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Sydney
SYDNEY (/ˈsɪdni/ ( listen )) is the state capital of New South Wales
Wales
and the most populous city in Australia
Australia
and Oceania
Oceania
. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds the world\'s largest natural harbour and sprawls about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west , Hawkesbury to the north and Macarthur to the south . Sydney
Sydney
is made up of 658 suburbs , 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions . Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As at June 2016 Sydney's estimated population was 5,005,400. The Sydney
Sydney
area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), also sometimes erroneously referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. He wrote an essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light" to the editor of The Journal of Paris , suggesting, somewhat jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Captain (Royal Navy)
CAPTAIN (CAPT) is a senior officer rank of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
. It ranks above Commander and below Commodore and has a NATO
NATO
ranking code of OF-5. The rank is equivalent to a Colonel
Colonel
in the British Army
British Army
and Royal Marines
Royal Marines
, and to a Group Captain
Group Captain
in the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
. There are similarly named equivalent ranks in the navies of many other countries. CONTENTS * 1 Seagoing captains * 2 Terminology * 3 Insignia and uniform * 4 See also * 5 References SEAGOING CAPTAINSIn the Royal Navy, the officer in command of any warship of the rank of Commander and below is informally referred to as "the Captain" on board, even though holding a junior rank, but formally is titled "the Commanding Officer" (or CO)
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Penal Colony
A PENAL COLONY is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to a correctional facility located in a remote location it is more commonly used to refer to communities of prisoners overseen by wardens or governors having absolute authority. Historically penal colonies have often been used for penal labour in an economically underdeveloped part of a state's (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than a prison farm . In practice such penal colonies may be little more than slave communities. The British , French , and other colonial empires heavily used North America, Australia and other parts of the world as penal colonies to varying degrees, sometimes under the guise of indentured servitude or similar arrangements
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Urban Sprawl
URBAN SPRAWL or SUBURBAN SPRAWL describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization . In addition to describing a particular form of urbanization, the term also relates to the social and environmental consequences associated with this development. In Continental Europe the term "peri-urbanisation " is often used to denote similar dynamics and phenomena, although the term urban sprawl is currently being used by the European Environment Agency
European Environment Agency
. There is widespread disagreement about what constitutes sprawl and how to quantify it. For example, some commentators measure sprawl only with the average number of residential units per acre in a given area
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UTC+11
UTC+11:00 is an identifier for an +11 hour time offset from UTC . This time is used in: CONTENTS* 1 As standard time (all year round) * 1.1 North Asia * 1.2 Oceania * 2 As daylight saving time (Southern Hemisphere summer) * 2.1 Oceania * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links AS STANDARD TIME (ALL YEAR ROUND)Principal cities: Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk
,
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Electorates Of The Australian States And Territories
A STATE ELECTORAL DISTRICT is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts (except Australian Capital Territory
Australian Capital Territory
and Tasmania , which have multi-member electorates using a proportional voting method) send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting. The size of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in size between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one (New South Wales , South Australia
South Australia
, Tasmania
Tasmania
, Victoria and Western Australia
Western Australia
)
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List Of Australian Capital Cities
AUSTRALIANS (/əˈstreɪljənz/ ), colloquially known as Aussies (/ɒziːz/ ), are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history , culture , and language ( Australian English ). Present-day Australians are citizens of the Commonwealth of Australia
Australia
, governed by its nationality law . The majority of Australians descend from the peoples of the British Isles . The Colony of New South Wales
Colony of New South Wales
was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet
First Fleet
, and five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states . Many early settlements were penal colonies , and transported convicts (and, later, ex-convicts) made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies
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Australian Eastern Daylight Time
The choice of whether to use daylight saving time (DST) in Australia is a matter for the individual states and territories. However, during World War I
World War I
and World War II
World War II
all states and territories had daylight saving. In 1968 Tasmania
Tasmania
became the first state since the war to practise daylight saving. In 1971, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory followed Tasmania
Tasmania
by observing daylight saving. Western Australia
Australia
and the Northern Territory did not. Queensland
Queensland
abandoned daylight saving time in 1972. Queensland
Queensland
and Western Australia
Australia
have observed daylight saving over the past 40 years from time to time on trial bases
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Lands Administrative Divisions Of Australia
LANDS ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF AUSTRALIA are the parts of Australia
Australia
which are divided into the cadastral units of counties , parishes , hundreds , and other divisions for the purposes of land ownership. Many property titles in Australia
Australia
are listed as being in the parish and county. The whole of the eastern states of Queensland
Queensland
, New South Wales , Victoria and Tasmania
Tasmania
were divided into counties and parishes in the 19th century, although the Tasmanian counties were renamed land districts in the twentieth century. Parts of South Australia (south-east) and Western Australia
Australia
(south-west) were similarly divided into counties, and there were also five counties in a small part of the Northern Territory
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Time In Australia
AUSTRALIA uses three main time zones: AUSTRALIAN WESTERN STANDARD TIME (AWST; UTC+08:00 ), AUSTRALIAN CENTRAL STANDARD TIME (ACST; UTC+09:30 ), and AUSTRALIAN EASTERN STANDARD TIME (AEST; UTC+10:00 ). Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones . Standard time was introduced in the 1890s when all of the Dominions adopted it. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time . Now, Western Australia
Australia
uses Western Standard Time; South Australia
Australia
and the Northern Territory use Central Standard Time; while New South Wales , Queensland
Queensland
, Tasmania
Tasmania
, Victoria , and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) use Eastern Standard Time
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Australian Eastern Standard Time
AUSTRALIA uses three main time zones: AUSTRALIAN WESTERN STANDARD TIME (AWST; UTC+08:00 ), AUSTRALIAN CENTRAL STANDARD TIME (ACST; UTC+09:30 ), and AUSTRALIAN EASTERN STANDARD TIME (AEST; UTC+10:00 ). Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones . Standard time was introduced in the 1890s when all of the Dominions adopted it. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time . Now, Western Australia
Australia
uses Western Standard Time; South Australia
Australia
and the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
use Central Standard Time; while New South Wales , Queensland
Queensland
, Tasmania
Tasmania
, Victoria , and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) use Eastern Standard Time
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Local Government In Australia
LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN AUSTRALIA is the third tier of government in Australia
Australia
administered by the states and territories , which in turn are beneath the federal tier . Local government is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia
Australia
and two referenda in the 1970s and 1980s to alter the Constitution relating to local government were unsuccessful. Every state government recognises local government in their respective constitutions. Unlike Canada , or the United States there is only one level of local government in each state, with no distinction such as cities and counties. The local governing body is generally referred to as a council, and the territories governed are collectively referred to as "local government areas"; however, terms such as "city" or "shire " also have a geographic interpretation. In August 2016 there were 547 local councils in Australia
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Upper Paleolithic
Pliocene
Pliocene
(before Homo ) Lower