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Taveuni
Taveuni
Taveuni
(pronounced [taweuni]) is the third-largest island in Fiji, after Viti Levu
Viti Levu
and Vanua Levu, with a total land area of 434 square kilometres (168 square miles). The cigar-shaped island, a massive shield volcano which rises from the floor of the Pacific Ocean, is situated 6.5 kilometres (4.0 miles) to the east of Vanua Levu, across the Somosomo
Somosomo
Strait. It belongs to the Vanua Levu Group of islands and is part of Fiji's Cakaudrove Province within the Northern Division. The island had a population of around 19,000, some 75 percent of them indigenous Fijians, at the 2015 census. Taveuni
Taveuni
has abundant flora and is known as the 'Garden Island of Fiji'. It is a popular tourist destination. Tourists are attracted to the excellent diving opportunities, prolific bird life, bushwalks and waterfalls
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Waterfall
A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls also occur where meltwater drops over the edge of a tabular iceberg or ice shelf.Contents1 Formation 2 Researchers 3 Types 4 Examples 5 Image gallery 6 See also 7 ReferencesFormation[edit]Formation of a waterfallWaterfalls are commonly formed in the upper course of a river in steep mountains.[1] Because of their landscape position, many waterfalls occur over bedrock fed by little contributing area, so may be ephemeral and flow only during rainstorms or significant snowmelt. The further downstream, the more perennial a waterfall can be. Waterfalls can have a wide range of widths and depths, and this diversity is part of what makes them such a charismatic and interesting natural phenomenon
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Volcanic Cone
Volcanic cones are among the simplest volcanic landforms. They are built by ejecta from a volcanic vent, piling up around the vent in the shape of a cone with a central crater. Volcanic cones are of different types, depending upon the nature and size of the fragments ejected during the eruption. Types of volcanic cones include stratocones, spatter cones, tuff cones, and cinder cones.[1][2]Contents1 Stratocone 2 Spatter cone 3 Tuff
Tuff
cones (ash cones) 4 Cinder cone 5 Rootless cones 6 ReferencesStratocone[edit] Main article: StratovolcanoOsorno volcano in Chile is an example of a well-developed stratocone.Stratocones are large cone-shaped volcanoes made up of lava flows, explosively erupted pyroclastic rocks, and igneous intrusives that are typically centered around a cylindrical vent. Unlike shield volcanoes, they are characterized by a steep profile and periodic, often alternating, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions
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Soft Coral
See textSynonymsGorgonaceaAlcyonacea, or soft corals, is an order of corals which do not produce calcium carbonate skeletons. Features[edit]A close-up of an alcyonacean showing individual polyps.Soft corals contain minute, spiny skeletal elements called sclerites, useful in species identification. Sclerites give these corals some degree of support and give their flesh a spiky, grainy texture that deters predators. In the past soft corals were thought to be unable to lay new foundations for future corals, but recent findings suggest that colonies of the leather-coral genus Sinularia
Sinularia
are able to cement sclerites and consolidate them at their base into alcyonarian spiculite,[2] thus making them reef builders. Unlike stony corals, most soft corals thrive in nutrient-rich waters with less intense light. Almost all use symbiotic photosynthesizing zooxanthella as a major energy source
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Geographic Information System
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data
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Reef
A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water. Many reefs result from abiotic processes (i.e. deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, and other natural processes), but the best known reefs are the coral reefs of tropical waters developed through biotic processes dominated by corals and calcareous algae. Artificial reefs
Artificial reefs
(e.g
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Orographic Uplift
Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain. As the air mass gains altitude it quickly cools down adiabatically, which can raise the relative humidity to 100% and create clouds and, under the right conditions, precipitation.Contents1 Effects of orographic lifting1.1 Precipitation 1.2 Rain shadowing 1.3 Leeward winds 1.4 Associated clouds2 See also 3 ReferencesEffects of orographic lifting[edit] Precipitation[edit] Precipitation induced by orographic lift occurs in many places throughout the world
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World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Trade Winds
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation
Arctic oscillation
is in its warm phase
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Montane
Montane ecosystems
Montane ecosystems
refers to any ecosystem found in mountains. These ecosystems are strongly affected by climate, which gets colder as elevation increases. They are stratified according to elevation. Dense forests are common at moderate elevations. However, as the elevation increases, the climate becomes harsher, and the plant community transitions to grasslands or tundra.Contents1 Life zones 2 Montane forests2.1 Temperate climate 2.2 Mediterranean climate 2.3 Subtropical and tropical climate3 Subalpine zone 4 Alpine grasslands and tundra 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksLife zones[edit]A stand of mountain birch at around 750 m in Trollheimen, typical of Scandinavian subalpine forestsAs elevation increases, the climate becomes cooler, due to a decrease in the greenhouse effect. The characteristic flora and fauna in the mountains tend to strongly depend on elevation, because of the change in climate
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Submontane
Foothills
Foothills
are geographically defined as gradual increase in elevation at the base of a mountain range, higher hill range or an upland area. They are a transition zone between plains and low relief hills to the adjacent topographically higher mountains, hills, and uplands.Contents1 Description 2 Examples 3 Synonyms 4 See also 5 ReferencesDescription[edit] Foothills
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Highland
The term highland or uplands is used to denote any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) tends to refer to ranges of hills,[1] typically up to 500–600 m. Highland
Highland
(or highlands) is usually reserved for ranges of low mountains.Contents1 Highlands internationally 2 Other planets 3 See also 4 ReferencesHighlands internationally[edit] Probably the most known highlands in the anglosphere are the Scottish Highlands in northern Scotland, the mountainous region north and west of the Highland
Highland
Boundary Fault. The Highland
Highland
council area is a local government area in the Scottish Highlands
Scottish Highlands
and Britain's largest local government area. Many countries have areas that are officially or unofficially referred to as highlands
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Fiefdom
A fief (/fiːf/; Latin: feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms
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Volcanic Crater
A volcanic crater is a roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity.[1] It is typically a bowl-shaped feature within which occurs a vent or vents. During volcanic eruptions, molten magma and volcanic gases rise from an underground magma chamber, through a tube-shaped conduit, until they reach the crater's vent, from where the gases escape into the atmosphere and the magma is erupted as lava. A volcanic crater can be of large dimensions, and sometimes of great depth. During certain types of explosive eruptions, a volcano's magma chamber may empty enough for an area above it to subside, forming a type of larger depression known as a caldera. Geomorphology[edit] In most volcanoes, the crater is situated at the top of a mountain formed from the erupted volcanic deposits such as lava flows and tephra. Volcanoes that terminate in such a summit crater are usually of a conical form
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Lava Flow
Lava
Lava
is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). The resulting structures after solidification and cooling are also sometimes described as lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites, though such material located below the crust is referred to by other terms. A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava
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Fijians
Fijians, are people associated with Fiji, sharing a common history and culture. People of various ethnicities and national origins are citizens of Fiji, governed by its nationality law. Fijians, officially known since 2010 as iTaukei,[7] are the major indigenous people of the Fiji
Fiji
Islands, and live in an area informally called Melanesia. Indigenous Fijians
Fijians
are believed to have arrived in Fiji
Fiji
from western Melanesia
Melanesia
approximately 3,500 years ago, though the exact origins of the Fijian people are unknown. Later they would move onward to other surrounding islands, including Rotuma, as well as blending with other (Polynesian) settlers on Tonga
Tonga
and Samoa. They are indigenous to all parts of Fiji
Fiji
except the island of Rotuma
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