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Sword
A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger. The precise definition of the term varies with the historical epoch or the geographical region under consideration. A sword consists of a long blade attached to a hilt. The blade can be straight or curved. Thrusting swords have a pointed tip on the blade, and tend to be straighter; slashing swords have a sharpened cutting edge on one or both sides of the blade, and are more likely to be curved. Many swords are designed for both thrusting and slashing. Historically, the sword developed in the Bronze
Bronze
Age, evolving from the dagger; the earliest specimens date to about 1600 BC. The later Iron Age sword remained fairly short and without a crossguard
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Nebra Skydisk
The Nebra sky disk
Nebra sky disk
is a bronze disk of around 30 centimeters (12 in) diameter and a weight of 2.2 kilograms (4.9 lb), with a blue-green patina and inlaid with gold symbols. These are interpreted generally as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, and stars (including a cluster interpreted as the Pleiades). Two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, were added later. A final addition was another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes (of uncertain meaning, variously interpreted as a Solar Barge with numerous oars, as the Milky Way, or as a rainbow). The disk is attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, in Germany, and associatively dated to c. 1600 BC
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Arsenical Bronze
Arsenical bronze
Arsenical bronze
is an alloy in which arsenic, as opposed to or in addition to tin or other constituent metals, is added to copper to make bronze
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Arsenical Copper
Arsenical copper
Arsenical copper
contains up to 0.5% arsenic which, at elevated temperatures, imparts higher tensile strength and a reduced tendency to scaling. It is typically specified in boiler work, especially locomotive fireboxes.[1][2][3] It also helps prevent embrittlement of oxygen free copper by bismuth, antimony and lead by the formation of complex oxides. Copper with a larger percentage of arsenic is called arsenical bronze, which can be work-hardened much harder than copper. See also[edit]Arsenical bronzeReferences[edit]^ Rollason, EC (1949). Metallurgy for Engineers (2nd ed.). London: Arnold.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-19. Retrieved 2010-01-21.  ^ [1]This alloy-related article is a stub
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Young's Modulus
Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material. It is a mechanical property of linear elastic solid materials. It defines the relationship between stress (force per unit area) and strain (proportional deformation) in a material. Young's modulus
Young's modulus
is named after the 19th-century British scientist Thomas Young. However, the concept was developed in 1727 by Leonhard Euler, and the first experiments that used the concept of Young's modulus
Young's modulus
in its current form were performed by the Italian scientist Giordano Riccati
Giordano Riccati
in 1782, pre-dating Young's work by 25 years.[1] The term modulus is the diminutive of the Latin term modus which means measure. A solid material will deform when a load is applied to it. If it returns to its original shape after the load is removed, this is called elastic deformation
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Bronze
Bronze
Bronze
is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze
Bronze
Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in Western Eurasia
Eurasia
and South Asia
Asia
is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, and to the early 2nd millennium BC in China;[1] everywhere it gradually spread across regions
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Minoan Crete
The Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
was an Aegean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
civilization on the island of Crete
Crete
and other Aegean islands
Aegean islands
which flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. It preceded the Mycenaean civilization of Ancient Greece.[1] The civilization was rediscovered at the beginning of the 20th century through the work of British archaeologist Arthur Evans. It has been described as the earliest of its kind in Europe,[2] with historian Will Durant
Will Durant
calling the Minoans "the first link in the European chain".[3] The term "Minoan", which refers to the mythical King Minos, originally described in the pottery of the period. Minos
Minos
was associated in Greek mythology with the labyrinth and the Minotaur, which Evans identified with the site at Knossos
Knossos
(the largest Minoan site)
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Aegean Bronze Age
Aegean civilization is a general term for the Bronze
Bronze
Age civilizations of Greece
Greece
around the Aegean Sea. There are three distinct but communicating and interacting geographic regions covered by this term: Crete, the Cyclades
Cyclades
and the Greek mainland. Crete
Crete
is associated with the Minoan civilization
Minoan civilization
from the Early Bronze
Bronze
Age. The Cyclades converge with the mainland during the Early Helladic
Early Helladic
("Minyan") period and with Crete
Crete
in the Middle Minoan period. From ca
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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European Bronze Age
Diffusion of metallurgy in Europe.Generalized distribution of the Beaker culture
Beaker culture
in the Early Bronze Age.A simplified map of archaeological cultures of the Middle Bronze
Bronze
Age (c. 1500-1400 BC). Blue : Apennine culture, Yellow : Terramare culture, Brown : Tumulus
Tumulus
culture, Red : Atlantic Bronze
Bronze
Age, Green : Nordic Bronze
Bronze
Age, Apple green : Cultures of Unetice tradition, Gray : Balkan cultures.Europe in the Late Bronze
Bronze
Age.The European Bronze Age
Bronze Age
is characterized by bronze artifacts and the use of bronze implements. The regional Bronze Age
Bronze Age
succeeds the Neolithic
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Julius Naue
Julius Naue (17 June 1835, Köthen – 14 March 1907, Munich) was a German painter, illustrator and archaeologist . A student of August von Kreling, he came to work for Moritz von Schwind in Munich
Munich
where he remained until 1866. As an archaeologist, Naue held a presentation on prehistoric swords (Die prähistorischen Schwerter), specifically Bronze Age swords, for the Anthropological Society in Munich
Munich
in 1884. The "Naue" type of Bronze Age swords is named in his honour. Naue was an autodidact, and published various smaller treatises for which he proceeded to compile in a dissertation at Tübingen University in 1887, Die Hügelgräber zwischen Ammer- und Staffelsee'. He also planned a multi-volume work on "The Bronze Age in Upper Bavaria", but only published the first volume in 1894.Notable paintingsVerkündigung Mariae (1862) Die nordische Sage (1864) Der Krötenring (1865) Das Märchen von Kaiser Heinrich I
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Early Modern Period
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era. Although the chronological limits of the period are open to debate, the timeframe spans the period after the late portion of the post-classical age (c. 1500), known as the Middle Ages, through the beginning of the Age of Revolutions (c
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Old English Language
Old English
Old English
(Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon,[2] is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland
Scotland
in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain
Great Britain
by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English
Old English
literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French
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Ugarit
Ugarit
Ugarit
(/ˌuːɡəˈriːt, ˌjuː-/; Ugaritic: 𐎜𐎂𐎗𐎚, ʼUgart; Arabic: أُوغَارِيت‎ Ūġārīt, alternatively Arabic: أُوجَارِيت‎ Ūǧārīt) was an ancient port city in northern Syria. Its ruins are often called Ras Shamra[1] after the headland where they lie. Ugarit
Ugarit
had close connections to the Hittite Empire, sent tribute to Egypt at times, and maintained trade and diplomatic connections with Cyprus
Cyprus
(then called Alashiya), documented in the archives recovered from the site and corroborated by Mycenaean and Cypriot pottery found there. The polity was at its height from c. 1450 BC until its destruction in c. 1200 BC; this destruction was possibly caused by the mysterious Sea Peoples
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High Middle Ages
Central Europe Guelf, Hohenstaufen, and Ascanian
Ascanian
domains in Germany about 1176         Duchy of Saxony          Margravate of Brandenburg          Duchy of Franconia         Duchy of Swabia          Duchy of BavariaThe High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or High Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from AD 1000 to 1250
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