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Synapsid
Theropsida Seeley , 1895 SYNAPSIDS (Greek , 'fused arch'), synonymous with THEROPSIDS (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes . They are easily separated from other amniotes by having a temporal fenestra , an opening low in the skull roof behind each eye, leaving a bony arch beneath each; this accounts for their name. Primitive synapsids are usually called pelycosaurs or pelycosaur-grade synapsids; more advanced mammal-like ones, therapsids . The non-mammalian members are described as MAMMAL-LIKE REPTILES in classical systematics; they can also be called STEM MAMMALS or PROTO-MAMMALS. Synapsids evolved from basal amniotes and are one of the two major groups of the later amniotes; the other is the sauropsids , a group that includes modern reptiles and birds
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National Museum Of Natural History
The NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. , United States
United States
. With free admission and open doors 364 days a year, it is the third most visited museum in the world, the most visited natural history museum in the world, and the most visited museum (of any type) in North America. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an overall area of 1,500,000 square feet (140,000 m2) with 325,000 square feet (30,200 m2) of exhibition and public space and houses over 1,000 employees
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene . Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary . During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids , the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
Africa
near the end of the period
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Paleogene
The PALEOGENE ( /ˈpæliːədʒiːn/ or /ˈpeɪliːədʒiːn/ ; also spelled PALAEOGENE or PALæOGENE; informally LOWER TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Neogene Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic Eon. The Paleogene is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from relatively small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
that ended the preceding Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period. This period consists of the Paleocene , Eocene , and Oligocene epochs
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Animal
ANIMALS are multicellular , eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom ANIMALIA (also called METAZOA). The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the sister group to the choanoflagellates . Animals are motile , meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop , although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs : they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance . Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion
Cambrian explosion
, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates . Vertebrates have a backbone or spine (vertebral column ), and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species . They include fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals
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Harry Seeley
HARRY GOVIER SEELEY (18 February 1839 – 8 January 1909) was a British paleontologist . CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Dinosaurs * 3 References * 4 External links CAREERSeeley was born in London, the son of Richard Hovill Seeley, goldsmith, and his second wife Mary Govier. He attended classes at the Royal School of Mines , Kensington before becoming an assistant to Adam Sedgwick at the Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge, from 1859. He matriculated as a student at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge in 1863. He turned down positions both with the British Museum
British Museum
and the Geological Survey of Britain to work on his own. Late in his career he accepted a position as Professor of Geology at King\'s College, Cambridge and Bedford College (London)
Bedford College (London)
(1876)
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Synapse
In the nervous system , a SYNAPSE is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron. Santiago Ramón y Cajal proposed that neurons are not continuous throughout the body, yet still communicate with each other, an idea known as the neuron doctrine . The word "synapse" – from the Greek synapsis (συνάψις), meaning "conjunction", in turn from συνάπτεὶν (συν ("together") and ἅπτειν ("to fasten")) – was introduced in 1897 by the English neurophysiologist Charles Sherrington in Michael Foster 's Textbook of Physiology. Sherrington struggled to find a good term that emphasized a union between two separate elements, and the actual term "synapse" was suggested by the English classical scholar Arthur Woollgar Verrall , a friend of Michael Foster
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Henry Fairfield Osborn
HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN, SR. ForMemRS (August 8, 1857 – November 6, 1935) was an American geologist , paleontologist , and eugenist , and the president of the American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
for 25 years. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and career * 2 Eponyms * 3 Theories * 3.1 Dawn Man Theory * 3.2 Evolutionary views * 4 Published books * 5 References * 5.1 Works cited * 6 Further reading * 7 External links EARLY LIFE AND CAREER Osborn in 1890 Son of the prominent railroad tycoon William Henry and Virginia Reed Osborn, Henry Fairfield Osborn
Henry Fairfield Osborn
was born in Fairfield, Connecticut
Fairfield, Connecticut
, 1857. He studied at Princeton University (1873–1877), obtaining a B.A. in geology and archaeology, where he was mentored by paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope
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Pareiasaur
PAREIASAURS (meaning "cheek lizards") are an extinct group of anapsid reptiles classified in the family PAREIASAURIDAE. They were large herbivores that flourished during the Permian
Permian
period. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Evolutionary history * 3 Classification * 3.1 Associated clades * 3.2 Phylogeny * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Restoration of Bradysaurus Pareiasaurs ranged in size from 60 to 300 centimetres (2.0 to 9.8 ft) long, and may have weighed up to 600 kilograms (1,300 lb). They were stocky, with short tails, small heads, robust limbs, and broad feet. The cow-sized species Bunostegos
Bunostegos
, which lived 260 million years ago, is the earliest known example of a tetrapod with a fully erect posture as its legs were positioned directly under their bodies. Pareiasaurs were protected by bony scutes called osteoderms that were set into the skin
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Myr
The abbreviation MYR, "million years", is a unit of a quantity of 7006100000000000000♠1,000,000 (i.e. 7006100000000000000♠1×106) years, or 31.6 teraseconds . CONTENTS * 1 Usage * 2 Debate * 3 See also * 4 References USAGE Myr
Myr
is in common use where the term is often written, such as in Earth science and cosmology . Myr
Myr
is seen with mya, "million years ago". Together they make a reference system, one to a quantity, the other to a particular place in a year numbering system that is time before the present. Myr
Myr
is deprecated in geology , but in astronomy myr is standard. Where "myr" is seen in geology it is usually "Myr" (a unit of mega-years). In astronomy it is usually "MYR" (million years). DEBATEIn geology the debate of the millennia concerns the use of myr remains open concerning "the use of Myr
Myr
plus Mya" versus "using Mya only"
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Cretaceous
The CRETACEOUS ( /krᵻˈteɪʃəs/ , krə-TAY-shəs ) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period 145 million years ago (mya ) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era . The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate , resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas . These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles , ammonites and rudists , while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds , as well as flowering plants , appeared
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