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Steatosis
STEATOSIS (also called FATTY CHANGE, FATTY DEGENERATION, or ADIPOSE DEGENERATION) is the process describing the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell. It reflects an impairment of the normal processes of synthesis and elimination of triglyceride fat. Excess lipid accumulates in vesicles that displace the cytoplasm . When the vesicles are large enough to distort the nucleus , the condition is known as MACROVESICULAR STEATOSIS; otherwise, the condition is known as MICROVESICULAR STEATOSIS. While not particularly detrimental to the cell in mild cases, large accumulations can disrupt cell constituents, and in severe cases the cell may even burst. The risk factors associated with steatosis are varied, and include diabetes mellitus , protein malnutrition, hypertension cell toxins, obesity, anoxia and sleep apnea
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Hepatitis C
HEPATITIS C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver . During the initial infection people often have mild or no symptoms. Occasionally a fever, dark urine, abdominal pain, and yellow tinged skin occurs. The virus persists in the liver in about 75% to 85% of those initially infected. Early on chronic infection typically has no symptoms. Over many years however, it often leads to liver disease and occasionally cirrhosis . In some cases, those with cirrhosis will develop complications such as liver failure , liver cancer , or dilated blood vessels in the esophagus and stomach . HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with intravenous drug use , poorly sterilized medical equipment, needlestick injuries in healthcare, and transfusions . Using blood screening, the risk from a transfusion is less than one per two million. It may also be spread from an infected mother to her baby during birth
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Histology
HISTOLOGY is the study of the microscopic anatomy (MICROANATOMY) of cells and tissues of plants and animals . It is commonly performed by examining cells and tissues under a light microscope or electron microscope , the specimen having been sectioned (cut into a thin cross section with a microtome ), stained , and mounted on a microscope slide . Histological studies may be conducted using tissue culture , where live human or animal cells are isolated and maintained in an artificial environment for various research projects. The ability to visualize or differentially identify microscopic structures is frequently enhanced through the use of histological stains . Histology is an essential tool of biology and medicine . Histopathology , the microscopic study of diseased tissue, is an important tool in anatomical pathology , since accurate diagnosis of cancer and other diseases usually requires histopathological examination of samples
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Liposome
A LIPOSOME is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer . The liposome can be used as a vehicle for administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs . Liposomes can be prepared by disrupting biological membranes (such as by sonication ). Liposomes are most often composed of phospholipids , especially phosphatidylcholine , but may also include other lipids, such as egg phosphatidylethanolamine , so long as they are compatible with lipid bilayer structure. A liposome design may employ surface ligands for attaching to unhealthy tissue. The major types of liposomes are the multilamellar vesicle (MLV, with several lamellar phase lipid bilayers ), the small unilamellar liposome vesicle (SUV, with one lipid bilayer ), the large unilamellar vesicle (LUV), and the cochleate vesicle. A less desirable form are multivesicular liposomes in which one vesicle contains one or more smaller vesicles
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Parenchyma
PARENCHYMA (/pəˈrɛŋkᵻmə/ ) is the bulk of a substance. In animals , a parenchyma comprises the functional parts of an organ and in plants parenchyma is the ground tissue of nonwoody structures. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Animals
Animals
* 3 Plants * 4 References * 5 External links ETYMOLOGYThe term parenchyma is New Latin
New Latin
from Greek παρέγχυμα parenkhyma, "visceral flesh" from παρεγχεῖν parenkhein, "to pour in" from παρα- para-, "beside", ἐν en-, "in" and χεῖν khein, "to pour". ANIMALSThe parenchyma is the functional parts of an organ in the body. This is in contrast to the stroma , which refers to the structural tissue of organs, namely, the connective tissues. In the brain, the parenchyma refers to the functional tissue in the brain that is made up of the two types of brain cell, neurons and glial cells
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Reye's Syndrome
REYE SYNDROME is a rapidly progressive encephalopathy . Symptoms may include vomiting , personality changes, confusion, seizures , and loss of consciousness . Even though liver toxicity typically occurs, yellowish skin usually does not. Death occurs in 20–40% of those affected and about a third of those who survive are left with a significant degree of brain damage . The cause of Reye syndrome is unknown. It usually begins shortly after recovery from a viral infection , such as influenza or chickenpox . About 90% of cases are associated with aspirin (salicylate) use in children. Inborn errors of metabolism are also a risk factor. Changes on blood tests may include a high blood ammonia level , low blood sugar level , and prolonged prothrombin time . Often the liver is enlarged . Prevention is typically by avoiding the use of aspirin in children. When aspirin was withdrawn for use in children a decrease of more than 90% in rates of Reye syndrome was seen
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Fatty Acid
In chemistry , particularly in biochemistry , a FATTY ACID is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated . Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28. Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids . Fatty acids are important dietary sources of fuel for animals because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP . Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose. Long-chain fatty acids cannot cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and so cannot be used as fuel by the cells of the central nervous system ; however, free short-chain fatty acids and medium-chain fatty acids can cross the BBB, in addition to glucose and ketone bodies
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Micrograph
A MICROGRAPH or PHOTOMICROGRAPH is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. MICROGRAPHY is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure. A wealth of information can be obtained from a simple micrograph like behavior of the material under different conditions, the phases found in the system, failure analysis, grain size estimation, elemental analysis and so on. The neuropathologist Solomon Carter Fuller
Solomon Carter Fuller
designed and created the first photomicrograph in 1900. Micrographs are widely used in all fields of microscopy
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Adipocyte
ADIPOCYTES, also known as LIPOCYTES and FAT CELLS, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue , specialized in storing energy as fat . Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes, osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types. There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white fat and brown fat , respectively, and comprise two types of fat cells. Most recently, the presence of beige adipocytes with a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown adipocytes has been described
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NADH
NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells . The compound is a dinucleotide, because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. One nucleotide contains an adenine base and the other nicotinamide . Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide exists in two forms, an oxidized and reduced form abbreviated as NAD+ and NADH respectively. In metabolism , nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent – it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced . This reaction forms NADH, which can then be used as a reducing agent to donate electrons. These electron transfer reactions are the main function of NAD
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Staining
STAINING is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image. Stains and dyes are frequently used in biology and medicine to highlight structures in biological tissues for viewing, often with the aid of different microscopes . Stains may be used to define and examine bulk tissues (highlighting, for example, muscle fibers or connective tissue ), cell populations (classifying different blood cells , for instance), or organelles within individual cells. In biochemistry it involves adding a class-specific ( DNA
DNA
, proteins , lipids , carbohydrates ) dye to a substrate to qualify or quantify the presence of a specific compound. Staining
Staining
and fluorescent tagging can serve similar purposes. Biological staining is also used to mark cells in flow cytometry , and to flag proteins or nucleic acids in gel electrophoresis . Simple staining is staining with only one stain/dye
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Sudan Stain
SUDAN STAINS and SUDAN DYES are synthetic organic compounds that are used as dyes for various plastics (plastic colorants ) and are also used to stain SUDANOPHILIC biological samples, usually lipids . Sudan II , Sudan III , Sudan IV , Oil Red O , and Sudan Black B are important members of this class of compounds (see images below). CONTENTS * 1 Staining * 2 Dyeing * 3 Examples * 4 Safety * 5 References STAININGSudan dyes have high affinity to fats, therefore they are used to demonstrate triglycerides , lipids , and lipoproteins . Alcoholic solutions of Sudan dyes are usually used, however pyridine solutions can be used in some situations as well. SUDAN STAIN TEST is often used to determine the level of fecal fat to diagnose steatorrhea
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PubMed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed
PubMed
system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
Al Gore

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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
( ISO
ISO
). An implementation of the Handle System , DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL , indicating where the object can be found
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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