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Terpenoid
The terpenoids (/ˈtɜːrpɪnɔɪd/ TUR-pin-oyd), sometimes called isoprenoids, are a large and diverse class of naturally occurring organic chemicals similar to terpenes, derived from five-carbon isoprene units assembled and modified in thousands of ways. Most are multicyclic structures that differ from one another not only in functional groups but also in their basic carbon skeletons. These lipids can be found in all classes of living things, and are the largest group of natural products. About 60% of known natural products are terpenoids.[1] Plant
Plant
terpenoids are used extensively for their aromatic qualities and play a role in traditional herbal remedies
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Cytosol
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.[2] It is separated into compartments by membranes. For example, the mitochondrial matrix separates the mitochondrion into many compartments. In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is surrounded by the cell membrane and is part of the cytoplasm, which also comprises the mitochondria, plastids, and other organelles (but not their internal fluids and structures); the cell nucleus is separate. The cytosol is thus a liquid matrix around the organelles. In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or in the periplasmic space
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Cannabinoid
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain. Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by animals),[1] the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially)
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Diterpenoid
Diterpenes are a class of chemical compounds composed of two terpene units with the molecular formula C20H32; they may also be thought of as consisting of four isoprene units. They are biosynthesized by plants, animals and fungi via the HMG-CoA reductase pathway, with geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate being a primary intermediate. Diterpenes form the basis for biologically important compounds such as retinol, retinal, and phytol
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Methyl Group
A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3. In formulas, the group is often abbreviated Me. Such hydrocarbon groups occur in many organic compounds. It is a very stable group in most molecules. While the methyl group is usually part of a larger molecule, it can be found on its own in any of three forms: anion, cation or radical. The anion has eight valence electrons, the radical seven and the cation six. All three forms are highly reactive and rarely observed.[1]Contents1 Methyl cation, anion, and radical1.1 Methyl cation 1.2 Methyl anion 1.3 Methyl radical2 Reactivity2.1 Oxidation 2.2 Methylation 2.3 Deprotonation 2.4 Free radical reactions3 Chiral
Chiral
methyl 4 Etymology 5 See also 6 ReferencesMethyl cation, anion, and radical[edit] Methyl cation[edit] The methylium cation (CH3+) exists in the gas phase, but is otherwise not encountered
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Hydrocarbon
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon,[1]:620 and thus are group 14 hydrides
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Isoprenylation
Prenylation
Prenylation
(also known as isoprenylation or lipidation) is the addition of hydrophobic molecules to a protein or chemical compound. It is usually assumed that prenyl groups (3-methyl-but-2-en-1-yl) facilitate attachment to cell membranes, similar to lipid anchors like the GPI anchor, though direct evidence is missing. Prenyl groups have been shown to be important for protein–protein binding through specialized prenyl-binding domains
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Cell Membrane
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).[1][2] It consists of a lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane controls the movement of substances in and out of cells and organelles. In this way, it is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules.[3] In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx, and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Sterol
Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules. They occur naturally in plants, animals, and fungi, and can be also produced by some bacteria (however likely with different functions). [1] The most familiar type of animal sterol is cholesterol, which is vital to cell membrane structure, and functions as a precursor to fat-soluble vitamins and steroid hormones. Sterol
Sterol
chemical structure.Contents1 Types1.1 Phytosterols as a nutritional supplement2 Role in biochemistry 3 Chemical classification and structure 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksTypes[edit] Sterols of plants are called phytosterols and sterols of animals are called zoosterols. The most important zoosterol is cholesterol; notable phytosterols include campesterol, sitosterol, and stigmasterol
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Mustard Seed
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants. The seeds are usually about 1 to 2 millimetres (0.039 to 0.079 in) in diameter and may be colored from yellowish white to black. They are an important spice in many regional foods and may come from one of three different plants: black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (B. juncea), or white mustard (B. hirta/Sinapis alba). Grinding and mixing the seeds with water, vinegar or other liquids creates the yellow condiment known as prepared mustard. An archaic name for the seed is eye of newt
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Curcuminoid
A curcuminoid is a linear diarylheptanoid, with molecules such as curcumin or derivatives of curcumin with different chemical groups that have been formed to increase solubility of curcumins and make them suitable for drug formulation. These compounds are natural phenols and produce a pronounced yellow color. Many curcumin characters are unsuitable for use as drugs by themselves. They have poor solubility in water at acidic and physiological pH, and also hydrolyze rapidly in alkaline solutions. Therefore, curcumin derivatives are synthesized to increase their solubility and hence bioavailability.[1] Curcuminoids are soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone and ethanol,[2] but are poorly soluble in lipids. It is possible to increase curcuminoid solubility in aqueous phase with surfactants or co-surfactants.[3] Curcumin derivatives have been synthesized that could possibly be more potent than curcumin itself
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Ginkgo Biloba
Ginkgo
Ginkgo
biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko[4] (both pronounced /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/), also known as the ginkgo tree or the maidenhair tree,[5] is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct. It is found in fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China,[2] the tree is widely cultivated, and was cultivated early in human history. It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a source of food
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Cannabis (drug)
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names,[n 1] is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis
Cannabis
plant intended for medical or recreational use.[16][17][18] The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); one of 483 known compounds in the plant,[19] including at least 65 other cannabinoids.[20] Cannabis
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Turmeric
Curcurma domestica Valeton Turmeric
Turmeric
( Curcuma
Curcuma
longa) (/ˈtɜːrmərɪk/)[2] is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.[3] It is native to the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Southeast Asia, and requires temperatures between 20 and 30 °C (68–86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season. When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled in water for about 30–45 minutes and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep-orange-yellow powder[4] commonly used as a coloring and flavoring agent in many Asian cuisines, especially for curries, as well as for dyeing
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