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Steatosis
Steatosis, also called fatty change, is the process describing the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell. It reflects an impairment of the normal processes of synthesis and elimination of triglyceride fat. Excess lipid accumulates in vesicles that displace the cytoplasm. When the vesicles are large enough to distort the nucleus, the condition is known as macrovesicular steatosis; otherwise, the condition is known as microvesicular steatosis
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Micrograph
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography
Micrography
is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure
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Staining
Staining
Staining
is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image. Stains and dyes are frequently used in biology and medicine to highlight structures in biological tissues for viewing, often with the aid of different microscopes. Stains may be used to define and examine bulk tissues (highlighting, for example, muscle fibers or connective tissue), cell populations (classifying different blood cells, for instance), or organelles within individual cells. In biochemistry it involves adding a class-specific (DNA, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. Staining
Staining
and fluorescent tagging can serve similar purposes. Biological staining is also used to mark cells in flow cytometry, and to flag proteins or nucleic acids in gel electrophoresis. Simple staining is staining with only one stain/dye
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Ethanol
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C 2H 5OH. Its formula can be written also as CH 3−CH 2−OH or C 2H 5−OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol
Ethanol
is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks. Ethanol
Ethanol
is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance utilized across many different kinds of manufacturing industries
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NADH
Nicotinamide
Nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively. In metabolism, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD
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Fatty Acid
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28.[1] Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. Fatty acids are important dietary sources of fuel for animals because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose
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Reye's Syndrome
Reye syndrome
Reye syndrome
is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy.[2] Symptoms may include vomiting, personality changes, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness.[1] Even though liver toxicity typically occurs, yellowish skin usually does not.[2] Death
Death

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Hepatitis C
Hepatitis
Hepatitis
C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.[2] During the initial infection people often have mild or no symptoms.[1] Occasionally a fever, dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellow tinged skin occurs.[1] The virus persists in the liver in about 75% to 85% of those initially infected.[1] Early on chronic infection typically has no symptoms.[1] Over many years however, it often leads to liver disease and occasionally cirrhosis.[1] In some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop complications such as liver failure, liver cancer, or dilated blood vessels in the esophagus and
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Histology
Histology[help 1] also microanatomy [1] is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy. It is commonly studied using a light microscope or electron microscope, the specimen having been sectioned, stained, and mounted on a microscope slide. Histological studies may be conducted using tissue culture, where live animal cells are isolated and maintained in an artificial environment for various research projects. The ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is frequently enhanced through the use of staining. Histology
Histology
is an essential tool of biology and medicine. Histopathology, the microscopic study of diseased tissue, is an important tool in anatomical pathology, since accurate diagnosis of cancer and other diseases usually requires histopathological examination of samples
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Liposome
A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer. The liposome can be used as a vehicle for administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs.[2] Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes (such as by sonication). Liposomes are most often composed of phospholipids, especially phosphatidylcholine, but may also include other lipids, such as egg phosphatidylethanolamine, so long as they are compatible with lipid bilayer structure.[3] A liposome design may employ surface ligands for attaching to unhealthy tissue.[1] The major types of liposomes are the multilamellar vesicle (MLV, with several lamellar phase lipid bilayers), the small unilamellar liposome vesicle (SUV, with one lipid bilayer), the large unilamellar vesicle (LUV), and the cochleate vesicle.[4] A less desirable form are multivesicular liposomes in which one vesicle contains one or more smaller vesicles. Liposomes should not be confused with lysosomes, or with micelles and reverse micell
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Parenchyma
Parenchyma
Parenchyma
(/pəˈrɛŋkɪmə/)[1][2] is the bulk of a substance. In animals, a parenchyma comprises the functional parts of an organ and in plants parenchyma is the ground tissue of nonwoody structures.Contents1 Etymology 2 Animals 3 Plants 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "parenchyma" is New Latin
New Latin
from Greek παρέγχυμα parenkhyma, "visceral flesh" from παρεγχεῖν parenkhein, "to pour in" from παρα- para-, "beside", ἐν en-, "in" and χεῖν khein, "to pour".[3] Originally, Erasistratus
Erasistratus
and other anatomists used it to refer to certain human tissues.[4] Later, it was also applied to some plant tissues by Nehemiah Grew.[5] Animals[edit] The parenchyma is the functional parts of an organ in the body
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Sudan Stain
Sudan stains and Sudan dyes are synthetic organic compounds that are used as dyes for various plastics (plastic colorants) and are also used to stain sudanophilic biological samples, usually lipids. Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Oil Red O, and Sudan Black B
Sudan Black B
are important members of this class of compounds (see images below).Contents1 Staining 2 Dyeing 3 Examples 4 Safety 5 ReferencesStaining[edit] Sudan dyes have high affinity to fats, therefore they are used to demonstrate triglycerides, lipids, and lipoproteins. Alcoholic solutions of Sudan dyes are usually used, however pyridine solutions can be used in some situations as well. Sudan stain
Sudan stain
test is often used to determine the level of fecal fat to diagnose steatorrhea
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Lipoprotein
A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid. They have a single-layer phospholipid and cholesterol outer shell, with the hydrophilic portions oriented outward toward the surrounding water and lipophilic portions of each molecule oriented inwards toward the lipids molecules within the particles. Apolipoproteins are embedded in the membrane, both stabilising the complex and giving it functional identity determining its fate. Thus the complex serves to emulsify the fats. Many enzymes, transporters, structural proteins, antigens, adhesions, and toxins are lipoproteins. Examples include the plasma lipoprotein particles classified as HDL, LDL, IDL, VLDL and ULDL (a.k.a. chylomicrons) lipoproteins, according to density / size (an inverse relationship), compared with the surrounding plasma water
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Glycogen
Glycogen
Glycogen
is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans,[2] animals,[3] fungi, and bacteria.[citation needed] The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. Glycogen
Glycogen
functions as one of two forms of long-term energy reserves, with the other form being triglyceride stores in adipose tissue (i.e., body fat)
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Vacuole
A vacuole (/ˈvækjuːoʊl/) is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal[1] and bacterial cells.[2] Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed. Vacuoles are formed by the fusion of multiple membrane vesicles and are effectively just larger forms of these.[3] The organelle has no basic shape or size; its structure varies according to the needs of the cell. The function and significance of vacuoles varies greatly according to the type of cell in which they are present, having much greater prominence in the cells of plants, fungi and certain protists than those of animals and bacteria
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H&E
Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology. It is the most widely used stain in medical diagnosis and is often the gold standard; for example, when a pathologist looks at a biopsy of a suspected cancer, the histological section is likely to be stained with H&E and termed "H&E section", "H+E section", or "HE section". A combination of hematoxylin and eosin, it produces blues, violets, and reds.Contents1 Principle 2 Overview 3 See also 4 References 5 External links5.1 ProtocolPrinciple[edit] The staining method involves application of hemalum, a complex formed from aluminium ions and hematein (an oxidation product of hematoxylin). Hemalum colors nuclei of cells (and a few other objects, such as keratohyalin granules and calcified material) blue
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