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Streltsy
STRELTSY (Russian : стрельцы́; IPA: ; En. shooters; sg. стреле́ц IPA: ) were the units of Russian guardsmen from the 16th to the early 18th centuries, armed with firearms . They are also collectively known as Marksman Troops (стрелецкое войско). These standing forces reinforced the mounted nobility militia (поместное войско, pomestnoe vojsko or Landed Army) mobilized during wartime. CONTENTS * 1 Origins and organization * 2 Uniforms and equipment * 3 Service conditions * 4 Military tactics * 5 Politics * 6 Disbandment * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading ORIGINS AND ORGANIZATIONThe first streltsy units were created by Ivan the Terrible
Ivan the Terrible
sometime between 1545 and 1550 and armed with arquebuses
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Grigory Kotoshikhin
GRIGORY KARPOVICH KOTOSHIKHIN (Russian : Григорий Карпович Котошихин) (c. 1630 – November 1667) was a Russian diplomat, podyachy of the Posolsky Prikaz , and writer. In 1658–61, Grigory Kotoshikhin was one of those sent on a diplomatic mission to negotiate the Treaty of Valiesar and Treaty of Cardis with Sweden
Sweden
. In the spring of 1664, he was dispatched to see Prince Yakov Cherkassky and take charge of his army's clerical work. In August, however, Grigory Kotoshikhin defected to the Lithuanians and moved to Silesia
Silesia
. After that, he went to Stockholm
Stockholm
via Narva and was admitted to the Swedish service. Kotoshikhin converted from Orthodoxy to Lutheran Protestantism and adopted the name Ivan-Alexander Selitsky
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Military Operation
A MILITARY OPERATION is the coordinated military actions of a state , or a non-state actor , in response to a developing situation. These actions are designed as a military plan to resolve the situation in the state's favor. Operations may be of a combat or non-combat nature and are referred to by a code name for the purpose of national security . Military operations are often known for their more generally accepted common usage names than their actual operational objectives . “ Parallel to and reflecting this framework for operations are organized elements within the armed forces which prepare for and conduct operations at various levels of war . While there is a general correlation between the size of units , the area within which they operate, and the scope of mission they perform, the correlation is not absolute. In fact, it is ultimately the mission that a unit performs that determines the level of war within which it operates. ” — David M
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Garrison
GARRISON (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base. The garrison is usually in a city , town , fort , castle , ship or similar. " Garrison
Garrison
town" is a common expression for any town that has a military base nearby. CONTENTS * 1 Arab
Arab
garrison * 2 British and Irish garrison * 3 Israeli garrison * 4 Ancient Rome garrison * 5 References ARAB GARRISON" Garrison
Garrison
towns" (Arabic : حصون ‎‎) were used during the Arab Islamic conquests of Middle Eastern lands by Arab
Arab
- Muslim
Muslim
armies to increase their dominance over indigenous populations
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Border
BORDERS are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions , such as governments , sovereign states , federated states , and other subnational entities . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called boundary delimitation . Some borders—such as a state's internal administrative border, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area
Schengen Area
—are often open and completely unguarded. Other borders are partially or fully controlled, and may be crossed legally only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled. Borders may even foster the setting up of buffer zones . A difference has also been established in academic scholarship between BORDER and FRONTIER , the latter denoting a state of mind rather than state boundaries
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Local Government
LOCAL GOVERNMENT is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government , national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments generally act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states , local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states , local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. The question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public administration and governance
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The Kremlin
The MOSCOW KREMLIN (Russian : Моско́вский Кремль, tr. Moskovskiy Kreml; IPA: ), usually referred to as THE KREMLIN, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow
Moscow
, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil\'s Cathedral
Cathedral
and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of the kremlins (Russian citadels ) and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers . Also within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace
Grand Kremlin Palace

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Municipal
A MUNICIPALITY is usually a single urban administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county , which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns , villages and hamlets . The term municipality may also mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district . The term is derived from French municipalité and Latin municipalis
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Rural
In general, a RURAL AREA or COUNTRYSIDE is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word "rural" as encompassing "...all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area . Whatever is not urban is considered rural." Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are commonly rural, as are other types of areas such as forests . Different countries have varying definitions of "rural" for statistical and administrative purposes
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Military Service
MILITARY SERVICE is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia , whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription ). Some nations (e.g., Mexico
Mexico
) require a specific amount of military service from every citizen (except for special cases, such as physical or mental disorders or religious beliefs, and most countries that have conscription only conscript men). A nation with a fully volunteer military does not normally require mandatory military service from its citizens, unless it is faced with a recruitment crisis during a time of war. No armed forces No enforced conscription Active draft system, but less than 20% of the whole age group are conscripted Plan to abolish conscription in the near future Conscription
Conscription
No information Timetable of military duties, Switzerland
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Hereditary
HEREDITY is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction ; the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection . The study of heredity in biology is called genetics , which includes the field of epigenetics . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Relation to theory of evolution * 3 History * 3.1 Gregor Mendel: father of genetics * 3.2 Modern development of genetics and heredity * 3.3 Common genetic disorders * 4 Types * 4.1 Dominant and recessive alleles * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEW Heredity
Heredity
of phenotypic traits: Father
Father
and son with prominent ears and crowns. DNA
DNA
structure
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Moscow
MOSCOW (/ˈmɒskoʊ/ or /ˈmɒskaʊ/ ; Russian : Москва́, tr. Moskva; IPA: ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of Russia
Russia
, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.8 million within the urban area . Moscow
Moscow
has the status of a Russian federal city . Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe , as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent . By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world\'s largest cities , being the 14th largest metro area , the 18th largest agglomeration , the 15th largest urban area , and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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Jurisdiction
JURISDICTION (from the Latin
Latin
ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law. In federations like the U.S., areas of jurisdiction apply to local, state , and federal levels; e.g. the court has jurisdiction to apply federal law. Colloquially it is used to refer to the geographical area to which such authority applies, e.g. the court has jurisdiction over all of Colorado. The legal term refers only to the granted authority, not to a geographical area. Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
draws its substance from public international law , conflict of laws , constitutional law , and the powers of the executive and legislative branches of government to allocate resources to best serve the needs of society
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Voevode
VOIVODE (/ˈvɔɪˌvoʊd/ ) (Old Slavic , literally "war-leader" or "war-lord") is an Eastern European (Slavic as well as Romanian ) title that originally denoted the principal commander of a military force. It derives from the word vojevoda, which in early Slavic meant the bellidux, i.e. the military commander of an area, but it usually had a greater meaning. In Byzantine
Byzantine
times it referred to mainly military commanders of Slavic populations, especially in the Balkans
Balkans
. The title voevodas (Greek : βοεβόδας) was first used in the work of the 10th-century Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
to identify Hungarian military leaders. In medieval Serbia
Serbia
it meant a high-ranking official and - before the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century - the commander of a military area
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Foot Soldier
INFANTRY is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry , artillery , and tank forces. Also known as FOOT SOLDIERS, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts , military vehicles , or other transport. Infantry
Infantry
make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, and typically bear the largest brunt in warfare , as measured by casualties , deprivation, or physical and psychological stress