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Taveuni
Taveuni
(pronounced [taweuni]) is the third-largest island in Fiji, after Viti Levu
Viti Levu
and Vanua Levu, with a total land area of 434 square kilometres (168 square miles). The cigar-shaped island, a massive shield volcano which rises from the floor of the Pacific Ocean, is situated 6.5 kilometres (4.0 miles) to the east of Vanua Levu, across the Somosomo
Somosomo
Strait. It belongs to the Vanua Levu Group of islands and is part of Fiji's Cakaudrove Province within the Northern Division. The island had a population of around 19,000, some 75 percent of them indigenous Fijians, at the 2015 census. Taveuni
Taveuni
has abundant flora and is known as the 'Garden Island of Fiji'. It is a popular tourist destination. Tourists are attracted to the excellent diving opportunities, prolific bird life, bushwalks and waterfalls. Central parts of the island receive very high rainfall rates. Being volcanic in origin Taveuni's soils have supported the island's most historically significant industry, agriculture.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Settlements 1.2 Climate

2 History

2.1 Recent

3 Flora and fauna 4 Economy 5 Language 6 Notable Taveunians 7 Cultural references 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Geography[edit]

Map of Fiji, showing Taveuni
Taveuni
(in red) to the east of Vanua Levu

Bouma Falls, 1998

Taveuni
Taveuni
is located at the northern end of the Koro Sea,[2] and is entirely the product of volcanic activity.[3] Fiji's third largest island is separated from Vanua Levu
Vanua Levu
by the Somosomo
Somosomo
Strait. The island is between 10 and 14 kilometres (6 and 9 miles) wide and 42 km (26 mi) long,[4] is the top of a dormant, elongated shield volcano which erupted from a northeast-southwest trending rift on the ocean floor. About 150 volcanic cones dot the island, including Uluigalau, Fiji's second highest peak at 1,241 metres (4,072 feet), and Des Vœux Peak, next in height at 1,195 metres (3,921 feet). There have been at least 58 volcanic eruptions since the first human settlement around 950-750 BC,[3] all of which affected the southern two-thirds of the island. Major eruptions from 300–500 AD caused abandonment of the southern areas until about 1100 AD. The latest eruption produced a lava flow at the southern tip of the island around 1550. The island's central ridge delineates the greatest volcanic activity surrounding volcanic vents.[2] Lake Tagimaucia is one of Taveuni's most famous tourist attractions.[5] It occupies a volcanic crater at an altitude of 800 metres (2,600 feet), and is the habitat of the rare tagimaucia flower. Fiji's most famous waterfalls, the Bouma Falls, are also on the island, located in the Bouma National Heritage Park. South of Vuna village and the lagoon, jet black rocks litter an area known as the South Cape where Taveuni's last volcanic eruption spilled into the sea around 500 years ago. The highlight of the region is the Matamaiqi blowhole with geysers created by trade winds crashing into the volcanic rocks.[6] About 20 minutes by foot from the town of Waiyevo is the Waitavala Waterslide. This entirely natural streambed chute plummets for about 50 metres down the lush hillside and is a favourite haunt for local children and brave tourists. In eastern Taveuni
Taveuni
the Savulevu Yavonu Waterfall
Waterfall
empties into the ocean. Tavoro Creek, Somosomo
Somosomo
Creek, Waimbula River and the islands most notable waterways. Many of Taveuni's best known attractions lie underwater though. There are three major, distinct diving areas around the island. To the north of Taveuni
Taveuni
lie in close proximity the islands of Qamea
Qamea
and Matagi with their surrounding reef systems. The Rainbow Reef
Reef
and Vuna Reef
Reef
are famous for diving and snorkeling, respectively. The Rainbow Reef, on the western side in the narrow Somosomo Strait between Taveuni
Taveuni
and Vanua Levu, is known as one of the world's premier soft coral dive areas and the soft coral capital of the world [7] The horseshoe-shaped Vuna Lagoon, near the southern end of the island, is much appreciated among divers for the opportunity to see larger pelagic and schooling fish species on the exposed southern side of the reef, whereas the sheltered western parts provide pristine soft and hard coral gardens. Migrating humpback whales pass the island in July.[8] Of interesting note is that the island of Taveuni
Taveuni
crosses the east-west antimeridian so the "north-eastern" portion of the island is located at - 179 degrees longitude and the south-western part at +179 degrees longitude. This is often an example that causes havoc to GIS software in which a polygon geometry around the perimeter of the island is incorrectly rendered and wraps around the globe. To protect Fiji's wildlife, two sanctuaries have been created on the island of Taveuni, namely the Ravilevu Nature Reserve on the east coast, and the Taveuni
Taveuni
Forest Reserve in the middle of the island. The potential to be nominated as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
contributes to the island's national significance as outlined in Fiji's Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.[9] Settlements[edit]

Wairiki Mission, 2003

The population is concentrated mostly on the more sheltered western side of the island. Taveuni
Taveuni
has eight major villages. Halfway down the west coast is the administrative centre of Waiyevo. The largest urban area, however, comprises the twin villages of Somosomo
Somosomo
and Naqara. As the traditional fiefdom of the Tui Cakau, one of Fiji's highest-ranked chiefs, Somosomo
Somosomo
is regarded as the capital of the Tovata Confederacy, while Naqara, an Indo-Fijian settlement, is the island's commercial centre. The main hospital is located at Waiyevo while a number of nursing stations and health centres are located around the island.[10] Climate[edit] The climate of Taveuni
Taveuni
and Fiji
Fiji
is tropical without temperate extremes. It has been described as typical highland.[11] Between November and April the area is prone to tropical cyclones. Rainfall rates on the island are high because the central mountains produce precipitation by orographic uplift. As much as 10 metres (33 feet) of rain falls annually on the eastern side of the island, but the western side is sheltered from the southeast trade winds by the ridge that runs the length of the island. The central ridge experiences a wet upland climate which supports montane and submontane forests. Near Mount Koroturanga, 9,970 mm of mean, annual rainfall has been recorded.[11] A 2011 study identified coastal erosion, flooding and water availability and supply as the most significant impacts of climate change on some of the villages on Taveuni.[12] History[edit]

Coastal view towards Matagi Island, 2010

In 1643, Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
became the first European to sight Taveuni. Visibility was poor and he mistook the peaks of Taveuni
Taveuni
to be separate islands. Historically, Vuna was considered to be the paramount village on Taveuni
Taveuni
when the Tui Cakau ( Ratu
Ratu
Yavala) resided there, but tribal warfare eventually established the supremacy of Somosomo. In the late 1860s, the Tongan warlord Enele Ma'afu, who had conquered the Lau Islands, was defeated by the Tui Cakau's army in a skirmish at Somosomo. Several islands that sided with Ma'afu were sold by the Tui Cakau at that time to European settlers in punishment, and their inhabitants were moved to Taveuni. The villages of Lovonivonu and Kanacea are populated by their descendants. In fact, Enele Ma'afu
Enele Ma'afu
was not defeated by the Tui Cakau's army as stated above. He was in Tonga
Tonga
at that time. In July 1862: Ma’afu went for a visit to Tonga
Tonga
with Tui Bua to seek resolution about his campaign in Fiji
Fiji
with Tongan Parliament. During his absence, Wainiqolo, one of his lieutenant waged war on Golea. Wainiqolo was shot dead on the beach at Wairiki and the Tongans were slaughtered. Wainiqolo had taken Tui Cakau prisoner when Golea was involved in an internal Cakaudrove campaign. It was an opportune time by Wainiqolo to initiate his campaign whilst Golea was involved in an internal struggle on Vanualevu. Ma’afu never forgave Wainiqolo for the act that he did and removed all land allocated to him. Historians saw this anger as confirmation that Ma’afu was not part of the Wainiqolo plot to conquer Tui Cakau while he was away in Tonga. The unprovoked attack by Wainiqolo was regarded by the Tui Cakau as cancelling his obligation to respect the right of Ma’afu to islands which had been formerly part of Cakaudrove chiefdom. Golea proceeded to resell the whole of Vanuabalavu to Europeans. On 3 February 1865, a Court of Arbitration was convened by British Consul Jones who handed down the Court's decision that Ma’afu was the lawful owner of Vanuabalavu and associated islands. Ma’afu immediately executed an affidavit the following day to the effect that Vanuabalavu and all the other lands given to him. The life of Enele Ma'afu the Tui Lau has been documented in "Summary of Key Historical Events". Na Tikina Makawa o Vuna was not defeated by Somosomo
Somosomo
as the above statement reads. In fact, historically Taveuni
Taveuni
was owned and controlled by two distinct Chieftainship, Tikina o Vuna from the south, and one on the north of Taveuni. The Tui Cakau has his land over water opposite Taveuni
Taveuni
island and the central part of Taveuni. In 1876, a 2.4 metres (7.9 feet) horse tramway was constructed on the Selia Levu estate to transport sugar cane to a mill.[citation needed] Recent[edit] The Taveuni F.C.
Taveuni F.C.
was founded in 1947. Bouma Forest Park, later renamed to Bouma National Heritage Park was established in 1990 after landowning clans became concerned by the threat of logging.[13] The reserve has expanded to cover roughly one third of the island. In January 2003, Severe Tropical Cyclone Ami
Cyclone Ami
crossed the island. In January 2008, Cyclone Gene
Cyclone Gene
caused widespread damage on the island. In March 2010, the island was hit by Severe Tropical Cyclone Tomas. The eye of the storm passed within 30 km of the island and produced a significant tidal surge and high waves.[4] Flora and fauna[edit] See also: List of birds of Fiji

A male orange dove

Nearly all plants and animals indigenous to Fiji
Fiji
are found on Taveuni, which has suffered less devastation from land clearance than other areas of Fiji. The absence of the mongoose, a major predator, has also played a part in the survival on Taveuni
Taveuni
of land crabs, the unique Fiji
Fiji
fruit bat, the Taveuni
Taveuni
silk bat, and some unique species of palm. The island is the second largest in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
to be free from the mongoose.[13] Other species found on the island include the Fiji banded iguana and both Platymantis vitiensis
Platymantis vitiensis
and P. vitianus frog species. The critically endangered Fijian monkey-faced bat
Fijian monkey-faced bat
is found only on Taveuni. It was discovered by scientists in 1977.[14] The flowering plant Balaka seemannii, which is endemic to Fiji, is found on the island. The green iguana or American iguana has been introduced to the Fijian islands. The lizard poses a threat because it has no natural enemies, can reach a high population density, eats the taro plant and because it carries Salmonella
Salmonella
bacteria which can be transferred to humans if bitten.[15] In 2013, an eradication program coordinated by the Biosecurity Authority of Fiji
Fiji
saw a bounty placed on both adult and juvenile American iguanas as well as their eggs.[16] Taveuni
Taveuni
is also home to the Taveuni
Taveuni
beetle, maroon shining parrot, Fiji
Fiji
goshawk, azure-crested flycatcher, Fiji
Fiji
white-eye, Fiji
Fiji
parrot finch, orange dove and the kula parrot, and the Australian magpie, introduced to control coconut pests, has proliferated on the island. The critically endangered red-throated lorikeet has been found here. In total, 22 regional endemic bird species have been recorded on Taveuni.[13] The total number of bird species found on the island is closer to 100.[17] Economy[edit] See also: Sugar mills in Fiji

Matei Airport, 2003

The island's agricultural output is a significant contributor to the Fijian economy.[18] Copra
Copra
has been traditionally the most important crop produced on Taveuni, and has always been the staple of the local economy. In recent times farmers have mainly shifted to growing taro, kava and other speciality crops like vanilla, along with tropical fruit and coffee. During the American Civil War
American Civil War
(1861–1865), cotton was raised on Taveuni
Taveuni
and exported to Europe. Sugarcane
Sugarcane
was also grown for a brief period. Livestock such as sheep, cattle and poultry are also raised, but animal husbandry lags behind crop production in economic importance. In recent times, tourism has become a contributor to the local economy, with about a dozen small resorts providing accommodation options for visitors and employment and business opportunities to the local population.[citation needed] Language[edit] The Taveuni
Taveuni
dialect of Fijian reflects Tongan influence. One of its most distinctive features is the replacement of the consonant 'k' by a glottal stop. The Tui Cakau is therefore known locally as the Tui Ca'au.[citation needed] Notable Taveunians[edit] Taveuni
Taveuni
notable peoples of high birth, other settler societies or ordinary Fijian (Indigenous) residents can be traced back to the era before European contact through to Deed of Cession of Fiji
Fiji
with Great Britain to Fiji
Fiji
Independence and today 2017. Taveuni
Taveuni
has 5 main key main villages which has their own Paramount Chiefs. These Chiefs are crucial in keeping their people informed of changes and updates on developments in Fiji. These are those that have helped shaped Taveuni and holding together its people together. Perhaps the best-known Taveuni
Taveuni
resident internationally was Ratu
Ratu
Sir Penaia Ganilau (1918–1993), Fiji's last Governor-General and first President, who was also Tui Cakau. The Ganilau family is a branch of the Ai Sokula clan, to which the present Tui Cakau and former Cabinet Minister Ratu Naiqama Lalabalavu also belongs. Another notable Taveunian is Fiji's previous First Lady, Adi Salaseini Kavunono, wife of President Ratu Josefa Iloilo (2000-2009). Ratu
Ratu
Jone Yavala Kubuabola served as Fiji's Minister for Finance from 2000 to 2006. He was also a former Governor of the Reserve Bank of Fiji. Ratu
Ratu
Inoke Kubuabola (younger brother of Ratu
Ratu
Jone Yavala Kubuabola) is a Fijian politician who served as Leader of the Opposition in 1999 and 2000. He became leader of the Soqosoqo ni Vakavulewa ni Taukei, or SVT, following its defeat in the 1999 election and the subsequent resignation of its leader, the defeated Prime Minister Sitiveni Rabuka, from Parliament. Kubuabola served as Fiji's High Commissioner to Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
from 2002 to 2005. In late 2005, he attempted to handle the problem of Fijian security guards, whom some accused of being mercenaries, operating illegally on the island of Bougainville. The incident embarrassed the Fijian government and threatened to strain relations between the two countries. On 4 May 2006 Kubuabola was posted to Tokyo
Tokyo
as Fiji's Ambassador to Japan
Japan
and Korea, replacing Ratu
Ratu
Tevita Momoedonu. He remained in this position until July 2009; on 24 July, he was named Minister for Foreign Affairs by the Interim Government, a position he still holds as of 2015[update]. The Kubuabola family is a branch of the Ai Sokula
Ai Sokula
clan. Isikeli Vuruna, a rugby union footballer, was born on Taveuni.[citation needed] Cultural references[edit] Both Avengers of the Reef
Reef
and Return to the Blue Lagoon
Return to the Blue Lagoon
were partially filmed on the island.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Oceania portal

List of volcanoes in Fiji

References[edit]

^ Gillespie, Rosemary G.; D. A. Clague (2009). Encyclopedia of Islands. University of California Press. p. 299. ISBN 0520256492.  ^ a b Shane Cronin (December 1999). "Volcanic Hazard And Risk Assessment For Taveuni, Fiji
Fiji
Islands" (PDF). SOPAC Technical Report 298. Massey University. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ a b Cronin, Shane J.; Vincent E. Neall (August 2000). "Impacts of volcanism on pre-European inhabitants of Taveuni, Fiji". Bulletin of Volcanology. 63 (3): 199–213. doi:10.1007/s004450000079. Retrieved 20 March 2014.  ^ a b Terry, James P; A Y Annie Lau; Samuel Etienne (2013). "Case Study:Coral Boulder Fields on Taveuni
Taveuni
Island Coasts, Fiji". Reef-Platform Coral Boulders: Evidence for High-Energy Marine Inundation Events on Tropical Coastlines. Springer. pp. 83–84. ISBN 9814451339. Retrieved 17 March 2014.  ^ Ropate Valemei (1 March 2014). "An island paradise". Fiji
Fiji
Times Online. Fiji
Fiji
Times Limited. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ Stanley,, David (2004). South Pacific. Moon Handbooks. p. 799. ISBN 1566914116. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ Jackson, Jack, ed. (2008). Dive Atlas of the World. New Holland Publishers. p. 187. ISBN 1847733174. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ Jackson, Jack (2006). Diving with Giants. New Holland Publishers. p. 127. ISBN 1845371801. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ Ganilau, Bernadette Rounds (2007). Fiji
Fiji
Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (PDF). Convention on Biological Diversity. pp. 107–112. Retrieved 28 May 2017.  ^ " Taveuni
Taveuni
Community Health Project". Commonwealth of Australia. 27 March 2003. Retrieved 22 March 2014.  ^ a b Mueller-Dombois, Dieter (1998). Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands. Springer. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0387983139. Retrieved 20 March 2014.  ^ Yakub, Naushad; Antoine De Ramon N'Yeurt; Jese R. Vatukela; Kelera O. Oli; Ame R Tuisavusavu (27 June 2012). "Rapid vulnerability and adaptation assessment of communities in Taveuni
Taveuni
& Yanuca, Cakaudrove Province, Fiji". Abstract. The University of the South Pacific. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ a b c Buckley, Ralf (2010). Conservation Tourism. CABI. p. 83. ISBN 1845937082. Retrieved 17 March 2014.  ^ "Rare bat captured on Taveuni". Fiji
Fiji
Sun. 20 June 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ Michael Field (13 November 2011). "'Aliens' invade Fiji
Fiji
isles". Stuff.co.nz. Fairfax New Zealand Limited. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ "Program Underway To Eradicate American Iguana". Press Release. Ministry of Information, National Archives & Library Services of Fiji. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014.  ^ Couzens, Dominic (2008). Top 100 Birding Sites of the World. University of California Press. p. 19. ISBN 0520259327. Retrieved 17 March 2014.  ^ Cronin, Shane J.; Mark Bebbington; Chin Lai (June 2001). "A probabilistic assessment of eruption recurrence on Taveuni
Taveuni
volcano, Fiji". Bulletin of Volcanology. 63 (4): 274–288. doi:10.1007/s004450100144. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Taveuni.

Taveuni
Taveuni
travel guide from Wikivoyage Global Volcanism Program: Taveuni
Taveuni
Smithsonian Institution - Worldwide Holocene Volcano and Eruption Somosomo
Somosomo
Hydro - Department of Energy

v t e

Islands of Fiji

Principal islands

Viti Levu Vanua Levu

Significant outliers

Conway Reef Kadavu Taveuni Rotuma

Archipelagos

Kadavu Group Lau Islands Lomaiviti Islands Mamanuca Islands Moala Islands Ringgold Isles Rotuma
Rotuma
Group Vanua Levu
Vanua Levu
Group Viti Levu
Viti Levu
Group Yasawa Islands

v t e

Vanua Levu
Vanua Levu
Group

Buca Bay Cikobia-i-Lau Kioa Laucala Matagi Namena Lala Qamea Rabi Taveuni Vanua Levu Yadua Tabu

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 249378520 ISNI: 0000 0004 0599 3048 GN

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