but are poorly soluble in lipids
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Ginkgo Biloba
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced /ˈɡɪŋk/), also known as the ginkgo tree or the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated, and was cultivated early in human history. It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food
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Cannabis (drug)
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant intended for medical or recreational use. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is
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Turmeric
Turmeric ( Curcuma longa) (/ˈtɜːrmərɪk/) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, and requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C (68–86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season. When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled in water for about 30–45 minutes and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep-orange-yellow powder commonly used as a coloring and flavoring agent in many Asian cuisines, especially for curries, as well as for dyeing
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