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Stibnite
Stibnite, sometimes called antimonite, is a sulfide mineral with the formula Sb2S3. This soft grey material crystallizes in an orthorhombic space group. It is the most important source for the metalloid antimony.[4] The name is from the Greek στίβι stibi through the Latin stibium as the old name for the mineral and the element antimony.[1][2]Contents1 Structure 2 Uses 3 Occurrence 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksStructure[edit]Structure of stibnite. Stibnite
Stibnite
has a structure similar to that of arsenic trisulfide, As2S3. The Sb(III) centers, which are pyramidal and three-coordinate, are linked via bent two-coordinate sulfide ions
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Ankerite
Ankerite
Ankerite
is a calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese carbonate mineral of the group of rhombohedral carbonates with formula: Ca(Fe,Mg,Mn)(CO3)2. In composition it is closely related to dolomite, but differs from this in having magnesium replaced by varying amounts of iron(II) and manganese. It forms a series with dolomite and kutnohorite.[2] The crystallographic and physical characters resemble those of dolomite and siderite. The angle between the perfect rhombohedral cleavages is 73° 48', the hardness is 3.5 to 4, and the specific gravity is 2.9 to 3.1. The color is white, grey or reddish to yellowish brown.[4] Ankerite
Ankerite
occurs with siderite in metamorphosed ironstones and sedimentary banded iron formations. It also occurs in carbonatites
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Collyrium
In eye care, collyrium is an antique term for a lotion or liquid wash used as a cleanser for the eyes, particularly in diseases of the eye. The word collyrium comes from the Greek κολλύριον, eye-salve. The same name was also given to unguents used for the same purpose, such as unguent of tutty. Lastly, the name was given, though improperly, to some liquid medicines used against venereal diseases. Pre-modern medicine distinguished two kinds of collyriums: the one liquid, the other dry. Liquid collyriums were composed of ophthalmic powders, or waters, such as rose-water, plantain-water, that of fennel, eyebright, etc, in which was dissolved tutty, white vitriol, or some other proper powder
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Pyrotechnic Composition
A pyrotechnic composition is a substance or mixture of substances designed to produce an effect by heat, light, sound, gas/smoke or a combination of these, as a result of non-detonative self-sustaining exothermic chemical reactions. Pyrotechnic substances do not rely on oxygen from external sources to sustain the reaction. Basic types of pyrotechnic compositions are:flash powder – burns very fast, produces explosions and/or bright flashes of light gunpowder – burns slower than flash powder, produces large amount of gases solid propellants – produce large amount of hot gases, used as sources of kinetic energy for rockets and projectiles pyrotechnic initiators – produce large amount of heat, flames, and/or hot sparks, used to ignite other compositions gas generators – produce large amount of gas, either high volume at short time (for actuators and ejection charges, often using solid propellants) or controlled flow rate (e.g
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Pyrotechnic Star
Pyrotechnic stars are pellets or simply pieces of pyrotechnic composition which may contain metal powders, salts or other compounds that, when ignited, burn a certain color or make a certain spark effect. They are a part of all projectile-type fireworks. The most common is the aerial shell. When watching this firework, it will launch into the sky, burning a lifting charge. Once the shell has attained proper altitude, due to other mechanisms within the firework, it will ignite the stars. Procedure[edit] Stars are either rolled, pumped or cut.Rolled stars are small cores of a hard material (often lead shot or an organic material such as mustard seeds or even cut stars) which are coated in a rotating mixer similar to a concrete mixer. First some water is sprayed on cores. Then an amount of a pyrotechnic composition is dropped into the mixer
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Flash Powder
Flash powder
Flash powder
is a pyrotechnic composition, a mixture of oxidizer and metallic fuel, which burns quickly and if confined produces a loud report. It is widely used in theatrical pyrotechnics and fireworks (namely salutes, e.g., cherry bombs, M-80s, firecrackers, and cap gun shots) and was once used for flashes in photography.Examples of theatrical binary flash powders. Note the shared oxidizer (A) powder for some types of fuels (B).Different varieties of flash powder are made from different compositions; most common are potassium perchlorate and aluminium powder. Sometimes, sulphur is included in the mixture to increase the sensitivity. Early formulations used potassium chlorate instead of potassium perchlorate. Flash powder
Flash powder
compositions are also used in military pyrotechnics when production of large amount of noise, light, or infrared radiation is required, e.g
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Safety Match
A match is a tool for starting a fire. Typically, modern matches are made of small wooden sticks or stiff paper. One end is coated with a material that can be ignited by frictional heat generated by striking the match against a suitable surface.[1] Wooden matches are packaged in matchboxes, and paper matches are partially cut into rows and stapled into matchbooks. The coated end of a match, known as the match "head", consists of a bead of active ingredients and binder; often colored for easier inspection
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Flash (photography)
A flash is a device used in photography producing a flash of artificial light (typically 1/1000 to 1/200 of a second) at a color temperature of about 5500 K[citation needed] to help illuminate a scene. A major purpose of a flash is to illuminate a dark scene. Other uses are capturing quickly moving objects or changing the quality of light. Flash refers either to the flash of light itself or to the electronic flash unit discharging the light. Most current flash units are electronic, having evolved from single-use flashbulbs and flammable powders. Modern cameras often activate flash units automatically. Flash units are commonly built directly into a camera. Some cameras allow separate flash units to be mounted via a standardized "accessory mount" bracket (a hot shoe). In professional studio equipment, flashes may be large, standalone units, or studio strobes, powered by special battery packs or connected to mains power
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Static Electricity
Static electricity
Static electricity
is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric current or electrical discharge. Static electricity is named in contrast with current electricity, which flows through wires or other conductors and transmits energy.[1] A static electric charge can be created whenever two surfaces contact and separate, and at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electric current (and is therefore an electrical insulator). The effects of static electricity are familiar to most people because people can feel, hear, and even see the spark as the excess charge is neutralized when brought close to a large electrical conductor (for example, a path to ground), or a region with an excess charge of the opposite polarity (positive or negative)
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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Sunan Abi Dawood
Sunan Abu Dawud (Arabic: سنن أبي داود‎, translit. Sunan Abī Dāwūd) is one of the Kutub al-Sittah
Kutub al-Sittah
(six major hadith collections), collected by Abu Dawood.[1]Contents1 Introduction 2 Description 3 Commentaries 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksIntroduction[edit] Abu Dawud compiled twenty-one books related to Hadith
Hadith
and preferred those ahadith which were supported by the example of the companions of Muhammad. As for the contradictory ahadith, he states under the heading of 'Meat acquired by hunting for a pilgrim': "if there are two contradictory reports from the Prophet (SAW), an investigation should be made to establish what his companions have adopted". He wrote in his letter to the people of Mecca "I have disclosed wherever there was too much weakness in regard to any tradition in my collection
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George Starkey (alchemist)
George Starkey
George Starkey
(1628–1665) was a Colonial American alchemist, medical practitioner, and writer of numerous commentaries and chemical treatises that were widely circulated in Europe and influenced prominent men of science, including Robert Boyle
Robert Boyle
and Isaac Newton. After relocating from New England
New England
to London, England, in 1650, Starkey began writing under the pseudonym Eirenaeus Philalethes.[1] Starkey remained in England and continued his career in medicine and alchemy until his death in the Great Plague of London
Great Plague of London
in 1665.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Education 3 Career 4 Legacy 5 Original published works 6 Notes 7 BibliographyEarly life[edit] Starkey was born in Bermuda, the first of at least five children of George Stirk, a Scottish minister and devoted Calvinist, and Elizabeth Painter
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Chemical Formula
A chemical formula is a way of information about the chemical proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound or molecule, using chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type
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Philosopher's Stone
The philosopher's stone, or stone of the philosophers (Latin: lapis philosophorum) is a legendary alchemical substance capable of turning base metals such as mercury into gold (chrysopoeia, from the Greek χρυσός khrusos, "gold", and ποιεῖν poiēin, "to make") or silver. It is also called the elixir of life, useful for rejuvenation and for achieving immortality; for many centuries, it was the most sought goal in alchemy. The philosopher's stone was the central symbol of the mystical terminology of alchemy, symbolizing perfection at its finest, enlightenment, and heavenly bliss
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Hydrothermal
Hydrothermal circulation
Hydrothermal circulation
in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water ( Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ὕδωρ, water,[1] and θέρμη, heat [1]). Hydrothermal circulation
Hydrothermal circulation
occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust
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Realgar
Toxic and carcinogenic. Disintegrates on long exposure to light to a powder composed of pararealgar or arsenolite and orpiment.References [1][2][3][4]Realgar, α-As4S4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic". It is a soft, sectile mineral occurring in monoclinic crystals, or in granular, compact, or powdery form, often in association with the related mineral, orpiment (As2S3). It is orange-red in color, melts at 320 °C, and burns with a bluish flame releasing fumes of arsenic and sulfur. Realgar
Realgar
is soft with a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of 1.5 to 2 and has a specific gravity of 3.5. Its streak is orange colored
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