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Subfamily
In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family but more inclusive than genus. Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae",[1] and zoological names with "-inae".[2] See also[edit]International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Rank (botany) Rank (zoology)Sources[edit]^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG
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Biological Classification
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Biology
Biology
Biology
is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.[1] Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology
Biology
recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy[2] to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is also informally known as the ICZN Code, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate:How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature[1] Which name must be used in case of name conflicts How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature. This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And Plants
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".[1]:Preamble, para. 8 It was formerly called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN); the name was changed at the International Botanical Congress
International Botanical Congress
in Melbourne
Melbourne
in July 2011 as part of the Melbourne
Melbourne
Code which replaces the Vienna
Vienna
Code of 2005. As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress (on Saturday 23 July 2011), but the documentation of the code in its final form was not finished until some time after the congressional meeting
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Section (biology)
In biology a section (Latin: Sectio) is a taxonomic rank that is applied differently between botany and zoology.Contents1 In botany 2 In zoology 3 In bacteriology 4 ReferencesIn botany[edit] Within flora (plants), 'section' refers to a botanical rank below the genus, but above the species:Domain > Kingdom > Phylum
Phylum
> Class > Order > Family > Tribe > Genus
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Infraphylum
In zoological nomenclature, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank below the rank of phylum. The taxonomic rank of "subdivision" in fungi and plant taxonomy is equivalent to "subphylum" in zoological taxonomy. Taxonomic rank[edit] Subphylum is:subordinate to the phylum superordinate to the infraphylum.Where convenient, subphyla in turn may be divided into infraphyla; in turn such an infraphylum also would be superordinate to any classes or superclasses in the hierarchy. Examples[edit] Not all fauna phyla are divided into subphyla
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Microphylum
In zoological nomenclature, a subphylum is a taxonomic rank below the rank of phylum. The taxonomic rank of "subdivision" in fungi and plant taxonomy is equivalent to "subphylum" in zoological taxonomy. Taxonomic rank[edit] Subphylum is:subordinate to the phylum superordinate to the infraphylum.Where convenient, subphyla in turn may be divided into infraphyla; in turn such an infraphylum also would be superordinate to any classes or superclasses in the hierarchy. Examples[edit] Not all fauna phyla are divided into subphyla
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Protein Subfamily
Protein
Protein
subfamily is a level of protein classification, based on their close evolutionary relationship. It is below the larger levels of protein superfamily and protein family.[1] Proteins typically share greater sequence and function similarities with other subfamily members than they do with members of their wider family.[1][2] For example, in the SCOP classification system, members of a subfamily share the same interaction interfaces and interaction partners.[3] These are stricter criteria than for a family, where members have similar structures, but may be more distantly related and so have different interfaces. Subfamilies are assigned by a variety of methods, including sequence similarity,[4] motifs linked to function,[5] or phylogenetic clade.[6][7] There is no exact and consistent distinction between a subfamily and a family
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Legion (taxonomy)
The legion, in biological classification, is a non-obligatory taxonomic rank within the Linnaean hierarchy sometimes used in zoology.Contents1 Taxonomic rank 2 Use in zoology 3 See also 4 ReferencesTaxonomic rank[edit] In zoological taxonomy, the legion is:subordinate to the class superordinate to the cohort. consists of a group of related ordersLegions may be grouped into superlegions or subdivided into sublegions, and these again into infralegions. Use in zoology[edit] Legions and their super/sub/infra groups have been employed in some classifications of birds and mammals. Full use is made of all of these (along with cohorts and supercohorts) in, for example, McKenna and Bell's classification of mammals.[1] See also[edit]Linnaean taxonomy Mammal classificationReferences[edit]^ McKenna, Malcolm C. and Susan K. Bell (editors). 1997. Classification of Mammals
Mammals
Above the Species
Species
Level
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Superphylum
In biology, a phylum (/ˈfaɪləm/; plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class. Traditionally, in botany the term division has been used instead of phylum, although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants accepts the terms as equivalent.[1][2][3] Depending on definitions, the animal kingdom Animalia
Animalia
or Metazoa contains approximately 33 phyla, the plant kingdom Plantae
Plantae
contains about 14, and the fungus kingdom Fungi
Fungi
contains about 8 phyla
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Subgenus
In biology, a subgenus (plural: subgenera) is a taxonomic rank directly below genus. In the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a subgeneric name can be used independently or included in a species name, in parentheses, placed between the generic name and the specific epithet: e.g
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Section (botany)
In botany, a section (Latin: sectio) is a taxonomic rank below the genus, but above the species.[1] The subgenus, if present, is higher than the section, and the rank of series, if present, is below the section. Sections may in turn be divided into subsections.[2] Sections are typically used to help organise very large genera, which may have hundreds of species.[1] A botanist wanting to distinguish groups of species may prefer to create a taxon at the rank of section or series to avoid making new combinations, i.e. many new binomial names for the species involved.[1] Examples: Lilium
Lilium
section Martagon Rchb. are the Turks' cap lilies Plagiochila
Plagiochila
aerea Taylor is the type species of Plagiochila
Plagiochila
sect. BursataeReferences[edit]^ a b c Tod F. Stuessy (2009). "The Genus". Plant Taxonomy: the Systematic Evaluation of Comparative Data (2nd ed.). Columbia University Press
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