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Soap
Soap
Soap
is both a salt of a fatty acid[1] and the term for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from it. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts.Contents1 Kinds of soaps1.1 Non-toilet soaps1.1.1 Production of metallic soaps1.2 Toilet soaps1.2.1 Production of toilet soaps 1.2.2 History1.2.2.1 Ancient Middle East 1.2.2.2 Roman Empire 1.2.2.3 Ancient China 1.2.2.4 Islamic Middle East 1.2.2.5 Medieval Europe 1.2.2.6 15th–19th centuries 1.2.2.7 Liquid soap1.2.3 Soap-making for hobbyists2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksKinds of soaps Since they are salt of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R = alkyl)
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred
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Lime (material)
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which carbonates, oxides, and hydroxides predominate. In the strict sense of the term, lime is calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. It is also the name of the natural mineral (native lime) CaO which occurs as a product of coal seam fires and in altered limestone xenoliths in volcanic ejecta.[1] The word lime originates with its earliest use as building mortar and has the sense of sticking or adhering.[2] These materials are still used in large quantities as building and engineering materials (including limestone products, cement, concrete, and mortar), as chemical feedstocks, and for sugar refining, among other uses. Lime industries and the use of many of the resulting products date from prehistoric times in both the Old World
Old World
and the New World
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Ester
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.[1] Usually, esters are derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils. Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones. Phosphoesters form the backbone of DNA
DNA
molecules
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Triglyceride
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).[1] Triglycerides are the main constituents of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat.[2] They are also present in the blood to enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver, and are a major component of human skin oils.[3] There are many different types of triglyceride, with the main division between saturated and unsaturated types. Saturated fats are "saturated" with hydrogen — all available places where hydrogen atoms could be bonded to carbon atoms are occupied. These have a higher melting point and are more likely to be solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats have double bonds between some of the carbon atoms, reducing the number of places where hydrogen atoms can bond to carbon atoms
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Bracken
See text Bracken
Bracken
(Pteridium) is a genus of large, coarse ferns in the family Dennstaedtiaceae. Ferns (Pteridophyta) are vascular plants that have alternating generations, large plants that produce spores and small plants that produce sex cells (eggs and sperm). Brackens are noted for their large, highly divided leaves. They are found on all continents except Antarctica and in all environments except deserts, though their typical habitat is moorland. The genus probably has the widest distribution of any fern in the world. In the past, the genus was commonly treated as having only one species, Pteridium aquilinum, but the recent trend is to subdivide it into about ten species. Like other ferns, brackens do not have seeds or fruits, but the immature fronds, known as fiddleheads, are sometimes eaten, although some are thought to be carcinogenic
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Laurus Nobilis
Laurus
Laurus
nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae. It is native to the Mediterranean region
Mediterranean region
and is used as bay leaf for seasoning in cooking. Its common names include bay laurel, sweet bay, bay (esp. United Kingdom),[1]:84 true laurel, Grecian laurel,[2] laurel tree or simply laurel
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Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
(/haɪˈdrɒlɪsɪs/; from Ancient Greek hydro-, meaning 'water', and lysis, meaning 'to unbind') usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water. When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is termed saccharification
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Hotel
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television and en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest services and facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre (with computers, printers and other office equipment), childcare, conference and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, gymnasium, restaurants, day spa and social function services. Hotel
Hotel
rooms are usually numbered (or named in some smaller hotels and B&Bs) to allow guests to identify their room. Some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement
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Canola Oil
Canola
Canola
oil, or canola for short, is a vegetable oil derived from rapeseed that is low in erucic acid, as opposed to colza oil. There are both edible and industrial forms produced from the seed of any of several cultivars of the plant family Brassicaceae, namely cultivars of Brassica
Brassica
napus L., Brassica rapa
Brassica rapa
subsp. oleifera, syn. B. campestris L. or Brassica
Brassica
juncea, which are also referred to as "canola". Consumption of the oil has become common in industrialized nations
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Babylon
Babylon
Babylon
(𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠KAN4.DIĜIR.RAKI Akkadian: Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; Arabic: بَابِل‎, Bābil; Hebrew: בָּבֶל‎, Bavel; Classical Syriac: ܒܒܠ‎, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
from the 18th to 6th centuries BC. The city was built on the Euphrates
Euphrates
river and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods
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Lipophilicity
Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene. These non-polar solvents are themselves lipophilic (translated as "fat-loving" or "fat-liking"[1][2])—the axiom that "like dissolves like" generally holds true. Thus lipophilic substances tend to dissolve in other lipophilic substances, while hydrophilic ("water-loving") substances tend to dissolve in water and other hydrophilic substances. Lipophilicity, hydrophobicity, and non-polarity can describe the same tendency towards participation in the London dispersion force
London dispersion force
as the terms are often used interchangeably
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Micelle
Micelle
Micelle
(polymers): Organized auto-assembly formed in a liquid and composed of amphiphilic macromolecules, in general amphiphilic di- or tri-block copolymers made of solvophilic and solvophobic blocks. Note 1: An amphiphilic behavior can be observed for water and an organic solvent or between two organic solvents. Note 2: Polymeric micelles have a much lower critical micellar concentration (CMC) than soap or surfactant micelles, but are nevertheless at equilibrium with isolated macromolecules called unimers
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Rheology
Rheology
Rheology
(/riːˈɒlədʒi/; from Greek ῥέω rhéō, "flow" and -λoγία, -logia, "study of") is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in a liquid state, but also as "soft solids" or solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force. It is a branch of physics which deals with the deformation and flow of materials, both solids and liquids. [1] The term rheology was coined by Eugene C. Bingham, a professor at Lafayette College, in 1920, from a suggestion by a colleague, Markus Reiner.[2][3] The term was inspired by the aphorism of Simplicius (often attributed to Heraclitus), panta rhei, "everything flows",[4][5] and was first used to describe the flow of liquids and the deformation of solids
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Cinnamomum Cassia
Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum
cassia, called Chinese cassia or Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree originating in southern China, and widely cultivated there and elsewhere in southern and eastern Asia (India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam).[2] It is one of several species of Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum
used primarily for their aromatic bark, which is used as a spice. In the United States, Chinese cassia is the most common type of cinnamon used. The buds are also used as a spice, especially in India, and were once used by the ancient Romans. The tree grows to 10–15 m tall, with greyish bark and hard, elongated leaves that are 10–15 cm long and have a decidedly reddish colour when young.Contents1 Production and uses 2 Health benefits and risks 3 Current research 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksProduction and uses[edit]Cassia (C
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Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
Egypt
was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
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