HOME
The Info List - Sukarno



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

SUKARNO (Javanese : ꦯꦸꦏꦂꦤ; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia , serving in office from 1945 to 1967.

Sukarno
Sukarno
was the leader of his country's struggle for Independence from the Netherlands . He was a prominent leader of Indonesia's nationalist movement during the Dutch colonial period, and spent over a decade under Dutch detention until released by the invading Japanese forces. Sukarno
Sukarno
and his fellow nationalists collaborated to garner support for the Japanese war effort from the population, in exchange for Japanese aid in spreading nationalist ideas. Upon Japanese surrender, Sukarno
Sukarno
and Mohammad Hatta declared Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945, and Sukarno
Sukarno
was appointed as first president. He led Indonesians in resisting Dutch re-colonization efforts via diplomatic and military means until the Dutch acknowledgment of Indonesian independence in 1949. Author Pramoedya Ananta Toer once wrote " Sukarno
Sukarno
was the only Asian leader of the modern era able to unify people of such differing ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds without shedding a drop of blood."

After a chaotic period of parliamentary democracy , Sukarno established an autocratic system called " Guided Democracy
Guided Democracy
" in 1957 that successfully ended the instability and rebellions which were threatening the survival of the diverse and fractious country. The early 1960s saw Sukarno
Sukarno
veering Indonesia
Indonesia
to the left by providing support and protection to the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) to the irritation of the military and Islamists . He also embarked on a series of aggressive foreign policies under the rubric of anti-imperialism , with aid from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and China
China
. The 30 September Movement (1965) led to the destruction of the PKI and his replacement in 1967 by one of his generals, Suharto (see Transition to the New Order ), and he remained under house arrest until his death.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name * 2 Background * 3 Independence struggle * 4 World War II and the Japanese occupation * 5 War leader * 6 Figurehead president

* 7 \'Guided Democracy\' and increasing autocracy

* 7.1 Foreign policy * 7.2 Domestic tensions

* 8 Removal from power and death * 9 Family * 10 Honours

* 11 In popular culture

* 11.1 Books * 11.2 Songs * 11.3 Movies

* 12 See also

* 13 References

* 13.1 General * 13.2 Notes

* 14 External links

NAME

The spelling SOEKARNO, based on Dutch orthography , is still frequently used, mainly because he signed his name in the old spelling. Sukarno
Sukarno
himself insisted on a "u", not "oe", but said that he had been told in school to use the Dutch style. He said that it was too difficult to change his signature, so still wrote it with an "oe". Official Indonesian presidential decrees from the period 1947–1968, however, printed his name using the 1947 spelling. The Soekarno–Hatta International Airport which serves near Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia, still uses the Dutch spelling.

Indonesians also remember him as BUNG KARNO (Brother/Comrade Karno) or PAK KARNO ("Mr. Karno"). Like many Javanese people , he had only one name . According to author Pramoedya Ananta Toer in several interviews, "bung" is an affectionate title meaning "friend" creatively used to be an alternative way of addressing person in equal manner, as an opposite word of old-form "tuan", "mas" or "bang".

He is sometimes referred to in foreign accounts as "ACHMAD SUKARNO", or some variation thereof. The fictitious first name may have been added by western journalists confused over someone with just a single name, or by Indonesian supporters of independence to attract support from Muslim countries.

BACKGROUND

Sukarno
Sukarno
as an HBS student in Surabaya
Surabaya
, 1916

The son of a Javanese primary school teacher, an aristocrat named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo, and his Balinese wife from the Brahmin varna named Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai from Buleleng regency, Sukarno
Sukarno
was born at Jalan Pandean IV/40 Soerabaia (now known as Surabaya
Surabaya
), East Java, in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
(now Indonesia) . He was originally named KUSNO SOSRODIHARJO Javanese pronunciation: . Following Javanese custom, he was renamed after surviving a childhood illness. After graduating from a native primary school in 1912, he was sent to the Europeesche Lagere School (a Dutch primary school) in Mojokerto . Subsequently, in 1916, Sukarno
Sukarno
went to a Hogere Burgerschool (a Dutch type higher level secondary school) in Surabaya
Surabaya
, where he met Tjokroaminoto , a nationalist and founder of Sarekat Islam . In 1920, Sukarno
Sukarno
married Tjokroaminoto 's daughter Siti Oetari. In 1921, he began to study civil engineering (with focusing on architecture ) at the Technische Hoogeschool te Bandoeng (Bandoeng Institute of Technology), where he obtained an Ingenieur degree (abbreviated as "Ir.", a Dutch type engineer\'s degree ) in 1926. During his study in Bandung
Bandung
, Sukarno
Sukarno
became romantically involved with Inggit Garnasih, the wife of Sanoesi, the owner of the boarding house where he lived as a student. Inggit was 13 years older than Sukarno. In March 1923, Sukarno
Sukarno
divorced Siti Oetari to marry Inggit (who also divorced her husband Sanoesi). Sukarno
Sukarno
later divorced Inggit and married Fatmawati.

After graduation in 1926, Sukarno
Sukarno
and his university friend Anwari established the architectural firm Sukarno
Sukarno
the Youth Monument (Tugu Muda) in Semarang
Semarang
; the Alun-alun Monument in Malang
Malang
; the Heroes' Monument in Surabaya
Surabaya
; and also the new city of Palangkaraya in Central Kalimantan .

Atypically even among the country's small educated elite, Sukarno
Sukarno
was fluent in several languages. In addition to the Javanese language of his childhood, he was a master of Sundanese , Balinese and of Indonesian , and was especially strong in Dutch. He was also quite comfortable in German , English, French , Arabic , and Japanese , all of which were taught at his HBS. He was helped by his photographic memory and precocious mind .

In his studies, Sukarno
Sukarno
was "intensely modern," both in architecture and in politics. He despised both the traditional Javanese feudalism , which he considered "backward" and to blame for the fall of the country under Dutch occupation and exploitation, and the imperialism practiced by Western countries, which he termed as "exploitation of humans by other humans" (exploitation de l'homme par l'homme). He blamed this for the deep poverty and low levels of education of Indonesian people under the Dutch. To promote nationalistic pride amongst Indonesians, Sukarno
Sukarno
interpreted these ideas in his dress, in his urban planning for the capital (eventually Jakarta
Jakarta
), and in his socialist politics, though he did not extend his taste for modern art to pop music ; he had Koes Bersaudara imprisoned for their allegedly decadent lyrics despite his own reputation for womanising. For Sukarno, modernity was blind to race, neat and elegant in style, and anti-imperialist.

INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE

See also: Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival

Sukarno
Sukarno
was first exposed to nationalist ideas while living under Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto . Later, while a student in Bandung
Bandung
, he immersed himself in European, American, Nationalist, communist, and religious political philosophy, eventually developing his own political ideology of Indonesian-style socialist self-sufficiency. He began styling his ideas as Marhaenism , named after Marhaen, an Indonesian peasant he met in southern Bandung
Bandung
area, who owned his little plot of land and worked on it himself, producing sufficient income to support his family. In university, Sukarno
Sukarno
began organising a study club for Indonesian students, the Algemeene Studieclub, in opposition to the established student clubs dominated by Dutch students.

On 4 July 1927, Sukarno
Sukarno
with his friends from the Algemeene Studieclub established a pro-independence party, Partai Nasional Indonesia
Indonesia
(PNI), of which Sukarno
Sukarno
was elected the first leader. The party advocated independence for Indonesia, and opposed imperialism and capitalism because it opined that both systems worsened the life of Indonesian people. The party also advocated secularism and unity amongst the many different ethnicities in the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
, to establish a united Indonesia. Sukarno
Sukarno
also hoped that Japan would commence a war against the western powers and that Java
Java
could then gain its independence with Japan's aid. Coming soon after the disintegration of Sarekat Islam in the early 1920s and the crushing of Partai Komunis Indonesia
Indonesia
after their failed rebellion of 1926, PNI began to attract a large number of followers, particularly among the new university-educated youths eager for larger freedoms and opportunities denied to them in the racist and constrictive political system of Dutch colonialism. Sukarno
Sukarno
with fellow defendants and attorneys during his trial in Bandung
Bandung
, 1930.

PNI activities came to the attention of the colonial government, and Sukarno's speeches and meetings were often infiltrated and disrupted by agents of the colonial secret police (Politieke Inlichtingen Dienst/PID). Eventually, Sukarno
Sukarno
and other key PNI leaders were arrested on 29 December 1929 by Dutch colonial authorities in a series of raids throughout Java. Sukarno
Sukarno
himself was arrested while on a visit to Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
. During his trial at the Bandung
Bandung
Landraad courthouse from August to December 1930, Sukarno
Sukarno
made a series of long political speeches attacking colonialism and imperialism, titled Indonesia
Indonesia
Menggoegat ( Indonesia Accuses ).

In December 1930, Sukarno
Sukarno
was sentenced to four years in prison, which were served in Sukamiskin prison in Bandung. His speech, however, received wide coverage by the press, and due to strong pressure from the liberal elements in both Netherlands and Dutch East Indies , Sukarno
Sukarno
was released early on 31 December 1931. By this time, he had become a popular hero widely known throughout Indonesia.

However, during his imprisonment, PNI had been splintered by oppression of colonial authorities and internal dissension. The original PNI was disbanded by the Dutch, and its former members formed two different parties; the Partai Indonesia
Indonesia
(Partindo) under Sukarno's associate Sartono who were promoting mass agitation, and the Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia
Indonesia
(PNI Baroe) under Mohammad Hatta and Soetan Sjahrir , two nationalists who recently returned from studies in the Netherlands, and who were promoting a long-term strategy of providing modern education to the uneducated Indonesian populace to develop an intellectual elite able to offer effective resistance to Dutch rule. After attempting to reconcile the two parties to establish one united nationalist front, Sukarno
Sukarno
chose to become the head of Partindo on 28 July 1932. Partindo had maintained its alignment with Sukarno's own strategy of immediate mass agitation, and Sukarno disagreed with Hatta's long-term cadre-based struggle. Hatta himself believed Indonesian independence would not occur within his lifetime, while Sukarno
Sukarno
believed Hatta's strategy ignored the fact that politics can only make real changes through formation and utilisation of force (machtsvorming en machtsaanwending).

During this period, to support himself and the party financially, Sukarno
Sukarno
returned to architecture, opening the bureau of Soekarno
Soekarno
"> Sukarno
Sukarno
at his home in exile, Bengkulu .

This time, to prevent providing Sukarno
Sukarno
with a platform to make political speeches, the hardline governor-general Jonkheer Bonifacius Cornelis de Jonge utilised his emergency powers to send Sukarno
Sukarno
to internal exile without trial. In 1934, Sukarno
Sukarno
was shipped, along with his family (including Inggit Garnasih), to the remote town of Ende , on the island of Flores
Flores
. During his time in Flores, he utilised his limited freedom of movement to establish a children's theatre. Among its members was future politician Frans Seda . Due to an outbreak of malaria in Flores, the Dutch authorities decided to move Sukarno
Sukarno
and his family to Bencoolen (now Bengkulu) on western coast of Sumatra
Sumatra
, in February 1938.

In Bengkulu , Sukarno
Sukarno
became acquainted with Hassan Din, the local head of Muhammadiyah organisation, and he was allowed to teach religious teachings at a local school owned by the Muhammadiyah . One of his students was 15-year-old Fatmawati , daughter of Hassan Din. He became romantically involved with Fatmawati, which he justified by stating the inability of Inggit Garnasih to produce children during their almost 20-year marriage. Sukarno
Sukarno
was still in Bengkulu exile when the Japanese invaded the archipelago in 1942.

WORLD WAR II AND THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION

See also: Japanese occupation of Indonesia

In early 1929, during the Indonesian National Revival , Sukarno
Sukarno
and fellow Indonesian nationalist leader Mohammad Hatta (later Vice President ), first foresaw a Pacific War and the opportunity that a Japanese advance on Indonesia
Indonesia
might present for the Indonesian independence cause. In February 1942 Imperial Japan
Imperial Japan
invaded the Dutch East Indies quickly defeating Dutch forces who marched, bussed and trucked Sukarno
Sukarno
and his entourage three hundred kilometres from Bengkulu to Padang , Sumatra
Sumatra
. They intended keeping him prisoner and shipping him to Australia, but abruptly abandoned him to save themselves upon the impending approach of Japanese forces on Padang.

The Japanese had their own files on Sukarno
Sukarno
and the Japanese commander in Sumatra
Sumatra
approached him with respect, wanting to use him to organise and pacify the Indonesians. Sukarno
Sukarno
on the other hand wanted to use the Japanese to gain independence for Indonesia: "The Lord be praised, God showed me the way; in that valley of the Ngarai I said: Yes, Independent Indonesia
Indonesia
can only be achieved with Dai Nippon...For the first time in all my life, I saw myself in the mirror of Asia." In July 1942, Sukarno
Sukarno
was sent back to Jakarta
Jakarta
, where he re-united with other nationalist leaders recently released by the Japanese, including Mohammad Hatta . There, he met the Japanese commander General Hitoshi Imamura , who asked Sukarno
Sukarno
and other nationalists to galvanise support from Indonesian populace to aid Japanese war effort. Play media 1966 ABC report examining Sukarno's alliance between imperial Japan and the Indonesian nationalist movement

Sukarno
Sukarno
was willing to support the Japanese, in exchange for a platform for himself to spread nationalist ideas to the mass population. The Japanese, on the other hand, needed Indonesia's manpower and natural resources to help its war effort. The Japanese recruited millions of people, particularly from Java
Java
, to be forced labor called "romusha " in Japanese . They were forced to build railways, airfields, and other facilities for the Japanese within Indonesia
Indonesia
and as far away as Burma. Additionally, the Japanese requistioned rice and other food produced by Indonesian peasants to supply their own troops, while forcing the peasantry to cultivate castor oil plants to be used as aviation fuel and lubricants.

To gain cooperation from Indonesian population and to prevent resistance to these measures, the Japanese put Sukarno
Sukarno
as head of Tiga-A mass organisation movement. In March 1943, the Japanese formed a new organisation called Poesat Tenaga Rakjat (POETERA/ Center of People's Power) under Sukarno, Hatta, Ki Hadjar Dewantara , and KH Mas Mansjoer . The aim of these organisations were to galvanise popular support for recruitment of romusha forced labor, requisitioning of food products, and to promote pro-Japanese and anti-Western sentiments amongst Indonesians. Sukarno
Sukarno
coined the term, Amerika kita setrika, Inggris kita linggis ("Let's iron America, and bludgeon the British") to promote anti-Allied sentiments. In later years, Sukarno
Sukarno
was lastingly ashamed of his role with the romusha. Additionally, food requisitioning by the Japanese caused widespread famine in Java
Java
which killed more than one million people in 1944–1945. In his view, these were necessary sacrifices to be made to allow for future independence of Indonesia. He also was involved with the formation of Pembela Tanah Air (PETA) and Heiho (Indonesian volunteer army troops) via speeches broadcast on the Japanese radio and loud speaker networks across Java
Java
and Sumatra. By mid-1945 these units numbered around two million, and were preparing to defeat any Allied forces sent to re-take Java.

In the meantime, Sukarno
Sukarno
eventually divorced Inggit, who refused to accept her husband's wish for polygamy. She was provided with a house in Bandung
Bandung
and a pension for the rest of her life. In 1943, he married Fatmawati . They lived in a house in Jalan Pegangsaan Timur No. 56, confiscated from its previous Dutch owners and presented to Sukarno
Sukarno
by the Japanese. This house would later be the venue of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945.

On 10 November 1943 Sukarno
Sukarno
and Hatta were sent on a seventeen-day tour of Japan, where they were decorated by the Emperor Hirohito
Hirohito
and wined and dined in the house of Prime Minister Hideki Tojo
Hideki Tojo
in Tokyo
Tokyo
. On 7 September 1944, with the war going badly for the Japanese, Prime Minister Kuniaki Koiso
Kuniaki Koiso
promised independence for Indonesia, although no date was set. This announcement was seen, according to the U.S. official history, as immense vindication for Sukarno's apparent collaboration with the Japanese. The U.S. at the time considered Sukarno
Sukarno
one of the "foremost collaborationist leaders."

On 29 April 1945, with the fall of Philippines
Philippines
to American hands, the Japanese allowed for the establishment of Badan Penjelidik Oesaha-oesaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia
Indonesia
( BPUPKI ), a quasi-legislature consisting of 67 representatives from most ethnic groups in Indonesia. Sukarno
Sukarno
was appointed as head of BPUPKI and was tasked to lead discussion to prepare the basis of a future Indonesian state. To provide a common and acceptable platform to unite the various squabbling factions in BPUPKI, Sukarno
Sukarno
formulated his ideological thinking developed for the past twenty years into five principles. On 1 June 1945, he introduced these five principles, known as pancasila , during the joint session of BPUPKI held in the former Volksraad Building (now called Gedung Pancasila).

Pancasila as presented by Sukarno
Sukarno
during the BPUPKI speech, consisted of five common principles which Sukarno
Sukarno
saw as commonly shared by all Indonesians:

* Nationalism, whereby a united Indonesian state would stretch from Sabang to Merauke , encompassing all former Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
* Internationalism, meaning Indonesia
Indonesia
is to appreciate human rights and contribute to world peace, and should not fall into chauvinistic fascism such as displayed by Nazis
Nazis
with their belief in the racial superiority of Aryans * Democracy, which Sukarno
Sukarno
believed has always been in the blood of Indonesians through the practice of consensus-seeking (musyawarah untuk mufakat), an Indonesian-style democracy different from Western-style liberalism * Social justice, a form of populist socialism in economics with Marxist-style opposition to free capitalism. Social justice also intended to provide equal share of the economy to all Indonesians, as opposed to the complete economic domination by the Dutch and Chinese during the colonial period * Belief in God, whereby all religions are treated equally and have religious freedom. Sukarno
Sukarno
saw Indonesians as spiritual and religious people, but in essence tolerant towards differing religious beliefs

On 22 June, the Islamic and nationalist elements of BPUPKI created a small committee of nine, which formulated Sukarno's ideas into the five-point Pancasila , in a document known as the Jakarta
Jakarta
Charter:

* Belief in one and only Almighty God with obligation for Muslims to adhere to Islamic law * Civilised and just humanity * Unity of Indonesia * Democracy through inner wisdom and representative consensus-building * Social justice for all Indonesians

Due to pressure from the Islamic element, the first principle mentioned the obligation for Muslims to practice Islamic law (sharia ). However, the final Sila as contained in the 1945 Constitution which was put into effect on 18 August 1945, excluded the reference to Islamic law for sake of national unity. The elimination of sharia was done by Mohammad Hatta based upon request by Christian representative Alexander Andries Maramis , and after consultation with moderate Islamic representatives Teuku Mohammad Hassan, Kasman Singodimedjo, and Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo.

On 7 August 1945, the Japanese allowed the formation of a smaller Panitia Penjelidik Kemerdekaan Indonesia
Indonesia
( PPKI ), a 21-person committee tasked with creating specific governmental structure of future Indonesian state. On 9 August, the top leaders of PPKI (Sukarno, Hatta, and KRT Radjiman Wediodiningrat ), were summoned by Commander-in-Chief of Japan's Southern Expeditionary Forces, Field Marshal Hisaichi Terauchi , to Da Lat , 100 km from Saigon
Saigon
. Field Marshal Terauchi gave Sukarno
Sukarno
the freedom to proceed with preparation for Indonesian independence, free of Japanese interference. After much wining and dining, Sukarno's entourage was flown back to Jakarta
Jakarta
on 14 August. Unbeknownst to the guests, atomic bombs had been dropped on Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
, and the Japanese were preparing for surrender.

The following day, on 15 August, the Japanese declared their acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration terms, and unconditionally surrendered to the Allies. On the afternoon of that day, Sukarno received this information from leaders of youth groups and members of PETA Chairul Saleh , Soekarni , and Wikana , who had been listening to Western radio broadcasts. They urged Sukarno
Sukarno
to declare Indonesian independence immediately, while the Japanese were in confusion and before the arrival of Allied forces. Faced with this quick turn of events, Sukarno
Sukarno
procrastinated. He feared bloodbath due to hostile response from the Japanese to such a move, and was concerned with prospects of future Allied retribution.

At early morning on 16 August, the three youth leaders, impatient with Sukarno's indecision, kidnapped him from his house and brought him to a small house in Rengasdengklok, Karawang , owned by a Chinese family and occupied by PETA. There they gained Sukarno's commitment to declare independence the next day. That night, the youths drove Sukarno
Sukarno
back to the house of Admiral Tadashi Maeda, the Japanese naval liaison officer in the Menteng
Menteng
area of Jakarta, who sympathised with Indonesian independence. There, he and his assistant Sajoeti Melik prepared the text of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence .

WAR LEADER

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), declaring the independence of Indonesia. See also: Indonesian National Revolution and Liberal democracy period in Indonesia

In the early morning of 17 August 1945, Sukarno
Sukarno
returned to his house at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur No. 56, where he was joined by Mohammad Hatta . Throughout the morning, impromptu leaflets printed by PETA and youth elements informed the population of the impending proclamation. Finally, at 10 am, Sukarno
Sukarno
and Hatta stepped to the front porch, where Sukarno
Sukarno
declared the independence of the Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
in front of a crowd of 500 people. This most historic of buildings had, however, been ordered to be demolished by Sukarno
Sukarno
himself, without any apparent reason.

On the following day, 18 August, PPKI declared the basic governmental structure of the new Republic of Indonesia:

* Appointing Sukarno
Sukarno
and Mohammad Hatta as President and Vice-President and their cabinet. * Putting into effect the 1945 Indonesian constitution , which by this time excluded any reference to Islamic law. * Setting a Central Indonesian National Committee
Central Indonesian National Committee
(Komite Nasional Indonesia
Indonesia
Poesat/KNIP) to assist the president prior to election of a parliament.

Sukarno's vision for the 1945 Indonesian constitution comprised the Pancasila (five principles). Sukarno's political philosophy was mainly a fusion of elements of Marxism
Marxism
, nationalism and Islam
Islam
. This is reflected in a proposition of his version of Pancasila he proposed to the BPUPKI (Inspectorate of Indonesian Independence Preparation Efforts) in a speech on 1 June 1945.

Sukarno
Sukarno
argued that all of the principles of the nation could be summarized in the phrase gotong royong . The Indonesian parliament, founded on the basis of this original (and subsequently revised) constitution, proved all but ungovernable. This was due to irreconcilable differences between various social, political, religious and ethnic factions.

In the days following the Proclamation, the news of Indonesian independence was spread by radio, newspaper, leaflets, and word of mouth despite attempts by the Japanese soldiers to suppress the news. On 19 September, Sukarno
Sukarno
addressed a crowd of one million people at the Ikada Field of Jakarta
Jakarta
(now part of Merdeka Square ) to commemorate one month of independence, indicating the strong level of popular support for the new republic, at least on Java
Java
and Sumatra. In these two islands, the Sukarno
Sukarno
government quickly established governmental control while the remaining Japanese mostly retreated to their barracks awaiting arrival of Allied forces. This period was marked by constant attacks by armed groups on Europeans, Chinese, Christians, native aristocracy and anyone who were perceived to oppose Indonesian independence. The most serious cases were the Social Revolutions in Aceh
Aceh
and North Sumatra
Sumatra
, where large numbers of Acehnese and Malay aristocrats were killed by Islamic groups (in Aceh) and communist-led mobs (in North Sumatra), and the "Three Regions Affair" in northwestern coast of Central Java
Java
where large numbers of Europeans, Chinese, and native aristocrats were butchered by mobs. These bloody incidences continued until late 1945 to early 1946, and begin to peter-out as Republican authorities begin to exert and consolidate control.

Sukarno's government initially postponed the formation of a national army, for fear of antagonizing the Allied occupation forces and their doubt over whether they would have been able to form an adequate military apparatus to maintain control of seized territory. The members of various militia groups formed during Japanese occupation such as the disbanded PETA and Heiho, at that time were encouraged to join the BKR—Badan Keamanan Rakjat (The People's Security Organization)—itself a subordinate of the "War Victims Assistance Organization". It was only in October 1945 that the BKR was reformed into the TKR—Tentara Keamanan Rakjat (The People's Security Army) in response to the increasing Allied and Dutch presence in Indonesia. The TKR armed themselves mostly by attacking Japanese troops and confiscating their weapons.

Due to the sudden transfer of Java
Java
and Sumatra
Sumatra
from General Douglas MacArthur 's American-controlled Southwest Pacific Command to Lord Louis Mountbatten 's British-controlled Southeast Asian Command, the first Allied soldiers (1st Battalion of Seaforth Highlanders) did not arrive in Jakarta
Jakarta
until late September 1945. British forces began to occupy major Indonesian cities in October 1945. The commander of the British 23rd Division, Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison , set up command in the former governor-general's palace in Jakarta. Christison stated his intentions were to free all Allied prisoners-of-war, and to allow the return of Indonesia
Indonesia
to its pre-war status, as a colony of Netherlands. The Republican government were willing to cooperate with the release and repatriation of Allied civilian and military POWs, setting-up the Committee for the Repatriation of Japanese and Allied Prisoners of Wars and Internees (Panitia Oeroesan Pengangkoetan Djepang dan APWI/POPDA) for this purpose. POPDA, in cooperation with the British, repatriated more than 70,000 Japanese and Allied POWs and internees by the end of 1946. However, due to the relative weakness of the military of the Republic of Indonesia, Sukarno
Sukarno
sought independence by gaining international recognition for his new country rather than engage in battle with British and Dutch military forces.

Sukarno
Sukarno
was aware that his history as a Japanese collaborator and his leadership in the Japanese-approved PUTERA during the Occupation would make the Western countries distrustful of him. To help gain international recognition as well as to accommodate domestic demands for representation, Sukarno
Sukarno
"allowed" the formation of a parliamentary system of government, whereby a prime minister controlled day-to-day affairs of the government, while Sukarno
Sukarno
as president remained as figurehead. The prime minister and his cabinet would be responsible to the Central Indonesian National Committee
Central Indonesian National Committee
instead of the president. On 14 November 1945, Sukarno
Sukarno
appointed Sutan Sjahrir as first prime minister; he was a European-educated politician who was never involved with the Japanese occupation authorities.

In late 1945 Dutch administrators who led the Dutch East Indies government-in-exile and soldiers who had fought the Japanese began to return under the name of Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA), with the protection of the British. They were led by Hubertus Johannes van Mook , a colonial administrator who had evacuated to Brisbane
Brisbane
, Australia. Dutch soldiers who had been POWs under the Japanese were released and rearmed. Shooting between these Dutch soldiers and police supporting the new Republican government Indonesian and civilians soon developed. This soon escalated to armed conflict between the newly constituted Republican forces aided by a myriad of pro-independence mobs and the Dutch and British forces. On 10 November, a full-scale battle broke out in Surabaya
Surabaya
between the British Indian 49th Infantry Brigade and the indigenous Indonesian population. The Indians were supported by air and naval forces. Some 300 Indian soldiers were killed (including their commander Brigadier Aubertin Walter Sothern Mallaby ) along with thousands of Indonesians. Shootouts broke out with alarming regularity in Jakarta
Jakarta
, including an attempted assassination of Prime Minister Sjahrir by Dutch gunmen. To avoid this menace, Sukarno
Sukarno
and majority of his government left for the safety of Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
on 4 January 1946. There, the Republican government received protection and full support from Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX . Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
would remain as the Republic's capital until the end of the war in 1949. Sjahrir remained in Jakarta
Jakarta
to conduct negotiations with the British.

The initial series of battles in late 1945 and early 1946 left the British in control of major port cities on Java
Java
and Sumatra. During the Japanese occupation, the Outer Islands (excluding Java
Java
and Sumatra) were occupied by the Japanese Navy ( Kaigun ), who did not allow for political mobilization of the islanders. Consequently, there were little Republican activity in these islands post-proclamation. Australian and Dutch forces were able to quickly take control of these islands without much fighting by end of 1945 (excluding the resistance of I Gusti Ngurah Rai in Bali, the insurgency in South Sulawesi , and fighting in Hulu Sungai area of South Kalimantan ). Meanwhile, the hinterland areas of Java
Java
and Sumatra
Sumatra
remained under Republican control.

Eager to pull its soldiers out of Indonesia, the British allowed for large-scale infusion of Dutch forces into the country throughout 1946. By November 1946, all British soldiers had been withdrawn from Indonesia. They were replaced with more than 150,000 Dutch soldiers. The British sent Lord Archibald Clark Kerr, 1st Baron Inverchapel and Miles Lampson, 1st Baron Killearn to bring the Dutch and Indonesians to the negotiating table. The result of these negotiations was the Linggadjati Agreement signed in November 1946, where the Dutch acknowledged de facto Republican sovereignty over Java, Sumatra, and Madura. In exchange, the Republicans were willing to discuss a future Commonwealth-like United Kingdom of Netherlands and Indonesia. Sukarno
Sukarno
addressing the KNIP (parliament) in Malang
Malang
, March 1947

Sukarno's decision to negotiate with the Dutch was met with strong opposition by various Indonesian factions. Tan Malaka
Tan Malaka
, a communist politician, organised these groups into a united front called the Persatoean Perdjoangan (PP). PP offered a "Minimum Program" which called for complete independence, nationalisation of all foreign properties, and rejection of all negotiations until all foreign troops are withdrawn. These programmes received widespread popular support, including from armed forces commander General Sudirman
Sudirman
. On 4 July 1946, military units linked with PP kidnapped Prime Minister Sjahrir who was visiting Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
. Sjahrir was leading the negotiation with the Dutch. Sukarno, after successfully influencing Sudirman
Sudirman
, managed to secure the release of Sjahrir and the arrest of Tan Malaka
Tan Malaka
and other PP leaders. Disapproval of Linggadjati terms within the KNIP led Sukarno
Sukarno
to issue a decree doubling KNIP membership by including many pro-agreement appointed members. As consequence, KNIP ratified the Linggadjati Agreement in March 1947.

On 21 July 1947, the Linggadjati Agreement was broken by the Dutch, who launched Operatie Product , a massive military invasion into Republican-held territories. Although the newly reconstituted TNI was unable to offer significant military resistance, the blatant violation by the Dutch of an internationally brokered agreement outraged world opinion. International pressure forced the Dutch to halt their invasion force in August 1947. Sjahrir, who has been replaced as prime minister by Amir Sjarifuddin , flew to New York City
New York City
to appeal Indonesian case in front of United Nations
United Nations
. UN Security Council issued a resolution calling for immediate ceasefire, and appointed a Good Offices Committee (GOC) to oversee the ceasefire. The GOC, based in Jakarta, consisted of delegations from Australia (led by Richard Kirby , chosen by Indonesia), Belgium (led by Paul van Zeeland , chosen by Netherlands), and United States (led by Frank Porter Graham , neutral).

The Republic was now under strong Dutch military stranglehold, with the Dutch military occupying West Java
Java
, and the northern coast of Central Java
Java
and East Java , along with the key productive areas of Sumatra
Sumatra
. Additionally, the Dutch navy blockaded Republican areas from supplies of vital food, medicine, and weapons. As a consequence, Prime Minister Amir Sjarifuddin has little choice but to sign the Renville Agreement on 17 January 1948, which acknowledged Dutch control over areas taken during Operatie Product , while the Republicans pledged to withdraw all forces that remained on the other side of the ceasefire line (" Van Mook Line "). Meanwhile, the Dutch begin to organize puppet states in the areas under their occupation, to counter Republican influence utilising ethnic diversity of Indonesia.

The signing of highly disadvantageous Renville Agreement caused even greater instability within the Republican political structure. In Dutch-occupied West Java, Darul Islam
Islam
guerrillas under Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo maintained their anti-Dutch resistance and repealed any loyalty to the Republic; they caused a bloody insurgency in West Java
Java
and other areas in the first decades of independence. Prime Minister Sjarifuddin , who signed the agreement, was forced to resign in January 1948, and was replaced by Mohammad Hatta . Hatta cabinet's policy of rationalising the armed forces by demobilising large numbers of armed groups that proliferated the Republican areas, also caused severe disaffection. Leftist political elements, led by resurgent Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) under Musso
Musso
took advantage of public disaffections by launching rebellion in Madiun , East Java , on 18 September 1948. Bloody fighting continued during late-September until end of October 1948, when the last communist bands were defeated and Musso
Musso
shot dead. The communists had overestimated their potential to oppose the strong appeal of Sukarno
Sukarno
amongst the population. Sukarno
Sukarno
and Foreign Minister Agus Salim
Agus Salim
in Dutch custody, Parapat 1949.

On 19 December 1948, to take advantage of the Republic's weak position following the communist rebellion, the Dutch launched Operatie Kraai , a second military invasion designed to crush the Republic once and for all. The invasion was initiated with an airborne assault on Republican capital Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
. Sukarno
Sukarno
ordered the armed forces under Sudirman
Sudirman
to launch guerilla campaign in the countryside, while he and other key leaders such as Hatta and Sjahrir allowed themselves to be taken prisoner by the Dutch. To ensure continuity of government, Sukarno
Sukarno
sent a telegram to Sjafruddin Prawiranegara , providing him the mandate to lead an Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia
Indonesia
(PDRI), based on the unoccupied hinterlands of West Sumatra
Sumatra
, a position he kept until Sukarno
Sukarno
was released in June 1949. The Dutch sent Sukarno
Sukarno
and other captured Republican leaders to captivity in Prapat, in Dutch-occupied part of North Sumatra
Sumatra
and later to the island of Bangka . Sukarno's return to Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
in June 1949

The second Dutch invasion caused even more international outrage. The United States, impressed by Indonesia's ability to defeat the 1948 communist challenge without outside help, threatened to cut off Marshall Aid
Marshall Aid
funds to the Netherlands if military operations in Indonesia
Indonesia
continued. TNI did not disintegrate and continued to wage guerilla resistance against the Dutch, most notably the assault on Dutch-held Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
led by Lieutenant-Colonel Suharto on 1 March 1949. Consequently, the Dutch were forced to sign the Roem-van Roijen Agreement on 7 May 1949. According to this treaty, the Dutch released the Republican leadership and returned the area surrounding Yogyakarta to Republican control in June 1949. This was followed by the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference held in The Hague
The Hague
which led to the complete transfer of sovereignty by the Queen Juliana of the Netherlands to Indonesia, on 27 December 1949. On that day, Sukarno flew from Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
to Jakarta
Jakarta
, making a triumphant speech at the steps of the governor-general's palace, immediately renamed the Merdeka Palace ("Independence Palace").

FIGUREHEAD PRESIDENT

Sukarno
Sukarno
(on top of the steps) reading his decree on 5 July 1959 Main article: Guided Democracy
Guided Democracy
in Indonesia
Indonesia

The impressive military victories over the PRRI- Permesta
Permesta
rebels and the popular nationalisation of Dutch companies left Sukarno
Sukarno
in a very strong position. On 5 July 1959, Sukarno
Sukarno
reinstated the 1945 constitution by presidential decree . It established a presidential system which he believed would make it easier to implement the principles of guided democracy. He called the system Manifesto Politik or Manipol—but it was actually government by decree. Sukarno envisioned an Indonesian-style socialist society, adherent to the principle of USDEK:

* Undang-Undang Dasar '45 (Constitution of 1945) * Sosialisme Indonesia
Indonesia
(Indonesian socialism ) * Demokrasi Terpimpin (Guided Democracy) * Ekonomi Terpimpin (Commanded Economy ). * Kepribadian Indonesia
Indonesia
(Indonesia's Identity)

The structure of Sukarno's guided democracy in 1962

In March 1960, Sukarno
Sukarno
disbanded parliament and replaced it with a new parliament where half the members were appointed by the president (Dewan Perwakilan Rakjat – Gotong Rojong / DPR-GR). In September 1960, he established a Provisional People\'s Consultative Assembly (Madjelis Permusjawaratan Rakjat Sementara/MPRS) as the highest legislative authority according to the 1945 constitution. MPRS members consisted of members of DPR-GR and members of "functional groups" appointed by the president.

With the backing of the military, Sukarno
Sukarno
disbanded the Islamic party Masyumi and Sutan Sjahrir 's party PSI , accusing them of involvement with PRRI- Permesta
Permesta
affair. The military arrested and imprisoned many of Sukarno's political opponents, from socialist Sjahrir to Islamic politicians Mohammad Natsir and Hamka . Using martial law powers, the government closed-down newspapers who were critical of Sukarno's policies.

During this period, there were several assassination attempts on Sukarno's life. On 9 March 1960, Daniel Maukar, an Indonesian airforce lieutenant who sympathised with the Permesta
Permesta
rebellion, strafed the Merdeka Palace and Bogor Palace with his MiG-17
MiG-17
fighter jet, attempting to kill the president; he was not injured. In May 1962, Darul Islam
Islam
agents shot at the president during Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
prayers on the grounds of the palace. Sukarno
Sukarno
again escaped injury.

On the security front, the military started a series of effective campaigns which ended the long-festering Darul Islam
Islam
rebellion in West Java
Java
(1962), Aceh
Aceh
(1962), and South Sulawesi (1965). Kartosuwirjo , the leader of Darul Islam, was captured and executed in September 1962.

To counterbalance the power of the military, Sukarno
Sukarno
started to rely on the support of the Communist Party of Indonesia
Communist Party of Indonesia
(PKI). In 1960, he declared his government to be based on Nasakom , a union of the three ideological strands present in Indonesian society: nasionalisme (nationalism), agama (religions), and komunisme (communism). Accordingly, Sukarno
Sukarno
started admitting more communists into his government, while developing a strong relationship with the PKI chairman Dipa Nusantara Aidit .

In order to increase Indonesia's prestige, Sukarno
Sukarno
supported and won the bid for the 1962 Asian Games held in Jakarta
Jakarta
. Many sporting facilities such as the Senayan sports complex (including the 100,000-seat Bung Karno Stadium ) were built to accommodate the games. There was political tension when the Indonesians refused the entry of delegations from Israel
Israel
and Taiwan
Taiwan
. After the International Olympic Committee imposed sanctions on Indonesia
Indonesia
due to this exclusion policy, Sukarno
Sukarno
retaliated by organising a "non-imperialist" competitor event to the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
, called the Games of New Emerging Forces (GANEFO ). GANEFO was successfully held in Jakarta
Jakarta
in November 1963, and was attended by 2,700 athletes from 51 countries.

As part of his prestige-building program, Sukarno
Sukarno
ordered the construction of large monumental buildings such as National Monument (Monumen Nasional) , Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta
Jakarta
, CONEFO Building (now the Parliament Building ), Hotel Indonesia , and the Sarinah shopping centre to transform Jakarta
Jakarta
from a former colonial backwater to a modern city. The modern Jakarta
Jakarta
boulevards of Jalan Thamrin, Jalan Sudirman, and Jalan Gatot Subroto was planned and constructed under Sukarno.

FOREIGN POLICY

Sukarno
Sukarno
addresses US Congress. Sitting behind him US Vice President/Senate President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
and US House Speaker Sam Rayburn .

As Sukarno's domestic authority was secured, he began to pay more attention to the world stage. He embarked on a series of aggressive and assertive policies based on anti-imperialism to increase Indonesia's international prestige. These anti-imperialist and anti-Western policies, often employing brinkmanship with other nations, were also designed to unite the diverse and fractious Indonesian people. In this, he was aided by his Foreign Minister Subandrio .

After his first visit to Beijing
Beijing
in 1956, Sukarno
Sukarno
began to strengthen his ties to the People's Republic of China
China
and the communist bloc in general. He also began to accept increasing amounts of Soviet bloc military aid. By the early 1960s, the Soviet bloc provided more aid to Indonesia
Indonesia
than to any other non-communist country, while Soviet military aid to Indonesia
Indonesia
was equalled only by its aid to Cuba. This large influx of communist aid prompted an increase in military aid from the Dwight Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy Administrations, which worried about a leftward drift should Sukarno
Sukarno
rely too much on Soviet bloc aid.

Sukarno
Sukarno
was feted during his visit to the United States in 1956, where he addressed a joint session of United States Congress
United States Congress
. So far it was the only time any Indonesian President addresses the Congress. Soon after his first visit to America, Sukarno
Sukarno
visited the Soviet Union , where he received an even more lavish welcome. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
paid a return visit to Jakarta
Jakarta
and Bali
Bali
in 1960, where he awarded Sukarno
Sukarno
with the Lenin Peace Prize
Lenin Peace Prize
. To make amends for CIA involvement in the PRRI- Permesta
Permesta
rebellion, US President Kennedy invited Sukarno
Sukarno
to Washington, D.C. and provided Indonesia with billions of dollars in civilian and military aid.

To follow up on the successful 1955 Bandung
Bandung
Conference , Sukarno attempted to forge a new alliance called the "New Emerging Forces" (NEFO), as a counter to the Western superpowers dubbed the "Old Established Forces" (OLDEFO), whom he accused of spreading "Neo-Colonialism and Imperialism" (NEKOLIM). In 1961, Sukarno established another political alliance, called the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM, in Indonesia
Indonesia
known as Gerakan Non-Blok, GNB) with Egypt's President Gamal Abdel Nasser , India's Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru , Yugoslavia 's President Josip Broz Tito , and Ghana's President Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
, in an action called The Initiative of Five (Sukarno, Nkrumah, Nasser, Tito, and Nehru). NAM was intended to provide political unity and influence for nations who wished to maintain independence from the American and Soviet superpower blocs, which were engaged in Cold War
Cold War
competition. Sukarno
Sukarno
is still fondly remembered for his role in promoting the influence of newly independent countries. His name is used as a street name in Cairo
Cairo
, Egypt and Rabat
Rabat
, Morocco, and as a major square in Peshawar
Peshawar
, Pakistan. In 1956, the University of Belgrade awarded him an honorary doctorate . Sukarno
Sukarno
at Borobudur with Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi
during their visit to Indonesia
Indonesia
Sukarno
Sukarno
and Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro
in 1960, Havana, Cuba

In 1960 Sukarno
Sukarno
began an aggressive foreign policy to secure Indonesian territorial claims. In August of that year, Sukarno
Sukarno
broke off diplomatic relations with the Netherlands over the continuing failure to commence talks on the future of Netherlands New Guinea , as was agreed at the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference of 1949. In April 1961 the Dutch announced the formation of a Nieuw Guinea Raad , with the intention of creating an independent Papuan state. Sukarno declared a state of military confrontation in his Tri Komando Rakjat (TRIKORA) speech in Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta
, on 19 December 1961. He then directed military incursions into the half-island, which he referred to as West Irian . By end of 1962 3,000 Indonesian soldiers were present throughout West Irian/West Papua.

A naval battle erupted in January 1962 when four Indonesian torpedo boats were intercepted by Dutch ships and planes off the coast of Vlakke Hoek. One Indonesian boat was sunk, killing the Naval Deputy Chief-of-Staff Commodore Jos Sudarso . Meanwhile, the Kennedy Administration worried of a continuing Indonesian shift towards communism should the Dutch hold on to West Irian/West Papua. In February 1962 US Attorney General Robert Kennedy
Robert Kennedy
travelled to the Netherlands and informed the government that the United States would not support the Netherlands in an armed conflict with Indonesia. With Soviet armaments and advisors, Sukarno
Sukarno
planned a large-scale air- and seaborne invasion of the Dutch military headquarters of Biak for August 1962, called Operasi Djajawidjaja. It was to be led by Major-General Suharto , the future President of Indonesia. Before these plans could be realised, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Netherlands signed the New York Agreement in August 1962. The two countries agreed to implement the Bunker Plan (formulated by American diplomat Ellsworth Bunker ), whereby the Dutch agreed to hand over West Irian/West Papua to UNTEA on 1 October 1962. UNTEA transferred the territory to Indonesian authority in May 1963.

Links: ------

.