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New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
on the
east coast East Coast may refer to: Entertainment * East Coast hip hop, a subgenre of hip hop * East Coast (ASAP Ferg song), "East Coast" (ASAP Ferg song), 2017 * East Coast (Saves the Day song), "East Coast" (Saves the Day song), 2004 * East Coast FM, a rad ...
of :Australia. It borders three other states,
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the i ...

Queensland
to the north,
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
to the south, and
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a in the southern central part of . It covers some of the most parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, and fifth-largest ...

South Australia
to the west. Its coast borders the
Coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a vert ...

Coral
and
Tasman Sea The Tasman Sea ( Māori: ''Te Tai-o-Rēhua'', ) is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas of water, various gulfs, bights, bays, and straits. Terminology * Ocean The ocean (also ...

Tasman Sea
s to the east. The
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a of containing the Australian capital city of and some surrounding s. It is located in the south-east of the country and is an within the s ...
is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered throughou ...

Sydney
, which is also Australia's most populous city. , the population of New South Wales was over 8.1 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.3 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Estimated resident population, 30 June 2017. The demonym for inhabitants of New South Wales is ''New South Welshmen''. The
Colony of New South Wales The Colony of New South Wales was a colony In , a colony is a subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the ...
was founded as a British
penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to ...
in 1788. It originally comprised more than half of the
Australian mainland Mainland Australia is the main landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region or area Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional region, shape, or planar lamina, in the plane. Surface area is its a ...
with its western boundary set at
129th meridian east The meridian 129° east of Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in South London, south-east London, England, centred east-southeast of Charing Cross and located in the Historic county of England, historic county of Kent. For administ ...
in 1825. The colony then also included the island territories of
Van Diemen's Land Van Diemen's Land was the original name of the island of Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island States and territories of Australia, state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Mainl ...
,
Lord Howe Island Lord Howe Island (; formerly Lord Howe's Island) is an irregularly crescent-shaped volcanic remnant in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, part of the Australian state of New South Wales. It lies directly east of mainland Port Ma ...
, and
Norfolk Island Norfolk Island (, ; Norfuk Norfuk ( pih, Norfuk) (increasingly spelt Norfolk) or Norf'k is the language spoken on Norfolk Island (in the Pacific Ocean) by the local residents. It is a blend of 18th-century English and Tahitian language, Ta ...
. During the 19th century, to form separate
British colonies Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administ ...
that eventually became the various
states and territories of Australia The states and territories are federated administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar ...
. However, the
Swan River Colony The Swan River Colony, also known as the Swan River Settlement, or just Swan River, was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a States and territories of Austra ...
was never administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a
federal territory A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national government. A federal territory is an area that is part of a federation but not part of any federated state A federated ...
, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the
Jervis Bay Territory The Jervis Bay Territory () is an states and territories of Australia, internal territory of Australia. It was established in 1915 from part of New South Wales, in order to enable the landlocked Australian Capital Territory (ACT) access to the ...
.


History


Aboriginal Australians

The original inhabitants of New South Wales were the
Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****Australian Aboriginal identity ...
tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intellig ...
who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The
Wodi wodi WODI (1230 Amplitude modulation, AM) is a Sports radio, sports talk formatted Broadcasting, broadcast radio station licensed to Brookneal, Virginia, serving Brookneal, Virginia, Brookneal and Altavista, Virginia, Altavista in Virginia. WODI is owned ...
people are the original custodians of the
Illawarra Illawarra is a Regions of New South Wales, region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast, New South Wales, South Coast region. It encompa ...

Illawarra
region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the
Dharawal The Dharawal, or Tharawal, people are Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before History of Australia (1788–1850), British colonisation. They include the Abori ...
language, the Wodi Wodi peoples lived across a large stretch of land which was roughly surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown,
Shoalhaven River The Shoalhaven River is a perennial river The Gangi River of Arrah, India">Arrah.html" ;"title="Gangi River of Arrah">Gangi River of Arrah, India A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) which has constant stream ...

Shoalhaven River
and
Moss Vale Moss Vale is a town in the Southern Highlands of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the ...
. The
Bundjalung people The Bundjalung people (also known as Bunjalung, Badjalang and Bandjalang) are Aboriginal Australians Aboriginal Australians are the various Indigenous peoples of the Mainland Australia, Australian mainland and many of its islands, such as Ta ...
are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. There are other Aboriginal peoples whose traditional lands are within what is now New South Wales, including the Wiradjiri, Gamilaray,
Yuin The ethnonym Yuin refers to a group of Australian Aborigines, Australian Aboriginal people from the South Coast (New South Wales), South Coast of New South Wales. All Yuin people share ancestors who spoke, as their first language, one or more of ...
,
Ngarigo The Ngarigo (also spelt Garego, Ngarego, Ngarago, Ngaragu, Ngarigu, Ngarrugu or Ngarroogoo) are an Aboriginal Australian people of southeast New South Wales, whose traditional lands also extend around the present border with Victoria (Australia), ...
,
Gweagal The Gweagal (also spelt Gwiyagal) are a clan of the Tharawal, Dharawal people of Indigenous Australians. Their descendants are traditional custodians of the southern geographic areas of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Country The Gweagal l ...
, and Ngiyampaa peoples.


1788 British settlement

In 1770 charted the unmapped eastern coast of the continent of New Holland, now Australia, and claimed the entire coastline that he had just explored as British territory without having gained the consent of the Indigenous inhabitants. Cook first named the land New Wales which was later amended to New South Wales (NSW). In January 1788
Arthur Phillip Admiral Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navy, navies, and in many navies is the highest rank. In the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general officer, ...

Arthur Phillip
arrived in Botany Bay with the
First Fleet The First Fleet was a fleet of 11 ships A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, r ...
of 11 vessels, which carried over a thousand settlers, including 736 convicts. A few days after arrival at
Botany Bay Botany Bay (: ''Kamay''), an open ic embayment, is located in , , , south of the . Its source is the of the at and the at , which flows to the east before meeting its at the , midpoint between the suburbs of and . The northern headland ...
, the fleet moved to the more suitable
Port Jackson Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour Middle Harbour (or ''Warring-Ga''), a semi–mature tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple ...

Port Jackson
, where Phillip established a settlement at the place he named
Sydney Cove Sydney Cove, officially dual-named with its original Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, i ...

Sydney Cove
(in honour of the Secretary of State, Lord Sydney) on 26 January 1788. This date later became Australia's national day,
Australia Day Australia Day is the official of . Observed annually on 26 January, it marks the 1788 landing of the at and raising of the by following days of exploration of in . In present-day Australia, celebrations aim to reflect the diverse society ...

Australia Day
. The colony was formally proclaimed by Governor Phillip on 7 February 1788 at Sydney. Phillip, as
Governor of New South Wales The governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the governor-general of Australia at the national level, the governors of the ...
, exercised nominal authority over all of Australia east of the
135th meridian east The meridian 135° east of Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in South London, south-east London, England, centred east-southeast of Charing Cross and located in the Historic county of England, historic county of Kent. For administr ...
between the latitudes of 10°37'S and 43°39'S, an area which includes modern New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria and Tasmania. Robert J. King, "Terra Australis, New Holland and New South Wales: the Treaty of Tordesillas and Australia", ''The Globe'', no.47, 1998, pp.35–55. He remained as governor until 1792. The settlement was initially planned to be a self-sufficient penal colony based on subsistence agriculture. Trade and ship building were banned in order to keep the convicts isolated. However, after the departure of governor Phillip, the colony's military officers began acquiring land and importing consumer goods obtained from visiting ships. Former convicts also farmed land granted to them and engaged in trade. Farms spread to the more fertile lands surrounding Paramatta,
Windsor Windsor may refer to: Places Australia *Windsor, New South Wales ** Municipality of Windsor, a former local government area *Windsor, Queensland, a suburb of Brisbane, Queensland **Shire of Windsor, a former local government authority around Winds ...
and
Camden Camden may refer to: People * Camden (surname), a surname of English origin * Camden Joy (born 1964), American writer * Camden Toy (born 1957), American actor Places Australia * Camden, New South Wales * Camden, Rosehill, a heritage-listed ...
, and by 1803 the colony was self-sufficient in grain. Boat building developed in order to make travel easier and exploit the marine resources of the coastal settlements. Sealing and whaling became important industries. In March 1804, several hundred exiles in the Castle Hill area (now a suburb of Sydney) conspired to seize control of the colony and to capture ships for a return to Ireland. Poorly armed, and with their leader Philip Cunningham captured, the main body of insurgents were routed in an encounter loyalists—recalling the decisive rebel defeat in Ireland in 1798—celebrated as the Second Battle of Vinegar Hill. Fifteen were killed and nine executed.
Lachlan Macquarie Lachlan Macquarie, (; gd, Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824) was a officer and colonial administrator from . Macquarie served as the fifth and last autocratic from 1810 to 1821, and had a leading role in the social, economi ...
(governor 1810–1821) commissioned the construction of roads, wharves, churches and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. A road across the
Blue MountainsBlue Mountains may refer to: Geography *Blue Mountains (New South Wales), Australia **City of Blue Mountains, a local government area west of Sydney **Blue Mountains Line, a railway line **Blue Mountains National Park **Blue Mountains walking track ...
was completed in 1815, opening the way for large scale farming and grazing in the lightly wooded pastures west of the
Great Dividing Range The Great Dividing Range, also known as the East Australian Cordillera or the Eastern Highlands, is a cordillera A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust 350px, Plates in t ...

Great Dividing Range
. In 1825 Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) became a separate colony and the western border of New South Wales was extended to the 129th meridian east (now the West Australian border). From the 1820s
squatters Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not Land ownership and tenure, own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. The United Nations estim ...
increasingly established unauthorised cattle and sheep runs beyond the official limits of the settled colony. In 1836 an annual licence was introduced in an attempt to control the pastoral industry, but booming wool prices and the high cost of land in the settled areas encouraged further squatting. The expansion of the pastoral industry led to violent episodes of conflict between settlers and traditional Aboriginal landowners, such as the
Myall Creek massacre The Myall Creek massacre involved the killing of at least twenty-eight unarmed Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before History of Australia (1788–1850), Brit ...
of 1838. By 1844 wool accounted for half of the colony's exports and by 1850 most of the eastern third of New South Wales was controlled by fewer than 2,000 pastoralists. The transportation of convicts to New South Wales ended in 1840, and in 1842 a Legislative Council was introduced, with two-thirds of its members elected and one-third appointed by the governor. Former convicts were granted the vote, but a property qualification meant that only one in five adult males were enfranchised. By 1850 the settler population of New South Wales had grown to 180,000, not including the 70,000 living in the area which became the separate colony of Victoria in 1851.


1850s to 1890s

In 1856 New South Wales achieved responsible government with the introduction of a bicameral parliament comprising a directly elected
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of ...
and a nominated
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
. The property qualification for voters had been reduced in 1851, and by 1856 95 per cent of adult males in Sydney, and 55 per cent in the colony as a whole, were eligible to vote. Full adult male suffrage was introduced in 1858. In 1859 Queensland became a separate colony. In 1861 the NSW parliament legislated
land reforms Land reform (also agrarian reformAgrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land Agricultural land is typically land ''devoted to'' agriculture Agriculture is ...
intended to encourage family farms and mixed farming and grazing ventures. The amount of land under cultivation subsequently grew from 246,000 acres in 1861 to 800,000 acres in the 1880s. Wool production also continued to grow, and by the 1880s New South Wales produced almost half of Australia's wool. Coal had been discovered in the early years of settlement and gold in 1851, and by the 1890s wool, gold and coal were the main exports of the colony. The NSW economy also became more diversified. From the 1860s, New South Wales had more people employed in manufacturing than any other Australian colony. The NSW government also invested heavily in infrastructure such as railways, telegraph, roads, ports, water and sewerage. By 1889 it was possibly to travel by train from Brisbane to Adelaide via Sydney and Melbourne. The extension of the rail network inland also encouraged regional industries and the development of the wheat belt. In the 1880s trade unions grew and were extended to lower skilled workers. In 1890 a strike in the shipping industry spread to wharves, railways, mines and shearing sheds. The defeat of the strike was one of the factors leading the Trades and Labor Council to form a political party. The Labor Electoral League won a quarter of seats in the NSW elections of 1891 and held the balance of power between the
Free Trade Party The Free Trade Party which was officially known as the Australian Free Trade and Liberal Association, also referred to as the Revenue Tariff Party in some states, was an Australian political party, formally organised in 1887 in New South Wales, i ...
and the
Protectionist Party The Protectionist Party or Liberal Protectionist Party was an Australian political party, formally organised from 1887 until 1909, with policies centred on protectionism. The party advocated protective tariffs, arguing it would allow Australia ...
.


1901 Federation of Australia

A
Federal Council of Australasia 300px, Final meeting of the Council in 1899. The Federal Council of Australasia was a forerunner to the current Commonwealth of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprisin ...
was formed in 1885 but New South Wales declined to join. A major obstacle to the federation of the Australian colonies was the
protectionist Protectionism is the economic policy The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, nationalization, national o ...
policies of Victoria which conflicted with the free trade policies dominant in New South Wales. Nevertheless, the NSW premier
Henry Parkes Sir Henry Parkes, (27 May 1815 – 27 April 1896) was a colonial Australian politician and longest non-consecutive Premier of New South Wales, Premier of the Colony of New South Wales, the present-day state of New South Wales in the Commonwealt ...
was a strong advocate of
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...
and his Tenterfield Oration in 1889 was pivotal in gathering support for the cause. Parkes also struck a deal with
Edmund Barton Sir Edmund "Toby" Barton, (18 January 18497 January 1920) was an Australian politician and judge who served as the first prime minister of Australia from 1901 to 1903, holding office as the leader of the Protectionist Party. He resigned to bec ...

Edmund Barton
, leader of the NSW Protectionist Party, whereby they would work together for federation and leave the question of a protective tariff for a future Australian government to decide. In early 1893 the first citizens' Federation League was established in the Riverina region of New South Wales and many other leagues were soon formed in the colony. The leagues organised a conference in
Corowa Corowa is a town in the state of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a States and territories of Australia, state on the Eastern states of Australia, east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria ( ...
in July 1893 which developed a plan for federation. The new NSW premier,
George Reid Sir George Houston Reid, (25 February 1845 – 12 September 1918) was an Australian politician who led the Reid Government as the fourth Prime Minister of Australia from 1904 to 1905, having previously been Premier of New South Wales from ...

George Reid
, endorsed the "Corowa plan" and in 1895 convinced the majority of other premiers to adopt it. A constitutional convention held sessions in 1897 and 1898 which resulted in a proposed constitution for a Commonwealth of federated states. However, a referendum on the constitution failed to gain the required majority in New South Wales after that colony's Labor party campaigned against it and premier Reid gave it such qualified support that he earned the nickname "yes-no Reid". The premiers of the other colonies agreed to a number of concessions to New South Wales (particularly that the future Commonwealth capital would be located in NSW), and in 1899 further referendums were held in all the colonies except Western Australia. All resulted in yes votes, with the yes vote in New South Wales meeting the required majority. The imperial parliament passed the necessary enabling legislation in 1900 and Western Australia subsequently voted to join the new federation. The Commonwealth of Australia was inaugurated on 1 January 1901, and Barton was sworn in as Australia's first prime minister.


1901 to 1945

The first post-federation NSW governments were
Progressive Progressive may refer to: Politics * Progressivism is a political philosophy in support of social reform Political organizations * Congressional Progressive Caucus, members within the Democratic Party in the United States Congress dedicated to th ...
or
Liberal Reform Liberal Reform is a group of members of the British Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats. Membership of the group is open to any Liberal Democrat party member, and is free of charge. It was launched on 13 February 2012, and describes itself a ...
and implemented a range of social reforms with Labor support. Women won the right to vote in NSW elections in 1902, but were ineligible to stand for parliament until 1918. Labor increased its parliamentary representation in every election from 1904 before coming to power in 1910 with a majority of one seat. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 saw more NSW volunteers for service than the federal authorities could handle, leading to unrest in camps as recruits waited for transfer overseas. In 1916 NSW premier
William Holman William Arthur Holman (4 August 1871 – 5 June 1934) was an Australian politician who served as Premier of New South Wales The Premier of New South Wales is the head of government in the state of New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviat ...
and a number of his supporters were expelled from the Labor party over their support for military conscription. Holman subsequently formed a
Nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
government which remained in power until 1920. Despite a huge victory for Holman's pro-conscription Nationalists in the elections of March 1917, a second referendum on conscription held in December that year was defeated in New South Wales and nationally. Following the war, NSW governments embarked on large public works programs including road building, the extension and electrification of the rail network and construction of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The works were largely funded by loans from London, leading to a debt crisis after the onset of the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
in 1929. New South Wales was hit harder by the depression than other states, and by 1932 one third of union members in the state were unemployed, compared with 20 per cent nationally. Labor won the November 1930 NSW elections and Jack Lang became premier for the second time. In 1931 Lang proposed a plan to deal with the depression which included a suspension of interest payments to British creditors, diverting the money to unemployment relief. The Commonwealth and state premiers rejected the plan and later that year Lang's supporters in the Commonwealth parliament brought down James Scullin's federal Labor government. The NSW Lang government subsequently defaulted on overseas interest payments and was dismissed from office in May 1932 by the governor, Sir Phillip Game. The following elections were won comfortably by the United Australia Party in coalition with the Country Party. Bertram Stevens became premier, remaining in office until 1939, when he was replaced by
Alexander Mair Alexander Mair (25 August 18893 August 1969) was an Australian politician and served as the Premier of New South Wales from 5 August 1939 to 16 May 1941. Born in Melbourne, Mair worked in various businesses there before moving to Albury, New So ...

Alexander Mair
. A contemporary study by sociologist A. P. Elkin found that the population of New South Wales responded to the outbreak of war in 1939 with pessimism and apathy. This changed with the threat of invasion by Japan, which entered the war in December 1941. In May 1942 three Japanese midget submarines entered Sydney harbour and sank a naval ship, killing 29 men aboard. The following month Sydney and Newcastle were shelled by Japanese warships. American troops began arriving in the state in large numbers. Manufacturing, steelmaking, shipbuilding and rail transport all grew with the war effort and unemployment virtually disappeared. A Labor government led by
William McKell Sir William John McKell (26 September 1891 – 11 January 1985), often known as Bill McKell, was an Australian politician who served as the List of Governors-General of Australia, 12th Governor-General of Australia, in office from 1947 to 1953. H ...
was elected in May 1941. The McKell government benefited from full employment, budget surpluses and a co-operative relationship with John Curtin's federal Labor government. McKell became the first Labor leader to serve a full term and to be re-elected for a second. The Labor party was to govern New South Wales until 1965.


Post-war period

The Labor government introduced two-weeks paid leave for most NSW workers in 1944, and the 40 hour working week was implemented by 1947. The post-war economic boom brought full employment and rising living standards, and the government engaged in large spending programs on housing, dams, electricity generation and other infrastructure. In 1954 the government announced a plan for the construction of an opera house on
Bennelong Point Bennelong Point, a former island in Sydney Harbour Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Parramatta () is a major commercial suburb and Central business ...
. The design competition was won by
Jørn Utzon Jørn Oberg Utzon, , Hon. FAIA (; 9 April 191829 November 2008) was a Danish architect. He was most notable for designing the Sydney Opera House The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue performing arts centre at Sydney Harbour located in ...
. Controversy over the cost of the
Sydney Opera House The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue Performing arts center, performing arts centre in Sydney. Located on the banks of the Sydney harbour, Sydney Harbour, it is often regarded as one of the world's most famous and distinctive buildings and ...

Sydney Opera House
and construction delays became a political issue and was a factor in the eventual defeat of Labor in 1965 by the conservative
Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, ...
and Country Party coalition led by
Robert Askin Sir Robert William Askin, Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George, GCMG (4 April 1907 – 9 September 1981), was an Australian politician and the 32nd Premier of New South Wales from 1965 to 1975, the first representing the Lib ...
. The Askin government promoted private development, law and order issues and greater state support for non-government schools. However, Askin, a former bookmaker, became increasingly associated with illegal bookmaking, gambling and police corruption. In the late 1960s, a secessionist movement in the
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region In geography ...
region of the state led to a 1967 referendum on the issue which was narrowly defeated. The new state would have consisted of much of northern NSW including
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...
. Askin's resignation in 1975 was followed by a number of short lived premierships by Liberal Party leaders. When a general election came in 1976 the ALP under
Neville Wran Neville may refer to: Places *Neville, New South Wales Neville is a small village in the south-east of New South Wales, Australia, in Blayney Shire Council, Blayney Shire. It is 60 km south west of Bathurst, New South Wales, Bathurst or ...
came to power. Wran was able to transform this narrow one seat victory into landslide wins (known as Wranslides) in 1978 and 1981. After winning a comfortable though reduced majority in 1984, Wran resigned as premier and left parliament. His replacement
Barrie Unsworth Barrie John Unsworth (born 16 April 1934) is a former Australian politician, representing the Labor Party in the Parliament of New South Wales from 1978 to 1991. He served as the 36th Premier Premier is a title for the head of government i ...

Barrie Unsworth
struggled to emerge from Wran's shadow and lost a 1988 election against a resurgent Liberal Party led by
Nick Greiner Nicholas Frank Hugo Greiner (born 27 April 1947) is an Australian politician who served as the 37th Premier of New South Wales from 1988 to 1992. Greiner was List of leaders of the Liberal Party of Australia (New South Wales Division), Leader o ...

Nick Greiner
. The Greiner government embarked on an efficiency program involving public sector cost-cutting, the corporatisation of government agencies and the privatisation of some government services. An Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) was created. Greiner called a snap election in 1991 which the Liberals were expected to win. However the ALP polled extremely well and the Liberals lost their majority and needed the support of independents to retain power. In 1992 Greiner was investigated by ICAC for possible corruption over the offer of a public service position to a former Liberal MP. Greiner resigned but was later cleared of corruption. His replacement as Liberal leader and Premier was John Fahey, whose government narrowly lost the 1995 election to the ALP under
Bob Carr Robert John Carr (born 28 September 1947) is a retired Australian politician who served as Premier of New South Wales from 1995 to 2005, as the leader of the Labor Party. He later entered federal politics as a New South Wales senator Th ...

Bob Carr
, who was to become the longest serving premier of the state. The Carr government (1995–2005) largely continued its predecessors' focus on the efficient delivery of government services such as health, education, transport and electricity. There was an increasing emphasis on public-private partnerships to deliver infrastructure such as freeways, tunnels and rail links. The Carr government gained popularity for its successful organisation of international events, especially the 2000 Sydney Olympics, but Carr himself was critical of the federal government over its high immigration intake, arguing that a disproportionate number of new migrants were settling in Sydney, putting undue pressure on state infrastructure. Carr unexpectedly resigned from office in 2005 and was replaced by
Morris Iemma Morris Iemma (; born 21 July 1961) is a former Australian politician who was the 40th Premiers of New South Wales, Premier of New South Wales. He served from 3 August 2005 to 5 September 2008. From Sydney, Iemma attended the University of Sydney ...
, who remained premier after being re-elected in the March 2007 state election, until he was replaced by
Nathan Rees Nathan Rees () (born 12 February 1968) is a former Australian politician who served as the 41st Premier of New South Wales and parliamentary leader of the New South Wales division of the Labor Party from September 2008 to December 2009. Rees was ...

Nathan Rees
in September 2008. Rees was subsequently replaced by Kristina Keneally in December 2009, who became the first female premier of New South Wales. Keneally's government was defeated at the 2011 New South Wales state election, 2011 state election and Barry O'Farrell became Premier on 28 March. On 17 April 2014 O'Farrell stood down as Premier after misleading an ICAC investigation concerning a gift of a bottle of wine. The Liberal Party then elected Treasurer Mike Baird as party leader and Premier. Baird resigned as Premier on 23 January 2017, and was replaced by Gladys Berejiklian. On 23 March 2019, Berejiklian led the Coalition to a third term in office. She maintained high personal approval ratings for her management of a bushfire crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic in New South Wales, COVID-19 pandemic. However, Berejiklian resigned as premier on 5 October, following the opening of an ICAC investigation into her actions between 2012 and 2018. She was replaced by Dominic Perrottet.


Geography and ecology

New South Wales is bordered on the north by Queensland, on the west by South Australia, on the south by Victoria and on the east by the
Coral Corals are marine invertebrates Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats. Invertebrate is a blanket term that includes all animals apart from the vertebrate members of the chordate phylum. Invertebrates lack a vert ...

Coral
and
Tasman Sea The Tasman Sea ( Māori: ''Te Tai-o-Rēhua'', ) is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas of water, various gulfs, bights, bays, and straits. Terminology * Ocean The ocean (also ...

Tasman Sea
s. The
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a of containing the Australian capital city of and some surrounding s. It is located in the south-east of the country and is an within the s ...
and the
Jervis Bay Territory The Jervis Bay Territory () is an states and territories of Australia, internal territory of Australia. It was established in 1915 from part of New South Wales, in order to enable the landlocked Australian Capital Territory (ACT) access to the ...
form a separately administered entity that is bordered entirely by New South Wales. The state can be divided geographically into four areas. New South Wales's three largest cities,
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug The Darug or Dharug people are an Aboriginal Australian people, who share strong ties of kinship and, in Colonial Australia, pre-colonial times, survived as skilled hunters in family groups or clans, scattered throughou ...

Sydney
,
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...
and Wollongong, lie near the centre of a narrow coastal strip extending from cool temperate areas on the far south coast to subtropical areas near the Queensland border. The
Illawarra Illawarra is a Regions of New South Wales, region in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is a coastal region situated immediately south of Sydney and north of the Shoalhaven or South Coast, New South Wales, South Coast region. It encompa ...

Illawarra
region is centred on the city of Wollongong, with the Shoalhaven, Eurobodalla and the Sapphire Coast to the south. The Central Coast, New South Wales, Central Coast lies between Sydney and Newcastle, with the Mid North Coast and Northern Rivers regions reaching northwards to the Queensland border. Tourism is important to the economies of coastal towns such as Coffs Harbour, Lismore, New South Wales, Lismore, Nowra, New South Wales, Nowra and Port Macquarie, but the region also produces seafood, beef, dairy, fruit, sugar cane and timber. The
Great Dividing Range The Great Dividing Range, also known as the East Australian Cordillera or the Eastern Highlands, is a cordillera A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust 350px, Plates in t ...

Great Dividing Range
extends from Victoria in the south through New South Wales to Queensland, parallel to the narrow coastal plain. This area includes the Snowy Mountains, the Northern Tablelands, New South Wales, Northern, Central Tablelands, Central and Southern Tablelands, the Southern Highlands (New South Wales), Southern Highlands and the South West Slopes (New South Wales), South West Slopes. Whilst not particularly steep, many peaks of the range rise above , with the highest Mount Kosciuszko at . Skiing in Australia began in this region at Kiandra around 1861. The relatively short ski season underwrites the tourist industry in the Snowy Mountains. Agriculture, particularly the wool industry, is important throughout the highlands. Major centres include Armidale, Bathurst, New South Wales, Bathurst, Bowral, Goulburn, New South Wales, Goulburn, Inverell, Orange, New South Wales, Orange, Queanbeyan and Tamworth, New South Wales, Tamworth. There are numerous forests in New South Wales, with such tree species as Red Gum Eucalyptus and Crow Ash (''Flindersia, Flindersia australis''), being represented. Forest floors have a diverse set of understory shrubs and fungi. One of the widespread fungi is Tremella mesenterica, Witch's Butter (''Tremella mesenterica''). The Southeast Australia temperate savanna, western slopes and plains fill a significant portion of the state's area and have a much sparser population than areas nearer the coast. Agriculture is central to the economy of the western slopes, particularly the Riverina region and Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area in the state's south-west. Regional cities such as Albury, New South Wales, Albury, Dubbo, Griffith, New South Wales, Griffith and Wagga Wagga and towns such as Deniliquin, Leeton, New South Wales, Leeton and Parkes, New South Wales, Parkes exist primarily to service these agricultural regions. The western slopes descend slowly to the western plains that comprise almost two-thirds of the state and are largely arid or semi-arid. The mining town of Broken Hill is the largest centre in this area. One possible definition of the centre for New South Wales is located west-north-west of Tottenham, New South Wales, Tottenham.


Climate

A little more than half of the state has an arid to semi arid climate, where the rainfall averages from a year throughout most of this climate zone. Summer temperatures can be very hot, while winter nights can be quite cold in this region. Rainfall varies throughout the state. The far north-west receives the least, less than annually, while the east receives between of rain. The climate along the flat, coastal plain east of the range varies from Oceanic climate, oceanic in the south to humid subtropical in the northern half of the state, right above Wollongong. Rainfall is highest in this area; however, it still varies from around to as high as in the wettest areas, for example Dorrigo, New South Wales, Dorrigo. In the state's south, on the westward side of the
Great Dividing Range The Great Dividing Range, also known as the East Australian Cordillera or the Eastern Highlands, is a cordillera A cordillera is an extensive chain of mountains A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust 350px, Plates in t ...

Great Dividing Range
, rainfall is heaviest in winter due to cold fronts which move across southern Australia, while in the north, around Lismore, New South Wales, Lismore, rain is heaviest in summer from tropical systems and occasionally even tropical cyclone, cyclones. During late winter, the coastal plain is relatively dry due to Southeast Australian foehn, foehn winds that originate from the Great Dividing Range; the mountain range rain shadow, block the moist, westerlies, westerly cold fronts that arrive from the Southern Ocean, whereby providing generally foehn wind, clear conditions on the leeward side. The climate in the southern half of the state is generally warm to hot in summer and cool in the winter. The seasons are more defined in the southern half of the state, especially as one moves inland towards South West Slopes, Central West (New South Wales), Central West and the Riverina region. The climate in the Northern Rivers, northeast region of the state, or the New South Wales North Coast, North Coast, bordering
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the i ...

Queensland
, is hot and humid in the summer and mild in winter. The Northern Tablelands, which are also on the North coast, have relatively mild summers and cold winters, due to their high elevation on the Great Dividing Range. Peaks along the Great Dividing Range vary from to over above sea level. Temperatures can be cool to cold in winter with frequent frosts and snowfall, and are rarely hot in summer due to the elevation. Lithgow, New South Wales, Lithgow has a climate typical of the range, as do the regional cities of Orange, New South Wales, Orange, Cooma, Oberon, New South Wales, Oberon and Armidale. Such places fall within the subtropical highland (''Cwb'') variety. Rainfall is moderate in this area, ranging from . Snowfall is common in the higher parts of the range, sometimes occurring as far north as the
Queensland Queensland ( ) is a state situated in northeastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the i ...

Queensland
border. On the highest peaks of the Snowy Mountains, the climate can be Oceanic climate#Subpolar variety (Cfc), subpolar oceanic and even alpine climate, alpine on the higher peaks with very cold temperatures and heavy snow. The
Blue MountainsBlue Mountains may refer to: Geography *Blue Mountains (New South Wales), Australia **City of Blue Mountains, a local government area west of Sydney **Blue Mountains Line, a railway line **Blue Mountains National Park **Blue Mountains walking track ...
, Southern Tablelands and Central Tablelands, which are situated on the Great Dividing Range, have mild to warm summers and cold winters, although not as severe as those in the Snowy Mountains. The highest maximum temperature recorded was at Menindee, New South Wales, Menindee in the west of the state on 10 January 1939. The lowest minimum temperature was at Charlotte Pass, New South Wales, Charlotte Pass in the Snowy Mountains on 29 June 1994. This is also the lowest temperature recorded in the whole of Australia excluding the Antarctic Territory.


Demographics

The estimated population of New South Wales at the end of September 2018 was 8,223,700 people, representing approximately 32.96% of nationwide population. In June 2017 Sydney was home to almost two-thirds (65.3%) of the NSW population.


Cities and towns


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: At the 2016 census, there were 2,581,138 people living in New South Wales that were born overseas, accounting for 34.5% of the population. Only 45.4% of the population had both parents born in Australia. 2.9% of the population, or 216,176 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016.


Language

26.5% of people in New South Wales speak a language other than English at home with Standard Chinese, Mandarin (3.2%), Arabic (2.7%), Cantonese (1.9%), Vietnamese language, Vietnamese (1.4%) and Greek language, Greek (1.1%) the most widely spoken.


Religion

In the 2016 census, the most commonly reported religions and Christian denominations were Catholic Church in Australia, Roman Catholicism (24.7%), Anglican Church of Australia, Anglicanism (15.5%) and Islam (3.6%). 25.1% of the population described themselves as having no religion.


Government

Executive authority is vested in the
Governor of New South Wales The governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the governor-general of Australia at the national level, the governors of the ...
, who represents and is appointed by Elizabeth II, Monarchy of Australia, Queen of Australia. The current governor is Margaret Beazley. The governor commissions as premier the leader of the parliamentary political party that can command a simple majority of votes in the Legislative Assembly. The premier then recommends the appointment of other members of the two Houses to the Ministry, under the principle of responsible or Westminster system, Westminster government. As in other Westminster systems, there is no constitutional requirement in New South Wales for the government to be formed from the parliament—merely convention. As of early October 2021, the premier is Dominic Perrottet of the
Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, ...
.


Constitution

The form of the Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its Constitution, dating from 1856 and currently the Constitution Act 1902 (NSW). Since 1901 New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Constitution of Australia, Australian Constitution regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. In 2006, the Constitution Amendment Pledge of Loyalty Act 2006 No 6, was enacted to amend the NSW Constitution Act 1902 to require Members of the New South Wales Parliament and its Ministers to take a pledge of loyalty to Australia and to the people of New South Wales instead of swearing allegiance to Elizabeth II her heirs and successors, and to revise the oaths taken by Executive Councillors. The Pledge of Loyalty Act was officially assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006. The option to swear allegiance to the Queen was restored as an alternative option in June 2012. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded certain legislative and judicial powers to the Commonwealth, but retained independence in all other areas. The New South Wales Constitution says: "The Legislature shall, subject to the provisions of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, have power to make laws for the peace, welfare, and good government of New South Wales in all cases whatsoever".


Parliament

The first Responsible government, "responsible" self-government of New South Wales was formed on 6 June 1856 with Stuart Donaldson, Sir Stuart Alexander Donaldson appointed by Governor William Denison, Sir William Denison as its first Chief Secretary (British Empire), Colonial Secretary which in those days accounted also as the Premier. The Parliament of New South Wales is composed of the Sovereign and two houses: the
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of ...
(lower house), and the
Legislative Council A legislative council is the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers, of a nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared terri ...
(upper house). Elections are held every four years on the fourth Saturday of March, the 2019 New South Wales state election, most recent being on 23 March 2019. At each election one member is elected to the Legislative Assembly from each of 93 New South Wales Legislative Assembly electoral districts, electoral districts and half of the 42 members of the Legislative Council are elected by a statewide electorate.


Local government

New South Wales is divided into 128 Local government areas of New South Wales, local government areas. There is also the Unincorporated Far West Region which is not part of any local government area, in the sparsely inhabited Far West, New South Wales, Far West, and
Lord Howe Island Lord Howe Island (; formerly Lord Howe's Island) is an irregularly crescent-shaped volcanic remnant in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, part of the Australian state of New South Wales. It lies directly east of mainland Port Ma ...
, which is also unincorporated area, unincorporated but self-governed by the Lord Howe Island Board.


Emergency services

New South Wales is policed by the New South Wales Police Force, a statutory authority. Established in 1862, the New South Wales Police Force investigates Summary and Indictable offences throughout the State of New South Wales. The state has two fire services: the volunteer based New South Wales Rural Fire Service, which is responsible for the majority of the state, and the Fire and Rescue NSW, a government agency responsible for protecting urban areas. There is some overlap in due to suburbanisation. Ambulance services are provided through the New South Wales Ambulance. Rescue services (i.e. vertical, road crash, confinement) are a joint effort by all emergency services, with Ambulance Rescue, Police Rescue Squad and Fire Rescue Units contributing. Volunteer rescue organisations include Marine Rescue New South Wales, State Emergency Service (SES), Surf Life Saving New South Wales and Volunteer Rescue Association (VRA).


Education


Primary and Secondary

The NSW school system comprises a kindergarten to year 12 system with primary schooling up to year 6 and secondary schooling between years 7 and 12. Schooling is compulsory from before 6 years old until the age of 17 (unless Year 10 is completed earlier). Between 1990 and 2010, schooling was only compulsory in NSW until age 15. Primary and secondary schools include government and non-government schools. Government schools are further classified as comprehensive and Selective school (New South Wales), selective schools. Non-government schools include Catholic schools, other denominational schools, and non-denominational independent schools. Typically, a primary school provides education from kindergarten level to year 6. A secondary school, usually called a "high school", provides education from years 7 to 12. College, Secondary colleges are secondary schools which only cater for years 11 and 12. The New South Wales Education Standards Authority, NSW Education Standards Authority classifies the 13 years of primary and secondary schooling into six stages, beginning with Early Stage 1 (Kindergarten) and ending with Stage 6 (years 11 and 12).


Record of School Achievement

A Record of School Achievement (RoSA) is awarded by the New South Wales Education Standards Authority, NSW Education Standards Authority to students who have completed at least Year 10 but leave school without completing the Higher School Certificate (New South Wales), Higher School Certificate. The RoSA was introduced in 2012 to replace the former School Certificate.


Higher School Certificate

The Higher School Certificate (HSC) is the usual Year 12 leaving certificate in NSW. Most students complete the HSC prior to entering the workforce or going on to study at university or TAFE (although the HSC itself can be completed at TAFE). The HSC must be completed for a student to get an Australian Tertiary Admission Rank (formerly Universities Admission Index), which determines the student's rank against fellow students who completed the Higher School Certificate.


Tertiary

Eleven universities primarily operate in New South Wales. Sydney is home to Australia's first university, the University of Sydney founded in 1850. Other universities include the University of New South Wales, Macquarie University, University of Technology, Sydney and Western Sydney University. The Australian Catholic University has two of its six campuses in Sydney, and the private University of Notre Dame Australia also operates a secondary campus in the city. Outside Sydney, the leading universities are the University of Newcastle, Australia, University of Newcastle and the University of Wollongong. Armidale is home to the University of New England, Australia, University of New England, and Charles Sturt University. Southern Cross University has campuses spread across cities in the state's north coast. The public universities are state government agencies, however they are largely regulated by the federal government, which also administers their public funding. Admission to NSW universities is arranged together with universities in the
Australian Capital Territory The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), known as the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) until 1938, is a of containing the Australian capital city of and some surrounding s. It is located in the south-east of the country and is an within the s ...
by another government agency, the University and college admissions, Universities Admission Centre. Primarily vocational training is provided up the level of advanced diplomas is provided by the state government's ten Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institutes. These institutes run courses in more than130 campuses throughout the state.


Economy

Since the 1970s, New South Wales has undergone an increasingly rapid economic and social transformation. Old industries such as steel and shipbuilding have largely disappeared; although agriculture remains important, its share of the state's income is smaller than ever before. New industries including information technology and financial services are largely centred in Sydney and have risen to take their place, with many companies having their Australian headquarters in Sydney central business district, Sydney CBD. In addition, the Macquarie Park area of Sydney has attracted the Australian Macquarie Park#Commerce and Business, headquarters of many information technology firms. Coal and related products are the state's biggest export. Its value to the state's economy is over A$5 billion, accounting for about 19% of all exports from NSW. Tourism has also become important, with Sydney as its centre, also stimulating growth on the North Coast, around Coffs Harbour and Byron Bay. Tourism is worth over $25.1 billion to the New South Wales economy and employs 7.1% of the workforce. In 2007, then-Premier of New South Wales
Morris Iemma Morris Iemma (; born 21 July 1961) is a former Australian politician who was the 40th Premiers of New South Wales, Premier of New South Wales. He served from 3 August 2005 to 5 September 2008. From Sydney, Iemma attended the University of Sydney ...
established Events New South Wales to "market Sydney and NSW as a leading global events destination". In July 2011 Events NSW merged with three key state authorities including Tourism NSW to establish Destination NSW (DNSW). New South Wales had a Gross State Product in 2018–19 (equivalent to Gross Domestic Product) of $614.4 billion which equalled $76,361 per capita. On 9 October 2007 NSW announced plans to build a 1,000 Megawatt, MW bank of wind powered turbines. The output of these is anticipated to be able to power up to 400,000 homes. The cost of this project will be $1.8 billion for 500 turbines. On 28 August 2008 the New South Wales cabinet voted to privatise electricity retail, causing 1,500 electrical workers to strike after a large anti-privatisation campaign. The NSW business community is represented by the NSW Business Chamber which has 30,000 members.


Agriculture

Agriculture is spread throughout the eastern two-thirds of New South Wales. Cattle, sheep and pigs are the predominant types of livestock produced in NSW and they have been present since their importation during the earliest days of European settlement. Economically the state is the most important state in Australia, with about one-third of the country's sheep, one-fifth of its cattle, and one-third of its small number of pigs. New South Wales produces a large share of Australia's hay, fruit, legumes, Alfalfa, lucerne, maize, nuts, wool, wheat, oats, oilseeds (about 51%), poultry, rice (about 99%), vegetables, fishing including oyster farming, and forestry including wood chips. Bananas and sugar are grown chiefly in the Clarence, Richmond and Tweed River areas. Wools are produced on the Northern Tablelands as well as prime lambs and beef cattle. The cotton industry is centred in the Namoi Valley in northwestern New South Wales. On the central slopes there are many orchards, with the principal fruits grown being apples, cherries and pears. However, the fruit industry is threatened by the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Bactrocera tyroni) which causes more than $28.5 million a year in damage to Australian crops, primarily in Queensland and northern New South Wales. About 40,200 hectares of vineyards lie across the eastern region of the state, with excellent wines produced in the Hunter Region, Hunter Valley, with the Riverina being the largest wine producer in New South Wales. Australia's largest and most valuable Thoroughbred horse breeding area is centred on Scone, New South Wales, Scone in the Hunter Valley. The Hunter Valley is the home of the world-famous Coolmore Stud, Coolmore, Darley Stud, Darley and Kia-Ora stud, Kia-Ora Thoroughbred horse studs. About half of Australia's timber production is in New South Wales. Large areas of the state are now being replanted with eucalyptus forests.


Riparian water rights

Under the Water Management Act 2000, updated riparian water rights were given to those within NSW with livestock. This change was named "The Domestic Stock Right" which gives "an owner or occupier of a landholding is entitled to take water from a river, estuary or lake which fronts their land or from an aquifer which is underlying their land for domestic consumption and stock watering without the need for an access licence."


Transport

Passage through New South Wales is vital for cross-continent transport. Rail and road traffic from Brisbane (Queensland) to Perth (Western Australia), or to Melbourne (Victoria) must pass through New South Wales.


Railways

The majority of railways in New South Wales are currently operated by the state government. Some lines began as branch-lines of railways starting in other states. For instance, Balranald near the Victorian border was connected by a rail line coming up from Victoria and into New South Wales. Another line beginning in Adelaide crossed over the border and stopped at Broken Hill. Railways management are conducted by Sydney Trains and NSW TrainLink which maintain rolling stock. Sydney Trains operates trains within Sydney while NSW TrainLink operates outside Sydney, intercity, country and interstate services. Both Sydney Trains and NSW TrainLink have their main terminus at Sydney's Central railway station, Sydney, Central station. NSW TrainLink regional and long-distance services consist of New South Wales XPT, XPT services to Grafton railway station, New South Wales, Grafton, Casino railway station, Casino, Roma Street railway station, Brisbane, Southern Cross railway station, Melbourne and Dubbo railway station, Dubbo, as well as New South Wales Xplorer, Xplorer services to Canberra railway station, Canberra, Griffith railway station, Griffith, Broken Hill railway station, Broken Hill, Armidale railway station, Armidale and Moree railway station, Moree. NSW TrainLink intercity trains operate on the Blue Mountains Line, Central Coast & Newcastle Line, Central Cost & Newcastle Line, South Coast Line, Southern Highlands Line and Hunter Line.


Roads

Major roads are the concern of both federal and state governments. The latter maintains these through Transport for NSW, formerly the Roads and Maritime Services, Department of Roads and Maritime Services, and the Roads and Traffic Authority, and before that, the Department of Main Roads (New South Wales), Department of Main Roads (DMR). The main roads in New South Wales are * Hume Highway linking Sydney to Melbourne, Victoria; * Princes Highway linking Sydney to Melbourne via the Tasman Sea coast; * Pacific Highway (Australia), Pacific Highway linking Sydney to Brisbane, Queensland via the Pacific coast; * New England Highway running from the Pacific Highway, at Newcastle to Brisbane by an inland route; * Federal Highway (Australia), Federal Highway running from the Hume Highway south of Goulburn to Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; * Sturt Highway running from the Hume Highway near Gundagai to Adelaide, South Australia; * Newell Highway linking rural Victoria with Queensland, passing through the centre of New South Wales; * Great Western Highway linking Sydney with Bathurst, New South Wales, Bathurst. As Route 32 it continues west as the Mitchell Highway then as the Barrier Highway to Adelaide via Broken Hill. Other roads are usually the concern of the TfNSW and/or the Local government in New South Wales, local government authority.


Air

Sydney airport, Kingsford Smith Airport (commonly Sydney Airport, and locally referred to as Mascot, New South Wales, Mascot Airport or just 'Mascot'), located in the southern List of Sydney suburbs, Sydney suburb of Mascot is the major airport for not just the state but the whole nation. It is a hub for Australia's national airline Qantas. Other airlines serving regional New South Wales include: *FlyPelican *Jetstar *Regional Express Airlines, Regional Express (also known as Rex); *Virgin Australia (formerly known as Virgin Blue Airlines). *Corporate Air


Ferries

Transdev Sydney Ferries operates Sydney Ferries, Sydney Ferries services within Sydney Harbour and the Parramatta River, while Newcastle Transport has a ferry service within Newcastle. All other ferry services are privately operated. Spirit of Tasmania ran a commercial ferry service between Sydney and Devonport, Tasmania. This service was terminated in 2006. Private boat services operated between South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales along the Murray and Darling Rivers but these only exist now as the occasional tourist paddle-wheeler service.


National parks

New South Wales has more than 780 national parks and reserves covering more than 8% of the state. These parks range from rainforests, waterfalls, rugged bush to marine wonderlands and outback deserts, including World Heritage Site, World Heritage sites. The Royal National Park on the southern outskirts of Sydney became Australia's first National Park when proclaimed on 26 April 1879. Originally named The National Park until 1955, this park was the second National Park to be established in the world after Yellowstone National Park in the U.S. Kosciuszko National Park is the largest park in state encompassing New South Wales' alpine region. The National Parks Association was formed in 1957 to create a system of national parks all over New South Wales which led to the formation of the National Parks and Wildlife Service (New South Wales), National Parks and Wildlife Service in 1967. This government agency is responsible for developing and maintaining the parks and reserve system, and conserving natural and cultural heritage, in the state of New South Wales. These parks preserve special habitats, plants and wildlife, such as the Wollemi National Park where the Wollemia, Wollemi Pine grows and areas sacred to Australian Aboriginals such as Mutawintji National Park in western New South Wales.


Sport

Throughout Australian history, New South Wales sporting teams have been very successful in domestic competitions and provided numerous players for the Australian national teams. The largest sporting competition in the state is the National Rugby League, which is based in Sydney and expanded from the New South Wales Rugby League. The state is represented by the New South Wales rugby league team, New South Wales Blues in the State of Origin series. Sydney is the spiritual home of Australian rugby league, and the state and hosts 10 of the 16 National Rugby League, NRL teams; eight of these are based in the Sydney metropolitan area, namely the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Cronulla Sharks, Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, Manly Sea Eagles, Parramatta Eels, Penrith Panthers, South Sydney Rabbitohs, Sydney Roosters and Wests Tigers. The St George Illawarra Dragons are based in Wollongong, while the Newcastle Knights are located in
NewcastleNewcastle usually refers to either: *Newcastle upon Tyne Newcastle upon Tyne (, ), often simply Newcastle, is the most populous City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in North East England. It forms the Tyneside conurbati ...
. The state is represented by five teams in association football, soccer's A-League: Sydney FC (2005–06, 2009–10, 2016–17 champions), Western Sydney Wanderers FC, Western Sydney Wanderers (2014 AFC Champions League, 2014 Asian champions), Central Coast Mariners FC, Central Coast Mariners (2012–13 champions), Newcastle Jets FC, Newcastle Jets (2007–08 champions) and Macarthur FC. Australian rules football has historically not been strong in New South Wales outside the Riverina region. However, the Sydney Swans relocated from South Melbourne in 1982 and their presence and success since the late 1990s has raised the profile of Australian rules football, especially after their AFL premiership in 2005. A second NSW AFL club, the Greater Western Sydney Giants, entered the competition in 2012. The main summer sport is cricket and the Sydney Cricket Ground hosts the 'New Year' cricket Test cricket, Test match in January each year. The New South Wales cricket team, NSW Blues play in the Australian domestic limited-overs cricket tournament, One-Day Cup and Sheffield Shield competitions. Sydney Sixers and Sydney Thunder both play in the Big Bash League. Other teams in major national competitions include the Sydney Kings and Hawks (NBL), Hawks in the National Basketball League (Australia), National Basketball League, Sydney Uni Flames in the Women's National Basketball League, New South Wales Waratahs in Super Rugby and New South Wales Swifts in Suncorp Super Netball. Sydney was the host of the 1938 British Empire Games and 2000 Summer Olympics. The Stadium Australia hosts major events including the NRL Grand Final, State of Origin series, State of Origin, rugby union and football internationals. It hosted the final of the 2003 Rugby World Cup and the 2015 AFC Asian Cup, as well as the 2006 FIFA World Cup Football World Cup 2006 - Oceania-South America Qualification Playoff, qualifier between Australia national soccer team, Australia and Uruguay national football team, Uruguay, qualifying Australia for their first World Cup since 1974. The annual Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race begins in Sydney Harbour on Boxing Day. Bathurst, New South Wales, Bathurst hosts the annual Bathurst 1000 as part of the Supercars Championship at Mount Panorama Circuit. The popular equine sports of campdrafting and polocrosse were developed in New South Wales and competitions are now held across Australia. Polocrosse is now played in many overseas countries. Major professional teams include: * Australian rules football: Greater Western Sydney Giants, Sydney Swans * Australian Baseball League, Baseball: Sydney Blue Sox * Basketball: Illawarra Hawks, Sydney Kings * Cricket: New South Wales cricket team, New South Wales Blues, Sydney Sixers, Sydney Thunder * Ice hockey: Newcastle Northstars, Sydney Bears, Sydney Ice Dogs * Supercars Championship, Motor racing: Brad Jones Racing, Tekno Autosports, Team Sydney * Netball: New South Wales Swifts * Rugby league: ** Representative: New South Wales rugby league team, New South Wales Blues ** Clubs: Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs, Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks, Cronulla Sharks, Manly-Warringah Sea Eagles, Manly Sea Eagles, Newcastle Knights, Parramatta Eels, Penrith Panthers, South Sydney Rabbitohs, St George Illawarra Dragons, Sydney Roosters, Wests Tigers * Rugby union: New South Wales Waratahs * Association football, Soccer: Central Coast Mariners FC, Central Coast Mariners, Macarthur FC, Newcastle Jets FC, Newcastle Jets, Sydney FC, Western Sydney Wanderers FC, Western Sydney Wanderers


Culture

As Australia's most populous state, New South Wales is home to a number of cultural institutions of importance to the nation. In music, New South Wales is home to the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, Australia's busiest and largest orchestra. Australia's largest opera company, Opera Australia, is headquartered in Sydney. Both of these organisations perform a subscription series at the Sydney Opera House. Other major musical bodies include the Australian Chamber Orchestra. Sydney is host to the Australian Ballet for its Sydney season (the ballet is headquartered in Melbourne). Apart from the
Sydney Opera House The Sydney Opera House is a multi-venue Performing arts center, performing arts centre in Sydney. Located on the banks of the Sydney harbour, Sydney Harbour, it is often regarded as one of the world's most famous and distinctive buildings and ...

Sydney Opera House
, major musical performance venues include the City Recital Hall and the Sydney Town Hall. New South Wales is home to several major museums and art galleries, including the Australian Museum, the Powerhouse Museum, the Museum of Sydney, the Art Gallery of New South Wales and the Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney, Museum of Contemporary Art. Sydney is home to five Arts teaching organisations, which have all produced world-famous students: The National Art School, The College of Fine Arts, the National Institute of Dramatic Art National Institute of Dramatic Art, (NIDA), the Australian Film, Television & Radio School and the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, Conservatorium of Music (now part of the University of Sydney). New South Wales is the setting and shooting location of many Australian films, including ''Mad Max 2'', which was shot near the mining town of Broken Hill. The state has also attracted international productions, both as a setting, such as in ''Mission: Impossible 2'', and as a stand-in for other locations, as seen in ''The Matrix (franchise), The Matrix'' franchise, ''The Great Gatsby (2013 film), The Great Gatsby'' and ''Unbroken (film), Unbroken''. 20th Century Fox operates Fox Studios Australia in Sydney. New South Wales Film and Television Office, Screen NSW, which controls the state film industry, generates approximately $100 million into the New South Wales economy each year.


Sister states

New South Wales in recent history has pursued bilateral partnerships with other federated states/provinces and metropolises through establishing a network of Twin towns and sister cities, sister state relationships. The state currently has 7 sister states: * Guangdong, China (since 1979) * Tokyo, Japan (since 1984) * Ehime Prefecture, Ehime, Japan (since 1999) * North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (since 1989) * Seoul, South Korea (since 1991) * Jakarta, Indonesia (since 1994) * California, United States (since 1997)


See also

* Geology of New South Wales * Index of Australia-related articles * Outline of Australia * Postage stamps and postal history of New South Wales * Selection (Australian history) * Squattocracy


Notes


References


External links


Official NSW Website

NSW Parliament

Official NSW Tourism Website
* * {{Authority control New South Wales, States and territories of Australia States and territories established in 1788 1788 establishments in Australia