In general, a RURAL AREA or COUNTRYSIDE is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word "rural" as encompassing "...all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area . Whatever is not urban is considered rural."
Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are commonly rural, as are other types of areas such as forests . Different countries have varying definitions of "rural" for statistical and administrative purposes.
* 1 North America
* 1.1 Canada
* 1.2.1 Rural schools * 1.2.2 Rural health
* 2 South America
* 2.1 Brazil
* 3 Europe
* 3.1 Germany * 3.2 Ireland
* 3.3 United Kingdom
* 3.3.1 Rural health
* 4 Asia
* 4.1 India
* 5 Human fertility * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links
In Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
defines a "predominantly rural region" as having more than 50% of the
population living in rural communities where a "rural community " has
a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In
Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and
census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent
"communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their
population living in a rural community. Predominantly urban regions
have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural
community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural
metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following
Ehrensaft and Beeman (1992). Rural metro-adjacent regions are
predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to
metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those
predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to
metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural
census divisions that are found either entirely or mostly above the
following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and
Labrador , 50th;
Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts. This definition has changed over time (see Appendix A in du Plessis et al., 2002). Typically, it has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or fewer inhabitants. The current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre (Statistics Canada, 2007).
Main article: Rural areas in the United States
84% of the
* An urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population ("urban nucleus") is greater than 50,000. They may or may not contain individual cities with 50,000 or more; rather, they must have a core with a population density generally exceeding 1,000 persons per square mile; and may contain adjoining territory with at least 500 persons per square mile (other towns outside of an urbanized area whose population exceeds 2,500). * Thus, rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents; areas designated as rural can have population densities as high as 999 per square mile or as low as 1 person per square mile.
* The USDA's Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds. The 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171, Sec. 6020) defined rural and rural area as any area other than (1) a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, and (2) the urbanized areas contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town. * The rural-urban continuum codes, urban influence code, and rural county typology codes developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) allow researchers to break out the standard metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups. For example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population.
Under the Core Based Statistical Areas used by the OMB (commonly referred to as 'CBSA Codes'),
* a metropolitan county, or
Metropolitan Statistical Area
National Center for Education Statistics
Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are generally thought to have easy access to the relatively concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that they contain small towns and rural, sparsely populated areas that are isolated from these central clusters and their corresponding health services by physical barriers." To address this type of rural area, "Harold Goldsmith, Dena Puskin, and Dianne Stiles (1992) described a methodology to identify small towns and rural areas within large metropolitan counties (LMCs) that were isolated from central areas by distance or other physical features." This became the Goldsmith Modification definition of rural. "Bhoomeet rural education The Goldsmith Modification has been useful for expanding the eligibility for federal programs that assist rural populations—to include the isolated rural populations of large metropolitan counties."
Health care delivery in rural areas of the
In Brazil, there's different notions of rural area and countryside.
Rural areas are any place outside a municipality's urban development
(buildings, streets) and it's carried by informal usage. Otherwise,
countryside (interior in Portuguese ) are officially defined as all
municipalities outside the state/territory capital's metropolitan
region. Some states as
Mato Grosso do Sul
The country is divided into 402 administrative districts: 295 rural
districts and 107 urban districts. Germany is among the largest
agricultural producers in the
Ireland is a very rural country with several urban centres.
In Britain, "rural" is defined by the government Department for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), using population data
from the latest census , such as the United Kingdom
A rural school in
Rural areas are also known as the 'countryside' or a 'village ' in India. It has a very low population density. In rural areas, agriculture is the chief source of livelihood along with fishing , cottage industries , pottery etc.
The quest to discover the real rural India still continues in great earnest. Almost every economic agency today has a definition of rural India. Here are a few definitions:
According to the Planning Commission, a town with a maximum population of 15,000 is considered rural in nature. In these areas the panchayat makes all the decisions. There are five persons in the panchayat . The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) defines ‘rural’ as follows:
* An area with a population density of up to 400 per square kilometer, * Villages with clear surveyed boundaries but no municipal board, * A minimum of 75% of male working population involved in agriculture and allied activities.
RBI defines rural areas as those areas with a population of less than 49,000 (tier -3 to tier-6 cities).
It is generally said that the rural areas house up to 70% of India’s population. Rural India contributes a large chunk to India’s GDP by way of agriculture, self-employment, services, construction etc. As per a strict measure used by the National Sample Survey in its 63rd round, called monthly per capita expenditure, rural expenditure accounts for 55% of total national monthly expenditure. The rural population currently accounts for one-third of the total Indian FMCG sales.
Rural residence is a fertility factor , with total fertility rates and pregnancy being higher among women in rural areas than among women in urban areas and the rural population is much younger than urban areas.
* American Old West
* ^ "WordNet Search - 3.1". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved
* ^ "Defining the Rural Population". Hrsa.gov. Retrieved
* ^ Yen, Hope (2011-07-28). "Rural US Disappearing? Population
Share Hits Low". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Retrieved 2016-01-07.
* ^ A B C CRS Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of
Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition - Order Code 97-905
* ^ A B "Rural, Urban and
* "Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers." (PDF). (6.12 MB) Thomas C. Ricketts, Karen D. Johnson-Webb, Patricia Taylor. Chapel Hill: North Carolina Rural Health Research Program, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina, 1998. 13 p.