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Sibyl
The sibyls were women that the ancient Greeks believed were oracles. The earliest sibyls, according to legend,[1] prophesied at holy sites. Their prophecies were influenced by divine inspiration from a deity; originally at Delphi
Delphi
and Pessinos, the deities were chthonic deities. In Late Antiquity, various writers attested to the existence of sibyls in Greece, Italy, the Levant, and Asia Minor. The English word sibyl (/ˈsɪbəl/ or /ˈsɪbɪl/) comes — via the Old Fren
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Temenos
Temenos (Greek: τέμενος; plural: τεμένη, temene)[1] is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain, especially to kings and chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary, holy grove or holy precinct: the Pythian race-course is called a temenos, the sacred valley of the Nile is the Νείλοιο πῖον τέμενος Κρονίδα ("the rich temenos of Cronides
Cronides
by the Nile"),[1][2] the Acropolis of Athens is the ἱερὸν τέμενος ("the holy temenos"; of Pallas).[1][3] The word derives from the Greek verb τέμνω (temnō), "to cut".[4][5] The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
𐀳𐀕𐀜, te-me-no, written in Linear B syllabic script.[6] The concept of temenos arose in classical Mediterranean
Mediterranean
cultures as an area reserved for worship of the gods
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Delos
The island of Delos
Delos
(/ˈdiːlɒs/; Greek: Δήλος [ˈðilos]; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades
Cyclades
archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical and archaeological sites in Greece
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Clarus
Claros
Claros
(Greek: Κλάρος, Klaros; Latin: Clarus) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia. It contained a temple and oracle of Apollo, honored here as Apollo
Apollo
Clarius. It was located on the territory of Colophon, one of the twelve Ionic cities, twelve kilometers to the north. The coastal city Notion lay two kilometers to the south. The ruins of the sanctuary are now found north of the modern town Ahmetbeyli in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey. The Temple of Apollo
Apollo
at Claros
Claros
was a very important center of prophecy as in Delphi
Delphi
and Didyma. The oldest information about this sacred site goes back to the sixth and seventh centuries BC. through the Homeric Hymns
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Samos Island
Samos
Samos
(/ˈseɪmɒs, ˈsæmoʊs/; Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos
Patmos
and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre (1.0 mi)-wide Mycale
Mycale
Strait. It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. In ancient times Samos
Samos
was an especially rich and powerful city-state, particularly known for its vineyards and wine production.[1] It is home to Pythagoreion
Pythagoreion
and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering
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James Frazer
Sir James George Frazer
James George Frazer
OM FRS FRSE
FRSE
FBA[1] (/ˈfreɪzər/; 1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941) was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mytho
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Description Of Greece
Pausanias (/pɔːˈseɪniəs/; Greek: Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180)[1] was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece (Ancient Greek: Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, Hellados Periegesis),[2] a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations. This work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as:A careful, pedestrian writer...interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual
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Pausanias (geographer)
Pausanias (/pɔːˈseɪniəs/; Greek: Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180)[1] was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece (Ancient Greek: Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, Hellados Periegesis),[2] a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations. This work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as:A careful, pedestrian writer...interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual
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Noah
In the Abrahamic religions, Noah[a] (/ˈnoʊ.ə/ NOH-ə)[1][2] was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs. The story of Noah's Ark
Noah's Ark
is told in the Bible's Genesis flood narrative. The biblical account is followed by the story of the Curse of Ham. In addition to the Book of Genesis, Noah
Noah
is mentioned in the Old Testament in the First Book of Chronicles, and the books of Tobit, Wisdom, Sirach, Isaiah, Ezekiel, 2 Esdras, 4 Maccabees; in the New Testament, he is mentioned in the gospels of Matthew, and Luke, the Epistle to the Hebrews, 1st Peter and 2nd Peter
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Mari, Syria
Mari (modern Tell Hariri, Arabic: تل حريري‎), was an ancient Semitic city in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located 11 kilometers north-west of Abu Kamal
Abu Kamal
on the Euphrates
Euphrates
river western bank, some 120 kilometers southeast of Deir ez-Zor. It flourished as a trade center and hegemonic state between 2900 BC and 1759 BC.[note 1] As a purposely built city, the existence of Mari was related to its position in the middle of the Euphrates
Euphrates
trade routes; this position made it an intermediary between Sumer
Sumer
in the south and the Levant
Levant
in the west. Mari was first abandoned in the middle of the 26th century BC but was rebuilt and became the capital of a hegemonic East-Semitic state before 2500 BC
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Walter Burkert
Walter Burkert (German: [ˈbʊɐ̯kɐt]; born 2 February 1931, Neuendettelsau; died 11 March 2015, Zurich)[1] was a German scholar of Greek mythology
Greek mythology
and cult. A professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, he taught in the UK and the US
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Heraclitus
Heraclitus
Heraclitus
of Ephesus
Ephesus
(/ˌhɛrəˈklaɪtəs/;[1] Greek: Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος Hērákleitos ho Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus,[2] then part of the Persian Empire. He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the apparently riddled[3] and allegedly paradoxical[4] nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the needless unconsciousness of humankind,[5] he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher". Heraclitus
Heraclitus
was famous for his insistence on ever-present change as being the fundamental essence of the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice"[6] (see panta rhei below)
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Semitic Languages
The Semitic languages[2][3] are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
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Italic Languages
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
(116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus.Contents1 Biography 2 Calendars 3 Works3.1 Extant works 3.2 Known lost works4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksBiography[edit]Statue of Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
in RietiVarro was born in or near Reate (now Rieti)[1] to a family thought to be of equestrian rank, and always remained close to his roots in the area, owning a large farm in the Reatine plain, reported as near Lago di Ripa Sottile,[2] until his old age
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