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Sudirman
General
General
of the Army Raden Soedirman (Perfected Spelling: Sudirman; 24 January 1916[a] – 29 January 1950) was a high-ranking Indonesian military officer during the Indonesian National Revolution. The first commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, he continues to be widely respected in the country. Born in Purbalingga, Dutch East Indies, Sudirman
Sudirman
moved to Cilacap
Cilacap
in 1916 and was raised by his uncle. A diligent student at a Muhammadiyah-run school, he became respected within the community for his devotion to Islam. After dropping out of teacher's college, in 1936 he began working as a teacher, and later headmaster, at a Muhammadiyah-run elementary school
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Indonesian National Awakening
The Indonesian National Awakening
Indonesian National Awakening
(Indonesian: Kebangkitan Nasional Indonesia) is a term for the period in the first half of the 20th century, during which people from many parts of the archipelago of Indonesia
Indonesia
first began to develop a national consciousness as "Indonesians".[1] In the pursuit of profits and administrative control, the Dutch imposed an authority of the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
on an array of peoples who had not previously shared a unified political identity. By the start of the 20th century, the Dutch had formed the territorial boundaries of a colonial state that became the precursor to modern Indonesia. In the first half of the 20th century, new organisations and leadership developed. Under its Ethical Policy, the Netherlands
Netherlands
helped create an educated Indonesian elite
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Cadet
A cadet is a trainee. The term is frequently used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. Its meaning may vary between countries
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Ambarawa
Ambarawa
Ambarawa
is a market town located between Semarang
Semarang
and Salatiga
Salatiga
in Central Java, Indonesia. Ambarawa
Ambarawa
was an important connecting rail link providing a cog railway connecting through Central Java
Central Java
as far as Yogyakarta via Magelang. The Semarang-Ambarawa- Magelang
Magelang
line was fully operational until 1977 . It is the site of the Museum Kereta Api Ambarawa
Ambarawa
( Ambarawa
Ambarawa
Railway Museum), which feature rack railway between Ambarawa
Ambarawa
to Bedono on the former Ambarawa- Magelang
Magelang
mainline
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Linggadjati Agreement
The Linggadjati Agreement
Linggadjati Agreement
(Linggajati in modern Indonesian spelling) was a political accord concluded on 15 November 1946 by the Dutch administration and the unilaterally declared Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
in the village of Liggarjati, near Cirebon
Cirebon
in which the Dutch recognised the republic as the de facto authority in Java, Madura
Madura
and Sumatra.Contents1 Background 2 The negotiations 3 The agreement 4 Later developments 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksBackground[edit] In 1942, the Japanese occupied the Dutch East Indies. On 17 August 1945, two days after the Japanese surrender, Indonesian nationalist leader Sukarno
Sukarno
declared Indonesian independence
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Renville Agreement
The Renville Agreement
Renville Agreement
was a United Nations Security Council-brokered political accord between the Netherlands, which was seeking to re-establish its colony in South East Asia, and Indonesian Republicans seeking to secure Indonesian independence
Indonesian independence
during the Indonesian National Revolution. Ratified on 17 January 1948, the agreement was an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the disputes that arose following the 1946 Linggadjati Agreement
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Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
(TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
(MTB).[1]
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Plombage
Plombage
Plombage
was a surgical method used prior to the introduction of anti-tuberculosis drug therapy to treat cavitary tuberculosis of the upper lobe of the lung. The term derives from the Latin word "plumbum" (lead) and refers to the insertion of an inert substance in the pleural space. The technical medical term for plombage is extraperiosteal or extrapleural pneumonolysis. The underlying theory of plombage treatment was the belief that if the diseased lobe of the lung was physically forced to collapse, it would heal quickly. There were positive results in tuberculosis therapy following plombage in the decades of the 1930s, 1940s and early-1950s. However, with the introduction of drugs which were effective in destroying the tuberculosis bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), plombage treatment fell into disfavor. In addition, complications of plombage began to appear in patients who had been so treated
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Mount Lawu
Mount Lawu, or Gunung Lawu, is a massive compound stratovolcano straddling the border between East Java
Java
and Central Java, Indonesia. The north side is deeply eroded and the eastern side contains parasitic crater lakes and parasitic cones. A fumarolic area is located on the south flank at 2,550 m. The only reported activity of Lawu took place in 1885, when rumblings and light volcanic ash falls were reported.[1]Contents1 Cultural features 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksCultural features[edit] The western slopes of Lawu have a number of graveyards - including Astana Giribangun
Astana Giribangun
and Mangkunegaran Earlier structures on the western slopes also include Candi Ceto
Candi Ceto
and Candi SukuhSee also[edit] Indonesia
Indonesia
portalList of volcanoes in Indonesia List of Ultras of Malay ArchipelagoReferences[edit]^ a b c "Lawu". Global Volcanism Program
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Show Of Force
A show of force is a military operation intended to warn (such as a warning shot) or to intimidate an opponent by showcasing a capability or will to act if one is provoked. Shows of force may also be executed by police forces and other armed, non-military groups.Contents1 Function 2 Risk of escalation 3 Notable examples 4 See also 5 ReferencesFunction[edit]Many strike missions by aircraft over insurgency areas involve the use of flare drops and low-level passes only and are intended to intimidate suspected enemy forces rather than to be immediately used for attacks.Shows of force have historically been undertaken mostly by a military actor unwilling to engage in all-out hostilities, but fearing to 'lose face' (to appear weak)
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Half-mast
Half-mast
Half-mast
or half-staff refers to a flag flying below the summit on a pole. In many countries this is seen as a symbol of respect, mourning, distress, or in some cases, a salute.[1] Strictly speaking, flags are said to be half-mast if flown from ships, and half-staff if on land, although not all regional variations of English use "half-staff".[2] The tradition of flying the flag at half-mast began in the 17th century.[3] According to some sources, the flag is lowered to make room for an "invisible flag of death" flying above.[4] However, there is disagreement about where on a flagpole a flag should be when it is at half-staff
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Esprit De Corps
Morale, also known as esprit de corps (French pronunciation: ​[ɛspʀi də kɔʀ]), is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship. Morale is often referenced by authority figures as a generic value judgment of the willpower, obedience, and self-discipline of a group tasked with performing duties assigned by a superior. According to Alexander H. Leighton, "morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose".[1] Morale is important in the military, because it improves unit cohesion. Without good morale, a force will be more likely to give up or surrender. Morale is usually assessed at a collective, rather than an individual level. In wartime, civilian morale is also important
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Indonesian Rupiah
The rupiah (Rp) is the official currency of Indonesia. Issued and controlled by Bank Indonesia, the ISO 4217
ISO 4217
currency code for the Indonesian rupiah
Indonesian rupiah
is IDR. The name "Rupiah" is derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for silver, rupyakam (रूप्यकम्)[2]. Informally, Indonesians also use the word "perak" ("silver" in Indonesian) in referring to rupiah. The rupiah is subdivided into 100 sen, although inflation has rendered all coins and banknotes denominated in sen obsolete. Introduced in 1946 by Indonesian nationalists fighting for independence, the currency replaced a version of the Netherlands Indies gulden which had been introduced during the Japanese occupation in World War II
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Taman Siswa
The Taman Siswa
Taman Siswa
(literally "Garden of Students" or "Students' Garden") was a Javanese educational movement in the Dutch East Indies, founded by Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat, a Javanese nobleman, also known as Ki Hadjar Dewantara
Ki Hadjar Dewantara
(1889–1959), in July 1922. Sources[edit]Meijers, C. H., 1973, De Taman Siswa
Taman Siswa
en het regeringsonderwijs: Ontwikkelingen in het Indonesische onderwijs vanaf 1945. Amsterdam: Doctoraalscriptie. Reksohadiprodjo, Mohammad Said, 1976, Taman Siswa's Gedachten Wereld. Jakarta, Indonesia: Yayasan Idayu. Tsuchiya, Kenji, 1988, Democracy and Leadership: The Rise of the Taman Siswa Movement in Indonesia. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-8248-1157-7 Ki Hadjar Dewantara, 1935, Een en ander over Nationaal Onderwijs en het Instituut 'Taman Siswa' te Jogjakarta Tuin, J
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Priyayi
Priyayi
Priyayi
(former spelling: Prijaji) was the Dutch-era class of the nobles of the Robe, as opposed to royal nobility or ningrat (Javanese), in Java, Indonesia's most populous island. Priyayi
Priyayi
was a word coined in Javanese word for the descendants of the adipati or governors, the first of whom were appointed in the 17th century by the Sultan Agung of Mataram
Sultan Agung of Mataram
to administer the principalities he had conquered
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Javanese Calendar
The Javanese calendar
Javanese calendar
(Javanese: ꦥꦤꦁꦒꦭ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦗꦮ, translit. Pananggalan Jawa) is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
and the Islamic calendar. The Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
is the official calendar of the Republic of Indonesia
Republic of Indonesia
and civil society, while the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
is used by Muslims and Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays. The Javanese calendar
Javanese calendar
is used by the main ethnicities of Java island: Javanese, Madurese and Sundanese people
Sundanese people
 – primarily as a cultural icon, a cultural identifier and as an object and tradition of antiquity to be kept alive
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