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Sultan
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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King Of Kings
The genitive phrase King
King
of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs
Song of Songs
or Holy of Holies),[1] but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah),[2] Hellenistic and Christian traditions.Contents1 Historical usage1.1 Assyrian Empire 1.2 Ancient Persia 1.3 Hellenistic era2 Religious usage2.1 Judaism 2.2 Christianity 2.3 Islam3 Modern usage3.1 Monarchs and autocrats 3.2 Popular culture4 See also 5 ReferencesHistorical usage[edit] Assyrian Empire[edit] The first king known to use the title "king of kings" (šar šarrāni) was Tukulti-Ninurta I
Tukulti-Ninurta I
of Assyria (13th century BC)
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Lala (title)
Lala (Persian: لل‍ه‎, Turkish: Lala) was a Turkish and Persian title (of Persian origin) meaning tutor and statesman in the Ottoman and Safavid Empire.[1]Contents1 History 2 Atabeg vs lala 3 Some grand viziers of lala background 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] In Ottoman tradition, lalas were the experienced statesmen who were assigned as the tutors of young princes (Turkish: Şehzade). While still teenagers, the princes were sent to provinces (sanjak) as provincial governors (Turkish: sanjak bey). They were accompanied by their lalas who trained them in statesmanship. The purpose of this practice was to prepare the princes for the future duty of regency. Later, when the prince was enthroned as the sultan his lala was usually promoted to be a vizier. Up to the 13th sultan Mehmet III
Mehmet III
(the end of the 16th century) all sultans enjoyed a period of provincial governorship prior to their reign
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Turkish Grammar
Turkish grammar, as described in this article, is the grammar of standard Turkish as spoken and written by educated people in the Republic of Turkey. The grammars of other Turkic languages
Turkic languages
such as Azeri, Uzbek, Kazakh, and Uyghur are similar, although they differ in details. Turkish is a highly agglutinative language, in that much of the grammar is expressed by means of suffixes added to nouns and verbs. It is very regular compared with many European languages. For example, evlerden "from the houses" can be analysed as ev "house", -ler (plural suffix), -den (ablative case, meaning "from"); gidiyorum "I am going" as git "go", -iyor (present continuous tense), -um (1st person singular = "I"). Another characteristic of Turkish is vowel harmony
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Persian Grammar
Persian grammar (Persian: دستور زبان فارسی‎) is the grammar of the Persian language, whose dialectal variants are spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(in Samarqand, Bukhara
Bukhara
and the Surxondaryo Region) and Tajikistan. It is similar to that of many other Indo-European languages. The language became a more analytical language around the time of Middle Persian, with fewer cases and discarding grammatical gender
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Verbal Noun
A verbal noun is a noun formed from or otherwise corresponding to a verb. Different languages have different types of verbal nouns and different ways of forming and using them. An example of a verbal noun in English is the word singing in the sentence "Singing is fun" (this is a noun formed from the verb sing). Verbal nouns may be non-finite verb forms such as infinitives or gerunds in English (or Latin) usage. They may also be "pure" verbal nouns, formed from verbs, but behaving grammatically entirely like nouns rather than verbs (not taking direct objects, for example). Such cases may also be called deverbal nouns. Types[edit] Verbal nouns may be non-finite verb forms which follow verb syntax, for example by taking appropriate objects (though usually not a subject) and being modified by adverbs, to produce a verb phrase which is then used within a larger sentence as a noun phrase. In English this can be done with the to-infinitive and with the gerund
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Agha (Ottoman Empire)
Agha, also Aga (Ottoman Turkish: أغا‬, Persian: آقا‎ āghā "chief, master, lord"[2]), as an honorific title for a civilian or military officer, or often part of such title, and was placed after the name of certain civilian or military functionaries in the Ottoman Empire. At the same time some court functionaries were entitled to the agha title.Contents1 Etymology 2 Agha in Kurdistan 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word agha entered English from Turkish,[2] and the Turkish word comes from the Old Turkic aqa, meaning "elder brother".[3] It is an equivalent of Mongolian word aka.[4] Agha in Kurdistan[edit] In Kurdistan, within the tribal Kurdish society, "agha" is the title given to tribal chieftains, either supreme chieftains, or to village heads. It is also given to wealthy landlords and owners of major real estates in the urban Kurdish centers, although these landlords are usually with heavy tribal relations
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Ottoman Turkish Language
Ottoman Turkish (/ˈɒtəmən/; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى‎, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"; Turkish: Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language
Turkish language
that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet
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Rule Of Law
The rule of law is the principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by decisions of individual government officials. It primarily refers to the influence and authority of law within society, particularly as a constraint upon behaviour, including behaviour of government officials.[2] The phrase can be traced back to 16th century Britain, and in the following century the Scottish theologian Samuel Rutherford
Samuel Rutherford
used the phrase in his argument against the divine right of kings.[3] John Locke
John Locke
wrote that freedom in society means being subject only to laws made by a legislature that apply to everyone, with a person being otherwise free from both governmental and private restrictions upon liberty. The "rule of law" was further popularized in the 19th century by British jurist A. V. Dicey
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Shahinshah
Shahanshah (Persian: شهنشاه‎, also Romanized as Shahanshāh, Shāhinshāh, and Shahshanāh; also known as Qaryeh-ye Shahanshāh and Gūsheh)[1] is a village in Koregah-e Gharbi Rural District, in the Central District of Khorramabad
Khorramabad
County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 449, in 88 families.[2] References[edit]^ Shahanshah can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3083922" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran
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Atabeg
Atabeg, Atabek, or Atabey is a hereditary title of nobility of a Turkic origin,[1] indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a monarch and charged with raising the crown prince
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Governor
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, while others having a complete control over the entire government. Historically, the title can also apply to the executive officials acting as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British East India Company
East India Company
or the Dutch East India
India
Company
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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Field Marshal
Field marshal
Field marshal
(or field-marshal, abbreviated as FM) is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks. Usually it is the highest rank in an army, and when it is, few (if any) persons are appointed to it. It is considered as a five-star rank (OF-10) in modern-day armed forces in many countries. Promotion to the rank of field marshal in many countries historically required extraordinary military achievement by a general (a wartime victory). However, the rank has also been used as a divisional command rank and also as a brigade command rank
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Hazinedar
Hazinedar
Hazinedar
or Haznadar[1] is a title in Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
hierarchy. Depending of the suffix or prefix it had different meanings. The English language translation of the word is a treasurer.[2] Treasurer[edit] Hazinedar
Hazinedar
AghaThe Chief Hazinedar
Hazinedar
headed the personnel of the Sultan's treasury.[3] Hazinedars subordinated to the Chief Hazinedar
Hazinedar
had a title of Hazinedar
Hazinedar
Kalfa
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