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Subfamily
In biological classification , a SUBFAMILY ( Latin
Latin
: subfamilia, plural subfamiliae) is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank , next below family but more inclusive than genus . Standard nomenclature rules end subfamily botanical names with "-oideae", and zoological names with "-inae". SEE ALSO * International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants * International Code of Zoological Nomenclature * Rank (botany) * Rank (zoology) SOURCES * ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG
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Biological Classification
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals . It is also informally known as the ICZN CODE, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate: * How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature * Which name must be used in case of name conflicts * How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature . This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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Section (biology)
In biology a SECTION (Latin : Sectio) is a taxonomic rank that is applied differently between botany and zoology . CONTENTS * 1 In botany * 2 In zoology * 3 In bacteriology * 4 References IN BOTANYWithin flora (plants), 'section' refers to a botanical rank below the genus, but above the species: * Domain > Kingdom > Phylum
Phylum
> Class > Order > Family > Tribe > Genus > sub-genus > SECTION (BOTANY) > Species
Species
IN ZOOLOGYWithin fauna (animals), 'section' refers to a zoological rank below the order, but above the family: * Domain > Kingdom > Phylum
Phylum
> Class > Order > SECTION (ZOOLOGY) > Family > Tribe > Genus
Genus
> Species
Species
IN BACTERIOLOGYThe International Code of Nomenclature for Bacteria states that the Section rank is an informal one, between the subgenus and species (as in botany)
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Biology
BIOLOGY is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms , including their physical and chemical structure , function , development and evolution . Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches . Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity , and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species . It is also understood that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And Plants
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF NOMENCLATURE FOR ALGAE, FUNGI, AND PLANTS (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants". :Preamble, para. 8 It was formerly called the INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICBN); the name was changed at the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne
Melbourne
in July 2011 as part of the Melbourne
Melbourne
Code which replaces the Vienna
Vienna
Code of 2005. As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress (on Saturday 23 July 2011), but the documentation of the code in its final form was not finished until some time after the congressional meeting. Preliminary wording of some of the articles with the most significant changes has been published in September 2011
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Protein Subfamily
PROTEIN SUBFAMILY is a level of protein classification, based on their close evolutionary relationship . It is typically determined by similarities in the members' 3D structures and sequences . It is below the larger levels of protein superfamily and protein family . For example, in the SCOP classification system, members of a subfamily share the same interaction interfaces and interaction partners
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Subphylum
In zoological nomenclature , a SUBPHYLUM is a taxonomic rank below the rank of phylum . The taxonomic rank of "subdivision " in fungi and plant taxonomy is equivalent to "subphylum" in zoological taxonomy. TAXONOMIC RANK Subphylum is: * subordinate to the phylum * superordinate to the INFRAPHYLUM.Where convenient, subphyla in turn may be divided into INFRAPHYLA; in turn such an INFRAPHYLUM also would be superordinate to any classes or superclasses in the hierarchy . EXAMPLESNot all fauna phyla are divided into subphyla
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Infraphylum
In zoological nomenclature , a SUBPHYLUM is a taxonomic rank below the rank of phylum . The taxonomic rank of "subdivision " in fungi and plant taxonomy is equivalent to "subphylum" in zoological taxonomy. TAXONOMIC RANK Subphylum is: * subordinate to the phylum * superordinate to the INFRAPHYLUM.Where convenient, subphyla in turn may be divided into INFRAPHYLA; in turn such an INFRAPHYLUM also would be superordinate to any classes or superclasses in the hierarchy . EXAMPLESNot all fauna phyla are divided into subphyla
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Legion (biology)
The LEGION, in biological classification , is a non-obligatory taxonomic rank within the Linnaean hierarchy sometimes used in zoology . CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomic rank
Taxonomic rank
* 2 Use in zoology * 3 See also * 4 References TAXONOMIC RANKIn zoological taxonomy , the legion is: * subordinate to the class * superordinate to the cohort . * consists of a group of related orders Legions may be grouped into SUPERLEGIONS or subdivided into SUBLEGIONS, and these again into INFRALEGIONS. USE IN ZOOLOGYLegions and their super/sub/infra groups have been employed in some classifications of birds and mammals . Full use is made of all of these (along with COHORTS and SUPERCOHORTS) in, for example, McKenna and Bell\'s classification of mammals . SEE ALSO * Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
* Mammal classification REFERENCES * ^ McKenna, Malcolm C. and Susan K. Bell (editors)
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Subspecies
In biological classification , SUBSPECIES (abbreviated "SUBSP." or "SSP."; plural : "subspecies") is either a taxonomic rank subordinate to species , or a taxonomic unit in that rank. A subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species will either be recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two (including any that are extinct). In zoology , under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology , under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants , other infraspecific ranks , such as variety , may be named. In bacteriology and virology , under standard bacterial nomenclature and virus nomenclature , there are recommendations but not strict requirements for recognizing other important infraspecific ranks. A taxonomist decides whether to recognize a subspecies or not
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Variety (biology)
In botanical nomenclature , VARIETY (abbreviated VAR.; in Latin : varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form . As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name . It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species. CONTENTS * 1 Example * 2 Definitions * 3 Other nomenclature uses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography EXAMPLEThe pincushion cactus, Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb., is a wide-ranging variable species occurring from Canada
Canada
to Mexico
Mexico
, and found throughout New Mexico
Mexico
below about 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). Nine varieties have been described. Where the varieties of the pincushion cactus meet, they intergrade
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Form (biology)
In botanical nomenclature , a FORM (forma, plural formae) is one of the "secondary" taxonomic ranks , below that of variety , which in turn is below that of species; it is an infraspecific taxon . If more than three ranks are listed in describing a taxon, the "classification" is being specified, but only three parts make up the "name" of the taxon: a genus name, a specific epithet , and an infraspecific epithet . The abbreviation "f." or the full "forma" should be put before the infraspecific epithet to indicate the rank. It is not italicised. For example: * Acanthocalycium spiniflorum f. klimpelianum or * Acanthocalycium spiniflorum forma klimpelianum (Weidlich & Werderm.) Donald* Crataegus aestivalis (Walter) Torr. & A.Gray var. cerasoides Sarg. f. luculenta Sarg. is a classification of a plant whose name is: * Crataegus aestivalis (Walter) Torr
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