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SULTAN (/ˈsʌltən/ ; Arabic
Arabic
: سلطان‎‎ _sulṭān_, pronounced ) is a noble title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة _sulṭah_, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate , or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate.

The dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a SULTANATE (سلطنة _salṭanah_).

A feminine form of _sultan_, used by Westerners, is SULTANA or SULTANAH and this title used legally used for some (not all) Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts. But Turkish and Ottoman Turkish also uses sultan for imperial lady, because Turkish grammar uses the same words for women and men. However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled _Frau Feldmarschall_ (in French, similar constructions of the type _madame la maréchale_ are quite common). The female leaders in Muslim history are correctly known as "sultanas". However, the wife of the sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu is styled as the "panguian" and sultan's chief wife in many sultanate in Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia
Malaysia
is known as "permaisuri" or "Tunku Ampuan", " Raja
Raja
Perempuan" or "Tengku Ampuan". Special
Special
case in Brunei
Brunei
, the Queen Consort is known as _ Raja
Raja
Isteri_ with suffix _Pengiran Anak_ if the queen consort is a royal princess.

Among those modern hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law , the term is gradually being replaced by king (i.e. _malik _ in Arabic) and _ Datu _ in Maranao .

CONTENTS

* 1 Compound ruler titles

* 2 Former sultans and sultanates

* 2.1 Anatolia and Central Asia * 2.2 Caucasus * 2.3 Levant and Arabian peninsula * 2.4 North Africa * 2.5 Horn of Africa

* 2.6 Southeast Africa and Indian Ocean

* 2.6.1 _Maliki_ * 2.6.2 Swahili Coast * 2.6.3 _Sultani_

* 2.7 West and Central Africa * 2.8 Southern Asia * 2.9 Southeast and East Asia

* 3 Contemporary sovereign sultanates * 4 Princely and aristocratic titles * 5 Military rank * 6 See also * 7 References

COMPOUND RULER TITLES

Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
attended by a eunuch and two pages.

These are generally secondary titles, either lofty 'poetry' or with a message, e.g.:

* _Mani Sultan_ = _Manney Sultan_ (meaning the "Pearl of Rulers" or "Honoured Monarch") - a subsidiary title, part of the full style of the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Travancore * _ Sultan of Sultans _ - the sultanic equivalent of the style King of Kings * Certain secondary titles have a devout Islamic connotation; e.g., Sultan ul-Mujahidin as champion of jihad (to strive and to struggle in the name of Allah). * _Sultanic Highness_ - a rare, hybrid western-Islamic honorific style exclusively used by the son, daughter-in-law and daughters of Sultan
Sultan
Hussein Kamel of Egypt (a British protectorate since 1914), who bore it with their primary titles of Prince
Prince
(_ Amir
Amir
_; Turkish : _Prens _) or Princess
Princess
, after 11 October 1917. They enjoyed these titles for life, even after the Royal Rescript regulating the styles and titles of the Royal House following Egypt's independence in 1922 , when the sons and daughters of the newly styled king (_malik Misr_, considered a promotion) were granted the title _Sahib(at) us-Sumuw al-Malaki_, or Royal Highness
Royal Highness
.

FORMER SULTANS AND SULTANATES

ANATOLIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

* Ghaznavid Sultanate * Sultans of Great Seljuk * Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Sultanate of Rum
* Sultans (becoming padishahs ) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
, the Osmanli

CAUCASUS

* Elisu Sultanate and a few others. A Sultan
Sultan
ranked below a Khan.

LEVANT AND ARABIAN PENINSULA

_ H.M. Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos bin Said al Said , the current Sultan
Sultan
of Oman
Oman
from the Al Said dynasty.

* in Syria
Syria
:

* Ayyubid Sultans * Mamluk Sultans

* in present-day Yemen
Yemen
, various small sultanates of the former British Aden Protectorate
Protectorate
and South Arabia :

Audhali , Fadhli , Haushabi , Kathiri , Lahej , Lower Aulaqi , Lower Yafa , Mahra , Qu\'aiti , Subeihi , Upper Aulaqi , Upper Yafa and the Wahidi sultanates

* in present-day Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
:

* Sultans of Nejd
Nejd
* Sultans of the Hejaz
Hejaz

* Oman
Oman
Sultan
Sultan
of Oman
Oman
(authentically referred to as Hami_), on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, still an independent sultanate, since 1744 (assumed the formal title of Sultan
Sultan
in 1861)

NORTH AFRICA

Sultan
Sultan
Abd al-Hafid of Morocco .

* in Algeria
Algeria
: sultanate of Tuggurt

* in Egypt
Egypt
:

* Ayyubid Sultans * Mamluk Sultans

* in Morocco
Morocco
, until Mohammed V changed the style to Malik
Malik
(king) on 14 August 1957, maintaining the subsidiary style Amir
Amir
al-Mu´minin (Commander of the Faithful)

* in Sudan
Sudan
:

* Darfur
Darfur
* Dar al-Masalit * Dar Qimr * Funj Sultanate of Sinnar (Sennar) * Kordofan

* in Chad
Chad
:

* Bag(u)irmi (main native title: Mbang ) * Wada\'i (main native title: Kolak ), successor state to Birgu * Dar Sila (actually a wandering group of tribes)

HORN OF AFRICA

Main articles: Somali aristocratic and court titles and Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles Mohamoud Ali Shire
Mohamoud Ali Shire
, the 26th Sultan
Sultan
of the Somali Warsangali Sultanate

* Adal Sultanate , in northwestern Somalia
Somalia
, southern Djibouti , and the Somali , Oromia , Harari , and Afar regions of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* Ajuran Sultanate , in southern Somalia
Somalia
and eastern Ethiopia * Majeerteen Sultanate
Majeerteen Sultanate
(Migiurtinia), in northern Somalia * Marehan Sultanate , in northern Somalia * Sultanate of the Geledi , in southern Somalia * Sultanate of Aussa , in northeastern Ethiopia * Sultanate of Harar , in eastern Ethiopia * Sultanate of Hobyo , in Somalia * Sultanate of Ifat , in eastern Ethiopia * Sultanate of Mogadishu , in south-central Somalia * Sultanate of Showa , in central Ethiopia * Warsangali Sultanate , in northern Somalia * Bimal Sultanate of Merca south eastrern Somalia

SOUTHEAST AFRICA AND INDIAN OCEAN

* Angoche Sultanate , on the Mozambiquan coast (also several neighbouring sheikdoms) * various sultans on the Comoros ; however on the Comoros , the normally used styles were alternative native titles, including Mfalme , Phany or _Jambé_ and the 'hegemonic' title Sultani tibe * the Maore (or Mawuti) sultanate on Mayotte (separated from the Comoros)

_Maliki_

This was the alternative native style (apparently derived from _malik _, the Arabic
Arabic
word for "king") of the sultans of the Kilwa Sultanate
Kilwa Sultanate
, in Tanganyika
Tanganyika
(presently the continental part of Tanzania).

Swahili Coast

* Sultanate of Zanzibar : two incumbents (from the Omani dynasty) since the de facto separation from Oman
Oman
in 1806, the last assumed the title Sultan
Sultan
in 1861 at the formal separation under British auspices; since 1964 union with Tanganyika
Tanganyika
(part of Tanzania
Tanzania
)

_Mfalume_ is the (Ki)Swahili title of various native Muslim rulers, generally rendered in Arabic
Arabic
and in western languages as Sultan:

* in Kenya
Kenya
:

* Pate on part of Pate island (capital also named Pate), in the Lamu Archipelago * Wituland , came under German, then British protectorate

* in Tanganyika
Tanganyika
(presently part of Tanzania
Tanzania
): of Hadimu, on the island of that name; also styled _Jembe_

_Sultani_

This was the native ruler's title in the Tanzanian state of Uhehe a female sultan

WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA

* In Cameroon
Cameroon
:

* Bamoun (Bamun, 17th century, founded uniting 17 chieftaincies) 1918 becomes a sultanate, but in 1923 re-divided into the 17 original chieftaincies. * Bibemi , founded in 1770 - initially styled _lamido _ * Mandara Sultanate, since 1715 (replacing Wandala kingdom); 1902 Part of Cameroon * Rey Bouba Sultanate founded 1804

* in the Central African Republic :

* Bangassou created c.1878; 14 June 1890 under Congo Free State protectorate , 1894 under French protectorate; 1917 Sultanate suppressed by the French. * Dar al-Kuti - French protectorate since December 12, 1897 * Rafai c.1875 Sultanate, 8 April 1892 under Congo Free State protectorate, March 31, 1909 under French protectorate; 1939 Sultanate suppressed * Zemio c.1872 established; December 11, 1894 under Congo Free State protectorate, April 12, 1909 under French protectorate; 1923 Sultanate suppressed

* in Niger
Niger
: Arabic
Arabic
alternative title of the following autochthonous rulers:

* the Amenokal of the Aïr confederation of Tuareg * the Sarkin Damagaram since the 1731 founding of the Sultanate of Damagaram ( Zinder )

* in Nigeria
Nigeria
most monarchies previously had native titles, but when most in the north converted to Islam, Muslim titles were adopted, such as _emir _ and sometimes _sultan_.

* in Borno (alongside the native title _Mai_) * since 1817 in Sokoto , the suzerain (also styled Amir
Amir
al-Mu´minin and Sarkin Musulmi) of all Fulbe jihad states and premier traditional Muslim leader in the Sahel (according to some once a caliph)

SOUTHERN ASIA

_ Sultan
Sultan
Ali Khan Bahadur, grandson of Nawab
Nawab
H.H Noor ul Umrah and son of Nawab
Nawab
Shujaath Ali Khan

* Bahmani Sultanate * the Deccan sultanates : Berar , Bidar , Bijapur , Golconda and Ahmednagar * Delhi Sultanate : several dynasties, the last (Mughal) became imperial Padshah-i Hind_ * Bengal Sultanate * Sultanate of Gujarat * Sultanate of Jaunpur * Sultanate of Kandesh * Sultanate of Malwa
Malwa
* Sultanate of Mysore , Tipu Sultan * Sultanate of Lakshadweep and Cannanore, Arakkal Kingdom * Sultanate of Maldives

SOUTHEAST AND EAST ASIA

Hamengkubuwono X , the incumbent Sultan
Sultan
of Yogyakarta Pakubuwono XII , last undisputed Susuhunan
Susuhunan
of Surakarta Sultan Saifuddin of Tidore

In Indonesia
Indonesia
(formerly in the Dutch East Indies ):

* On Kalimantan
Kalimantan

* Sultanate of Banjar * Sultanate of Berau * Sultanate of Bulungan * Sultanate of Gunung Tabur * Sultanate of Kubu * Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara * Sultanate of Mempawah * Sultanate of Paser * Sultanate of Pontianak * Sultanate of Sambaliung * Sultanate of Sambas

* On Sulawesi

* Sultanate of Buton * Sultanate of Bone * Sultanate of Gowa * Sultanate of Luwu * Sultanate of Soppeng * Sultanate of Wajo

* On Java
Java

* Sultanate of Banten
Sultanate of Banten
* Sultanate of Cirebon - the rulers in three of the four palaces (_kraton_), from which divided Cirebon was ruled: Kraton Kasepuhan , Kraton Kanoman and Kraton Kacirebonan (only in Kraton Kaprabonan was the ruler's title Panembahan ) * Sultanate of Demak * Sultanate of Pajang * Sumedang Larang Kingdom

* Sultanate of Mataram (was divided into two kingdoms: the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and Sunanan Surakarta)

* Sultanate of Yogyakarta (The Divine Sultanate of which its ruler Sri Sultan
Sultan
Hamengkubowono is considered a divine being, a half God) * Sunanate of Surakarta (_susuhunan _, a high-ranked monarch, equivalent to emperor)

* Sultanate of Jayakarta (also known as Sunda Kelapa ; modern-day Jakarta
Jakarta
)

* On Madura island : Pamekasan

* In the Maluku Islands

* Sultanate of Iha (Saparua) * Sultanate of Honimoa/ Siri Sori (Saparua) * Sultanate of Huamual (West Seram) * Sultanate of Tanah Hitu (Ambon) * Sultanate of Ternate * Sultanate of Tidore * Sultanate of Bacan * Sultanate of Jilolo * Sultanate of Loloda, later occupied by Ternate

* In the Nusa Tenggara
Nusa Tenggara

* Sultanate of Bima on Sumbawa island

* In the Riau archipelago : sultanate of Lingga-Riau by secession in 1818 under the expelled sultan of Johore (on Malaya) Sultan
Sultan
Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud

* In Sumatra
Sumatra

* Sultanate of Aceh (full style _ Sultan
Sultan
Berdaulat Zillullah fil-Alam_), which had many vassal states * Sultanate of Asahan * Awak Sungai, established 17th century at the split in four of Minangkabau , in 1816 extinguished by Netherlands East Indies colonial government * Sultanate of Deli since 1814, earlier Aceh's vassal as Aru * Sultanate of Indragiri * Sultanate of Langkat since 1817 (previous style Raja) * Sultanate of Palembang (Darussalam), also holding the higher title of Susuhunan
Susuhunan
* Sultanate of Pagaruyung * Sultanate of Pelalawan * Sultanate of Perlak * Sultanate of Riau-Lingga * Sultanate of Samudera Pasai * Sultanate of Serdang * Sultanate of Siak Sri Inderapura

In Malaysia
Malaysia
:

* In Peninsular Malaysia
Malaysia
, where all nine of the country's present sultanates are located:

* Sultanate of Malacca * Sultanate of Johor * Sultanate of Kedah * Sultanate of Kelantan * Sultanate of Pahang
Pahang
* Sultanate of Perak * Sultanate of Selangor
Selangor
* Sultanate of Terengganu

* Furthermore, the ruler of Luak Jelebu , one of the constitutive states of the Negeri Sembilan confederation, had the style Sultan
Sultan
in addition to his principal title _Undang Luak Jelebu_.

In Brunei
Brunei
:

* Sultan
Sultan
of Brunei
Brunei
, Brunei
Brunei
(on Borneo island)

In China
China
:

* Dali, Yunnan , capital of the short-lived Panthay Rebellion

* Furthermore, the _Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin_ (Leader of the Community of Muslims) of Pingnan Guo ("Pacified South State", a major Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province) is usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan.

In the Philippines
Philippines
:

* Sultanate of Buayan * Sultanate of Maguindanao * Sultanate of Sulu (Sulu, Basilan, Palawan and Tawi-Tawi islands and part of eastern Sabah on North Borneo) * Sultanate of Ranaw ( Sultan
Sultan
ko Pat a Pangampong a Ranao)

In Thailand
Thailand
:

* Sultanate of Patani * Sultanate of Singgora
Sultanate of Singgora

CONTEMPORARY SOVEREIGN SULTANATES

* Brunei
Brunei
* Indonesia
Indonesia
Sultan
Sultan
of Yogyakarta Special Region is governor of that province

* Malaysia
Malaysia

* Sultan
Sultan
is the title of seven ( Johor
Johor
, Kedah , Kelantan , Pahang
Pahang
, Perak , Selangor
Selangor
and Terengganu ) of the nine rulers of the Malay states . The federal head of state the Yang di-Pertuan Agong , is elected (de facto rotated) for five years by and among the hereditary state rulers, but is usually styled "king" in foreign countries; political power, however, lies with the prime minister . _See also_: Malay titles

* Oman
Oman
, an Arabian nation, formerly sultanate of Muscat and Oman
Oman

In some parts of the Middle East and North Africa, there still exist regional sultans or people who are descendants of sultans and who are styled as such.

PRINCELY AND ARISTOCRATIC TITLES

The Valide Sultan (Sultana mother) of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire

By the beginning of the 16th century, the title sultan was carried by both men and women of the Ottoman dynasty and was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known (notably _khatun_ for women and _bey_ for men). This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative.

Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as "sultan", but Ottomans themselves used "padişah" (emperor) or "hünkar" to refer to their ruler. The emperor's formal title consisted of "sultan" together with "khan" (for example, Sultan
Sultan
Suleiman Khan). In formal address, the sultan's children were also entitled "sultan", with imperial princes (Şehzade) carrying the title before their given name, with imperial princesses carrying it after. Example, Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan , son and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Like imperial princesses, living mother and main consort of reigning sultan also carried the title after their given names, for example, Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
Sultan
, Suleiman's mother and first valide sultan , and Hürrem Sultan
Sultan
, Suleiman's chief consort and first haseki sultan . The evolving usage of this title reflected power shifts among imperial women, especially between Sultanate of Women , as the position of main consort eroded over the course of 17th century, the main consort lost the title "sultan", which replaced by "kadin", a title related to the earlier "khatun". Henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non imperial blood to carry the title "sultan".

In Kazakh Khanate a Sultan
Sultan
was a lord from the ruling dynasty (a direct descendants of Genghis Khan ) elected by clans, i.e. a kind of princes. The best of sultans was elected as khan by people at Kurultai . See ru:Казахские султаны

MILITARY RANK

In a number of post-caliphal states under Mongol or Turkic rule, there was a feudal type of military hierarchy. These administrations were often decimal (mainly in larger empires), using originally princely titles such as khan , malik , amir as mere rank denominations.

In the Persian empire
Persian empire
, the rank of sultan was roughly equivalent to that of a modern-day captain in the West; socially in the fifth-rank class, styled ' Ali Jah .

SEE ALSO

Other ruling titles

* Khan (title) , Ilkhan and Khakhan * Emir
Emir
(Amir) * Atabeg * Bey
Bey
* Baig * Mirza
Mirza
* Caliph
Caliph
* Datu * Maharajah
Maharajah
* Malik
Malik
* Mir (title) * Padishah * Raja
Raja
* Shah
Shah
and Shahanshah * Zoltán

REFERENCES

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to SULTANS _.

* ^ Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). _The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire_. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507673-7 .

* RoyalArk - see each nation, e.g. here Oman * World Statesmen - see each present nation

* v * t * e

Royal and noble titles and honours by country

MONARCHIES

* Commonwealth realms * Spain * Sweden * Thailand
Thailand

FORMER MONARCHIES

* Austria-Hungary * Burma * Byzantium * Brazil

* China
China

* Qing

* Egypt
Egypt

* Mamluk

* Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* France * Germany

* Korea

* Joseon

* Ottoman * Portugal * Poland and Lithuania * Romania * Russia

* Serbia

* royal * noble

* Somalia
Somalia
* Maratha

* v * t * e

Authoritarian and totalitarian forms of government

FORMS

* Absolute monarchy * Benevolent dictatorship * Enlightened absolutism * Fascism * Imperialism
Imperialism
* Military dictatorship * Nazism * Ochlocracy * Self-coup * Stalinism * Theocracy

CONCEPTS

* Illiberal democracy * Totalitarian democracy * Inverted totalitarianism * Authoritarian democracy * Authoritarian socialism * Autocracy * Constitutional dictatorship * Corporate republic * Despotism
Despotism
* Dictatorship * Dominant-party state * Tsarist autocracy * Tyranny *