Ephesus (/ˌhɛrəˈklaɪtəs/; Greek:
Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος Hērákleitos ho
Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BC) was a pre-Socratic
Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part
of the Persian Empire. He was of distinguished parentage. Little is
known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as
self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and
still more from the apparently riddled and allegedly paradoxical
nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the needless
unconsciousness of humankind, he was called "The Obscure" and the
Heraclitus was famous for his insistence on ever-present change as
being the fundamental essence of the universe, as stated in the famous
saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice" (see panta rhei
below). This position was complemented by his stark commitment to a
unity of opposites in the world, stating that "the path up and down
are one and the same". Through these doctrines Heraclitus
characterized all existing entities by pairs of contrary properties,
whereby no entity may ever occupy a single state at a single time.
This, along with his cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be
in accordance with this Logos" (literally, "word", "reason", or
"account") has been the subject of numerous interpretations.
3 Ancient characterizations
3.1 "The Obscure"
3.2 The "weeping philosopher"
4.2 Panta rhei, "everything flows"
4.3 Hodos ano kato, "the way up and the way down"
4.4 Dike eris, "strife is justice"
4.5 Hepesthai to koino, "follow the common"
4.6 Ethos anthropoi daimon, "character is fate"
5.3 Church fathers
6 See also
8 Further reading
8.1 Editions and translations
8.2 Selected bibliography
9 External links
Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor, birthplace of Heraclitus
The main source for the life of
although some have questioned the validity of his account as "a tissue
of Hellenistic anecdotes, most of them obviously fabricated on the
basis of statements in the preserved fragments".
Diogenes said that
Heraclitus flourished in the 69th Olympiad, 504–501 BC. All the
rest of the evidence—the people
Heraclitus is said to have known, or
the people who were familiar with his work—confirms the floruit. His
dates of birth and death are based on a life span of 60 years, the age
Diogenes says he died, with the floruit in the middle.
Heraclitus was born to an aristocratic family in Ephesus, in the
Persian Empire, in what is now called present-day Efes, Turkey. His
father was named either Blosôn or Herakôn.
Diogenes says that he
abdicated the kingship (basileia) in favor of his brother and
Strabo confirms that there was a ruling family in
from the Ionian founder, Androclus, which still kept the title and
could sit in the chief seat at the games, as well as a few other
privileges. How much power the king had is another question.
Ephesus had been part of the Persian Empire since 547 and was ruled by
a satrap, a more distant figure, as the Great King allowed the Ionians
Diogenes says that
Heraclitus used to play
knucklebones with the youths in the temple of
Artemis and when asked
to start making laws he refused saying that the constitution
(politeia) was ponêra, which can mean either that it was
fundamentally wrong or that he considered it toilsome. Two extant
Heraclitus and Darius I, quoted by Diogenes, are
undoubtedly later forgeries.
With regard to education,
Diogenes says that
Heraclitus was "wondrous"
(thaumasios, which, as
Socrates explains in Plato's Theaetetus and
Gorgias, is the beginning of philosophy) from childhood. Diogenes
Sotion said he was a "hearer" of Xenophanes, which
contradicts Heraclitus' statement (so says Diogenes) that he had
taught himself by questioning himself. Burnet states in any case that
Ionia before Herakleitos was born."
Diogenes relates that as a boy
Heraclitus had said he "knew nothing"
but later claimed to "know everything". His statement that he
"heard no one" but "questioned himself", can be placed alongside his
statement that "the things that can be seen, heard and learned are
what I prize the most."
Diogenes relates that
Heraclitus had a poor opinion of human
affairs. He believed that
understanding though learned and that
Homer and Archilochus
deserved to be beaten. Laws needed to be defended as though they
were city walls.
Timon of Phlius
Timon of Phlius is said to have called him a
Heraclitus hated the Athenians and his fellow
Ephesians, wishing the latter wealth in punishment for their wicked
ways. According to
Diogenes Laërtius: "Finally, he became a hater
of his kind (misanthrope) and wandered the mountains [...] making his
diet of grass and herbs."
Heraclitus' life as a philosopher was interrupted by dropsy. The
physicians he consulted were unable to prescribe a cure. Diogenes
lists various stories about Heraclitus' death: In two versions,
Heraclitus was cured of the dropsy and died of another disease. In one
account, however, the philosopher "buried himself in a cowshed,
expecting that the noxious damp humour would be drawn out of him by
the warmth of the manure", while another says he treated himself with
a liniment of cow manure and, after a day prone in the sun, died and
was interred in the marketplace. According to Neathes of Cyzicus,
after smearing himself with dung,
Heraclitus was devoured by
Heraclitus (with the face and in the style of Michelangelo) sits apart
from the other philosophers in Raphael's School of Athens.
Main article: On Nature (Heraclitus)
Diogenes states that Heraclitus' work was "a continuous treatise On
Nature, but was divided into three discourses, one on the universe,
another on politics, and a third on theology."
Theophrastus says (in
Diogenes) "...some parts of his work [are] half-finished, while other
parts [made] a strange medley."
Diogenes also tells us that
Heraclitus deposited his book as a
dedication in the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, one of the
largest temples of the 6th century BC and one of the Seven Wonders of
the Ancient World. Ancient temples were regularly used for storing
treasures, and were open to private individuals under exceptional
circumstances; furthermore, many subsequent philosophers in this
period refer to the work. Says Kahn: "Down to the time of Plutarch
and Clement, if not later, the little book of
Heraclitus was available
in its original form to any reader who chose to seek it out." Diogenes
says: "the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of
his philosophy who were called Heracliteans."
As with other pre-Socratics, his writings survive now only in
fragments quoted by other authors. These are catalogued using the
Diels–Kranz numbering system.
At some time in antiquity he acquired this epithet denoting that his
major sayings were difficult to understand. According to Diogenes
Timon of Phlius
Timon of Phlius called him "the Riddler"
(αἰνικτής; ainiktēs), and explained that
his book "rather unclearly" (asaphesteron) so that only the "capable"
should attempt it. By the time of
Cicero he had become "the dark" (ὁ
Σκοτεινός; ho Skoteinós) because he had spoken nimis
obscurē, "too obscurely", concerning nature and had done so
deliberately in order to be misunderstood. The customary English
translation of ὁ Σκοτεινός follows the Latin, "the
The "weeping philosopher"
Bust of Heraclitus, "The Weeping Philosopher" by Johann Christoph
Ludwig Lücke ca. 1757
Diogenes Laërtius ascribes the theory that
Heraclitus did not
complete some of his works because of melancholia to Theophrastus.
Later he was referred to as the "weeping philosopher", as opposed to
Democritus, who is known as the "laughing philosopher". If
Stobaeus writes correctly,
Sotion in the early 1st century CE was
already combining the two in the imaginative duo of weeping and
laughing philosophers: "Among the wise, instead of anger, Heraclitus
was overtaken by tears,
Democritus by laughter." The view is expressed
by the satirist Juvenal:
The first of prayers, best known at all the temples, is mostly for
riches... Seeing this then do you not commend the one sage Democritus
for laughing... and the master of the other school
Heraclitus for his
The motif was also adopted by
Lucian of Samosata
Lucian of Samosata in his "Sale of
Creeds", in which the duo is sold together as a complementary product
in the satirical auction of philosophers. Subsequently, they were
considered an indispensable feature of philosophic landscapes.
Montaigne proposed two archetypical views of human affairs based on
them, selecting Democritus' for himself. The weeping philosopher
may have been mentioned in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of
Donato Bramante painted a fresco, "
Heraclitus," in Casa Panigarola in Milan.
Main article: Logos
"The idea that all things come to pass in accordance with this
Logos" and "the
Logos is common," is expressed in two famous
but obscure fragments:
Logos holds always but humans always prove unable to understand
it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For
though all things come to be in accordance with this Logos, humans are
like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I
set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying
how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake,
just as they forget what they do while asleep. (DK 22B1)
For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common. But although
Logos is common, most people live as if they had their own private
understanding. (DK 22B2)
The meaning of
Logos also is subject to interpretation: "word",
"account", "principle", "plan", "formula", "measure", "proportion",
Heraclitus "quite deliberately plays on the
various meanings of logos", there is no compelling reason to
suppose that he used it in a special technical sense, significantly
different from the way it was used in ordinary Greek of his time.
Stoics understood it as "the account which governs
everything," and Hippolytus, in the 3rd century CE, identified it
as meaning the Christian Word of God.
Panta rhei, "everything flows"
Heraclitus by Hendrick ter Brugghen
The phrase πάντα ῥεῖ (panta rhei) "everything flows"
either was spoken by
Heraclitus or survived as a quotation of his.
This famous aphorism used to characterize Heraclitus' thought comes
from Simplicius, a neoplatonist, and from Plato's Cratylus. The
word rhei (as in rheology) is the Greek word for "to stream", and is
etymologically related to Rhea according to Plato's Cratylus.
The philosophy of
Heraclitus is summed up in his cryptic
ποταμοῖσι τοῖσιν αὐτοῖσιν
ἐμβαίνουσιν, ἕτερα καὶ ἕτερα ὕδατα
Potamoisi toisin autoisin embainousin, hetera kai hetera hudata
"Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers."
The quote from
Heraclitus appears in Plato's
Cratylus twice; in 401d
τὰ ὄντα ἰέναι τε πάντα καὶ μένειν
Ta onta ienai te panta kai menein ouden
"All entities move and nothing remains still"
and in 402a
"πάντα χωρεῖ καὶ οὐδὲν μένει" καὶ
"δὶς ἐς τὸν αὐτὸν ποταμὸν οὐκ ἂν
Panta chōrei kai ouden menei kai dis es ton auton potamon ouk an
"Everything changes and nothing remains still ... and ...
you cannot step twice into the same stream"
Instead of "flow"
Plato uses chōrei, "to change place" (χῶρος;
The assertions of flow are coupled in many fragments with the
enigmatic river image:
Ποταμοῖς τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐμβαίνομέν τε
καὶ οὐκ ἐμβαίνομεν, εἶμέν τε καὶ
"We both step and do not step in the same rivers. We are and are not."
Compare with the Latin adages Omnia mutantur and Tempora mutantur
(8 CE) and the Japanese tale Hōjōki, (1200 CE) which
contains the same image of the changing river, and the central
Buddhist doctrine of impermanence.
However, the German classicist and philosopher Karl-Martin Dietz
interprets this fragment as an indication by Heraclitus, for the world
as a steady constant: "You will not find anything, in which the river
remains constant. [...] Just the fact, that there is a particular
river bed, that there is a source and a estuary etc. is something,
that stays identical. And this is [...] the concept of a river".
Hodos ano kato, "the way up and the way down"
In ὁδὸς ἄνω κάτω the structure anō katō is more
accurately[original research?] translated as a hyphenated word: "the
upward-downward path". They go on simultaneously and instantaneously
and result in "hidden harmony". A way is a series of
transformations: the πυρὸς τροπαὶ, "turnings of
fire", first into sea, then half of sea to earth and half to
The transformation is a replacement of one element by another: "The
death of fire is the birth of air, and the death of air is the birth
This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made.
But it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of
it kindling, and measures going out.
This latter phraseology is further elucidated:
All things are an interchange for fire, and fire for all things, just
like goods for gold and gold for goods.
Heraclitus considered fire as the most fundamental element. He
believed fire gave rise to the other elements and thus to all things.
He regarded the soul as being a mixture of fire and water, with fire
being the noble part of the soul, and water the ignoble part. A soul
should therefore aim toward becoming more full of fire and less full
of water: a "dry" soul was best. According to Heraclitus, worldly
pleasures made the soul "moist", and he considered mastering one's
worldly desires to be a noble pursuit which purified the soul's
Norman Melchert interpreted
Heraclitus as using "fire"
metaphorically, in lieu of Logos, as the origin of all things.
Dike eris, "strife is justice"
If objects are new from moment to moment so that one can never touch
the same object twice, then each object must dissolve and be generated
continually momentarily and an object is a harmony between a building
up and a tearing down.
Heraclitus calls the oppositional processes
ἔρις (eris), "strife", and hypothesizes that the apparently
stable state, δίκη (dikê), or "justice", is a harmony of it:
We must know that war (πόλεμος polemos) is common to all and
strife is justice, and that all things come into being through strife
All things come into being by conflict of opposites, and the sum of
things (τὰ ὅλα ta hola, "the whole") flows like a stream.
In the bow metaphor
Heraclitus compares the resultant to a strung bow
held in shape by an equilibrium of the string tension and spring
action of the bow:
There is a harmony in the bending back (παλίντροπος
palintropos) as in the case of the bow and the lyre.
Hepesthai to koino, "follow the common"
People must "follow the common" (ἕπεσθαι τῷ κοινῷ
hepesthai tō koinō) and not live having "their own judgement
(phronēsis)". He distinguishes between human laws and divine law
(τοῦ θείου toū theiou lit. "of God"). By "God"
Heraclitus does not mean the Judeo-Christian version of a single God
as primum movens of all things, God as Creator, but the divine as
opposed to human; the immortal as opposed to the mortal, the cyclical
as opposed to the transient. It is more accurate to speak of "the
Divine" and not of "God".
He removes the human sense of justice from his concept of God; i.e.,
humanity is not the image of God: "To God all things are fair and good
and just, but people hold some things wrong and some right." God's
custom has wisdom but human custom does not, and yet both humans
and God are childish (inexperienced): "human opinions are children's
toys" and "Eternity is a child moving counters in a game; the
kingly power is a child's."
Wisdom is "to know the thought by which all things are steered through
all things", which must not imply that people are or can be wise.
Zeus is wise. To some degree then
Heraclitus seems to be in
the mystic's position of urging people to follow God's plan without
much of an idea what that may be. In fact there is a note of despair:
"The fairest universe (κάλλιστος κόσμος kállistos
kósmos) is but a heap of rubbish (σάρμα sárma
lit. "sweepings") piled up (κεχυμένον kechuménon, i.e.
"poured out") at random (εἰκῇ eikê "aimlessly")."
Ethos anthropoi daimon, "character is fate"
This influential quote by
Heraclitus "ἦθος ἀνθρώπῳ
δαίμων" (DK 22B119) has led to numerous interpretations. Whether
in this context "daimon" can indeed be translated to mean "fate" is
disputed; however, it lends much sense to Heraclitus' observations and
conclusions about human nature in general. While the translation with
"fate" is generally accepted as in Kahn's "a man's character is his
divinity", in some cases, it may also stand for the soul of the
Heraclitus and laughing Democritus, from a 1477 Italian fresco,
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan
To Heraclitus, a perceived object is a harmony between two fundamental
units of change, a waxing and a waning. He typically uses the ordinary
word "to become" (gignesthai or ginesthai, present tense or aorist
tense of the verb, with the root sense of "being born"), which led to
his being characterized as the philosopher of becoming rather than of
being. He recognizes the fundamental changing of objects with the flow
Plato argues against
Heraclitus as follows:
How can that be a real thing which is never in the same state? ... for
at the moment that the observer approaches, then they become other ...
so that you cannot get any further in knowing their nature or state
.... but if that which knows and that which is known exist ever ...
then I do not think they can resemble a process or flux ....
Plato one experienced unit is a state, or object existing, which
can be observed. The time parameter is set at "ever"; that is, the
state is to be presumed present between observations. Change is to be
deduced by comparing observations and is thus presumed a function that
happens to objects already in being, rather than something
ontologically essential to them (such that something that does not
change cannot exist) as in Heraclitus. In Plato, no matter how many of
those experienced units you are able to tally, you cannot get through
the mysterious gap between them to account for the change that must be
occurring there. This limitation is considered a fundamental
limitation of reality by
Plato and in part underpins his
differentiation between imperfect experience from more perfect Forms.
The fact that this is no limitation for
Heraclitus motivates Plato's
Stoicism was a philosophical school which flourished between the 3rd
century BC and about the 3rd century AD. It began among the Greeks and
became the major philosophy of the
Roman Empire before declining with
the rise of
Christianity in the 3rd century.
Throughout their long tenure the
Stoics believed that the major tenets
of their philosophy derived from the thought of Heraclitus.
According to Long, "the importance of
Heraclitus to later
evident most plainly in Marcus Aurelius." Explicit connections of
Heraclitus showing how they arrived at their
interpretation are missing but they can be inferred from the Stoic
fragments, which Long concludes are "modifications of Heraclitus."
Stoics were interested in Heraclitus' treatment of fire. In
addition to seeing it as the most fundamental of the four elements and
the one that is quantified and determines the quantity (logos) of the
other three, he presents fire as the cosmos, which was not made by any
of the gods or men, but "was and is and ever shall be ever-living
fire." Fire is both a substance and a motivator of change, it is
active in altering other things quantitatively and performing an
Heraclitus describes as "the judging and convicting of all
things." It is "the thunderbolt that steers the course of all
things." There is no reason to interpret the judgement, which is
actually "to separate" (κρίνειν krinein), as outside of the
context of "strife is justice" (see subsection above).
The earliest surviving Stoic work, the Hymn to
Zeus of Cleanthes,
though not explicitly referencing Heraclitus, adopts what appears to
be the Heraclitean logos modified.
Zeus rules the universe with law
(nomos) wielding on its behalf the "forked servant", the "fire" of the
"ever-living lightning." So far nothing has been said that differs
Zeus of Homer. But then, says Cleanthes,
Zeus uses the fire
to "straighten out the common logos" that travels about (phoitan, "to
frequent") mixing with the greater and lesser lights (heavenly
bodies). This is Heraclitus' logos, but now it is confused with the
"common nomos", which
Zeus uses to "make the wrong (perissa, left or
odd) right (artia, right or even)" and "order (kosmein) the disordered
The Stoic modification of Heraclitus' idea of the
Logos was also
influential on Jewish philosophers such as
Philo of Alexandria, who
connected it to "Wisdom personified" as God's creative principle.
Philo uses the term
Logos throughout his treatises on Hebrew Scripture
in a manner clearly influenced by the Stoics.
Democriet (laughing) & Herakliet (crying) by Cornelis van Haarlem
The church fathers were the leaders of the early Christian Church
during its first five centuries of existence, roughly contemporaneous
Stoicism under the Roman Empire. The works of dozens of writers in
hundreds of pages have survived.
All of them had something to say about the Christian form of the
Logos. The Catholic Church found it necessary to distinguish between
the Christian logos and that of
Heraclitus as part of its ideological
distancing from paganism. The necessity to convert by defeating
paganism was of paramount importance.
Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome therefore
Heraclitus along with the other
Academics) as sources of heresy. Church use of the methods and
conclusions of ancient philosophy as such was as yet far in the
future, even though many were converted philosophers.
In Refutation of All Heresies Hippolytus says: "What the
blasphemous folly is of Noetus, and that he devoted himself to the
Heraclitus the Obscure, not to those of Christ." Hippolytus
then goes on to present the inscrutable DK B67: "God (theos) is day
and night, winter and summer, ... but he takes various shapes, just as
fire, when it is mingled with spices, is named according to the savor
of each." The fragment seems to support pantheism if taken literally.
German physicist and philosopher
Max Bernard Weinstein
Max Bernard Weinstein classed these
views with pandeism.
Hippolytus condemns the obscurity of it. He cannot accuse Heraclitus
of being a heretic so he says instead: "Did not (Heraclitus) the
Noetus in framing a system ...?" The apparent
pantheist deity of
Heraclitus (if that is what DK B67 means) must be
equal to the union of opposites and therefore must be corporeal and
incorporeal, divine and not-divine, dead and alive, etc., and the
Trinity can only be reached by some sort of illusory
The Christian apologist Justin Martyr, however, took a much more
positive view of him. In his First Apology, he said both
Heraclitus were Christians before Christ: "those who lived reasonably
are Christians, even though they have been thought atheists; as, among
Socrates and Heraclitus, and men like them." 
The following articles on other topics contain non-trivial information
that relates to
Heraclitus in some way.
(in Greek) Quotes of
Heraclitus' influence on Hegel
Introduction to Metaphysics
Ionian School (philosophy)
Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks
Philosophy of space and time
Unity of opposites
^ Hanks, Patrick; Urdang, Laurence, eds. (1979). Collins English
Dictionary. London, Glasgow: Collins. ISBN 0-00-433078-1.
^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Heraclitus". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ a b c d e f
Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 6
^ William Harris — Heraclitus: The Complete Philosophical Fragments
^ "The waking have one common world, but the sleeping turn aside each
into a world of his own" (DK B89).
^ This is how
Plato puts Heraclitus' doctrine. See Cratylus, 402a.
^ a b Kahn, Charles (1979). The Art and Thought of Heraclitus:
Fragments with Translation and Commentary. London: Cambridge
University Press. pp. 1–23. ISBN 0-521-28645-X.
^ a b c
Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 1
Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 3
^ Strabo, Chapter 1, section 3.
Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 2
^ G. S. Kirk (2010), Heraclitus: The Cosmic Fragments, Cambridge
University Press, p. 1. ISBN 0521136679
^ Chapter 3 beginning.
Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 5
^ DK B55.
^ DK B40.
^ DK B42.
^ DK B44.
^ DK B125a.
Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 4
^ Fairweather, Janet (1973). "Death of Heraclitus". p. 2.
^ De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, Chapter 2, Section 15.
^ Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (1995). Moral and Political Essays.
Translated by John M. Cooper; J.F. Procopé. Cambridge University
Press. p. 50 note 17. ISBN 0-521-34818-8.
^ Satire X. Translation from
Juvenal (1903). Thirteen Satires of
Juvenal. Sidney George Owen (trans.). London: Methuen & Co.
^ de Montaigne, Michel. "Of
Democritus and Heraclitus". The Essays.
^ Act I Scene II Line 43.
^ Levenson, Jay, editor (1991).
Circa 1492: Art in the Age of
Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 229.
ISBN 0-300-05167-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
^ DK B1.
^ DK B2.
^ For the etymology see Watkins, Calvert (2000). "Appendix I:
Indo-European Roots: leg-". The American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language: Fourth Edition.
^ K.F. Johansen, "Logos" in Donald Zeyl (ed.), Encyclopedia of
Classical Philosophy, Greenwood Press 1997.
^ pp. 419ff. , W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol.
1, Cambridge University Press, 1962.
^ DK B72, from Marcus Aurelius, Meditations iv. 46
^ DK B2, DK B50, from Hippolytus, Refutation of all Heresies, ix. 9
^ Beris, A.N. and A.J. Giacomin, "πάντα ῥεῖ: Everything
Flows", Cover Article, Applied Rheology, 24(5), 52918 (2014), pp.
1–13; Errata: In line 2 of each abstract, "παντα" should be
^ Barnes (1982), page 65, and also Peters, Francis E. (1967). Greek
Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon. NYU Press. p. 178.
ISBN 0814765521. Commentary on Aristotle's Physics,
^ For the etymology see Watkins, Calvert (2000). "Appendix I:
Indo-European Roots: sreu". The American Heritage Dictionary of the
English Language (Fourth ed.). In pronunciation the -ei- is a
diphthong sounding like the -ei- in reindeer. The initial r is
aspirated or made breathy, which indicates the dropping of the s in
^ DK22B12, quoted in
Arius Didymus apud Eusebius, Praeparatio
Cratylus Paragraph Crat. 401 section d line 5.
Cratylus Paragraph 402 section a line 8.
^ This sentence has been translated by Seneca in Epistulae, VI, 58,
^ DK B49a, Harris 110. Others like it are DK B12, Harris 20; DK B91,
^ Dietz, Karl-Martin (2004). Heraklit von
Ephesus und die Entwicklung
der Individualität. Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben.
p. 60. ISBN 978-3772512735.
^ DK B60
^ DK B54.
^ DK B31
^ DK B76.
^ DK B30.
^ DK B90
^ Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy
^ Melchert, Norman (2006). The Great Conversation (5th ed.). Oxford
University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530682-8.
^ DK B80: "Εἰδέναι δὲ χρὴ τὸν πόλεμον
ἐόντα ξυνὸν καὶ δίκην ἔριν, καὶ
γινόμενα πάντα κατ' ἔριν καὶ χρεών".
Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 8
^ DK B51.
^ The initial part of DK B2, often omitted because broken by a note
explaining that ξυνός ksunos (Ionic) is κοινός koinos
^ DK B114.
^ DK B102.
^ DK B78.
^ DK B70.
^ DK B52.
^ DK B41.
^ DK B32.
^ DK B124.
^ Thomas L. Cooksey (2010). Plato's 'Symposium': A Reader's Guide. p.
69. Continuum International Publishing Group (London & New York).
Cratylus Paragraph 440 sections c-d.
^ Long, A.A. (2001). Stoic Studies. University of California Press.
Chapter 2. ISBN 0-520-22974-6.
^ Long (2001), p. 56.
^ Long (2001), p. 51.
^ DK B60.
^ DK B66.
^ DK B64.
^ Different translations of this critical piece of literature,
transitional from pagan polytheism to the modern religions and
philosophies, can be found at Rolleston, T.W. "Stoic Philosophers:
Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus". www.numinism.net. Archived from the original
on 2009-08-05. Retrieved 2007-11-28. Ellery, M.A.C. (1976).
"Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus". Tom Sienkewicz at http://www.utexas.edu.
Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
External link in publisher= (help) "Hymn to Zeus". Translated by not
stated. Holy, Holy, Holy at thriceholy.net: Hypatia's Bookshelf.
^ The ancient Greek can be found in Blakeney, E.H. The Hymn of
Cleanthes: Greek Text Translated into English: with Brief Introduction
and Notes. New York: The MacMillan Company. Downloadable Google
Books at .
^ Book IX leading sentence.
^ Max Bernhard Weinsten, Welt- und Lebensanschauungen, Hervorgegangen
aus Religion, Philosophie und Naturerkenntnis ("
World and Life Views,
Emerging From Religion, Philosophy and Nature") (1910), p. 233:
"Dieser Pandeismus, der von Chrysippos (aus Soloi 280-208 v. Chr.)
herrühren soll, ist schon eine Verbindung mit dem Emanismus; Gott ist
die Welt, insofern als diese aus seiner Substanz durch Verdichtung und
Abkühlung entstanden ist und entsteht, und er sich strahlengleich mit
seiner Substanz durch sie noch verbreitet. Daß Gott als feurig
gedacht wird (jedoch auch als Atem oder Äther) ist dem Menschen
entnommen, dessen Wärme sein Lebensprinzip bedeutet; eine Idee, die
sich schon bei den ersten griechischen Philosophen und namentlich bei
^ Hippolytus. "Refutation of All Heresies". New Advent. pp. Book
IX Chapter 5. Retrieved 2007-12-01.
^ Martyr, Justin. "First Apology of Justin". Early Christian
Library resources about
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Editions and translations
Botten, Mick. (2012). Herakleitos –
Logos Made Manifest, Upfront
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78035-064-6 All fragments, in Greek and
English, with commentary and appendices.
Davenport, Guy (translator) (1979). Herakleitos and Diogenes. Bolinas:
Grey Fox Press. ISBN 0-912516-36-4. Complete fragments of
Heraclitus in English.
Heraclitus; Haxton (translator), Brooks; Hillman (Forward), James
(2001). "Fragments: The Collected Wisdom of Heraclitus". New York:
Viking (The Penguin Group, Penguin Putnam, Inc.).
ISBN 0-670-89195-9. . Parallel Greek & English.
Kahn, Charles H. (1979). The Art and Thought of Heraclitus. An Edition
of the Fragments with Translation and Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 0-521-21883-7.
Kirk, G.S. (1954). Heraclitus, the Cosmic Fragments. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Marcovich, Miroslav (2001). Heraclitus. Greek Text with a Short
Commentary. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag.
ISBN 3-89665-171-4. First edition: Heraclitus, editio
maior. Mérida, Venezuela, 1967.
Patrick, G.T.W. (1889).
Heraclitus of Ephesus: The Fragments.
Robinson, T.M. (1987). Heraclitus: Fragments: A Text and Translation
with a Commentary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Sallis, John; Maly, Kenneth, eds. (1980). Heraclitean fragments.
University: University of Alabama Press.
Wright, M.R. (1985). The Presocratics: The main Fragments in Greek
with Introduction, Commentary and Appendix Containing Text and
Aristotle on the Presocratics. Bristol: Bristol
Classical Press. ISBN 0-86292-079-5.
Bakalis, Nikolaos (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From
the Stoics: Analysis and Fragments. Trafford Publishing.
pp. 26–45 under Heraclitus. ISBN 1-4120-4843-5.
Barnes, Jonathan (1982). The Presocratic Philosophers [Revised
Edition]. London & New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
Burnet, John (2003). Early Greek Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing.
ISBN 0-7661-2826-1. First published in 1892, this book has
had dozens of editions and has been used as a textbook for decades.
The first edition is downloadable from Google Books.
Dietz, Karl-Martin (2004): Metamorphosen des Geistes. Freies
Geistesleben, Stuttgart 2004, Band 1: Prometheus der Vordenker: Vom
göttlichen zum menschlichen Wissen. Band 2: Platon und Aristoteles.
Das Erwachen des europäischen Denkens. Band 3: Heraklit von Ephesus
und die Entwicklung der Individualität. Freies Geistesleben,
Stuttgart, 2004, ISBN 3-7725-1300-X.
Dilcher, Roman (1995). Studies in Heraclitus. Hildesheim: Olms.
Fairbanks, Arthur (1898). The First Philosophers of Greece. New York:
Graham, D. W. "
Heraclitus and Parmenides". In Caston, V.; Graham, D.
W. Presocratic Philosophy: Essays in Honour of Alexander Mourelatos.
Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 27–44. ISBN 0-7546-0502-7.
Graham, D. W. (2008). "Heraclitus: Flux, Order, and Knowledge". In
Curd, P.; Graham, D. W. The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy.
New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 169–188.
Guthrie, W.K.C. (1962). A History of Greek Philosophy: The Earlier
Presocratics and the Pythagoreans. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Heidegger, Martin; Fink, Eugen; Seibert (translator), Charles H.
Heraclitus Seminar". Evanston: Northwestern University Press.
ISBN 0-8101-1067-9. . Transcript of seminar in which two
German philosophers analyze and discuss Heraclitus' texts.
Kirk, G.S.; Raven, J.E. (1957). The Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A
Critical History with a Selection of Texts (2nd ed.). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Lavine, T.Z. (1984). From
Socrates to Sartre: The Philosophic Quest.
New York, New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc.
(Bantam Books). Chapter 2: Shadow and Substance; Section: Plato's
Sources: The Pre–SocraticPhilosophers:
Heraclitus and Parmenides.
Diogenes (1925). "Others: Heraclitus". Lives of the
Eminent Philosophers. 2:9. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two
volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library.
Luchte, James (2011). Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn. London:
Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0567353313.
Magnus, Magus; Fuchs, Wolfgang (introduction) (2010). Heraclitean
Pride. Towson: Furniture Press Books.
ISBN 978-0-9826299-2-5. Creative re-creation of Heraclitus'
lost book, from the fragments.
McKirahan, R. D. (2011). Philosophy before Socrates, An Introduction
With Text and Commentary. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Mourelatos, Alexander, ed. (1993). The Pre-Socratics : a
collection of critical essays (Rev. ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press. ISBN 0-691-02088-4.
Pyle, C. M. (1997). '
Democritus and Heracleitus: An Excursus on the
Cover of this Book,'
Lombardy in the Renaissance. Essays in
Cultural History. Rome, La Fenice. (Istituto di Filologia Moderna,
Università di Parma: Testi e Studi, Nuova Serie: Studi 1.) (Fortuna
of the Laughing and Weeping Philosophers topos)
Rodziewicz, A. (2011). "
Heraclitus historicus politicus". Studia
Antyczne i Mediewistyczne. 44: 5–35. ISSN 0039-3231.
Schofield, Malcolm; Nussbaum, Martha Craven, eds. (1982). Language and
logos : studies in ancient
Greek philosophy presented to G.E.L.
Owen. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. ISBN 0-521-23640-1.
Taylor, C. C. W (ed.), Routledge History of Philosophy: From the
Beginning to Plato, Vol. I, pp. 80–117. ISBN 0-203-02721-3
Master e-book ISBN, ISBN 0-203-05752-X (Adobe eReader Format) and
ISBN 0-415-06272-1 (Print Edition).
Tarán, L. (1999). "337–378". Elenchos. 20: 9–52.
Vlastos, G. (1955). "On Heraclitus". American Journal of Philology. 76
(4): 337–378. doi:10.2307/292270.
Wheelwright, Philip (1959). Heraclitus. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
Quotations related to
Heraclitus at Wikiquote
Works related to Fragments of
Heraclitus at Wikisource
Media related to
Heraclitus at Wikimedia Commons
Elpenor. "Heraclitus: The Word is Common". The Greek Word: Three
Millennia of Greek Literature. Elpenor. Retrieved 2007-10-10.
Heraclitus bilingual anthology from DK in Greek and English, side by
side, the translations being provided by the organization, Elpenor.
Graham, Daniel W. (2006). "Heraclitus". The Internet Encyclopedia of
Philosophy. The editors. Retrieved 2007-10-09.
Graham, Daniel W. (2011). "Heraclitus". Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy. The editors. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
Harris, William, translator (1994). "Heraclitus: The Complete
Fragments: Translation and Commentary and The Greek Text" (PDF).
Humanities and the Liberal Arts: Greek Language and Literature: Text
and Commentary. Middlebury College. Retrieved 2007-10-09. Greek
and English with DK numbers and commentary.
Heraclitus the Obscure: The Father of the Doctrine of Flux and the
Unity of Opposites". Archimedes' Laboratory. Retrieved
2007-11-09. Text and selected aphorisms in Greek, English,
Italian and French.
Hooker, Richard (1996). "Heraclitus".
World Civilizations: An Internet
Classroom and Anthology: Greek Philosophy. Washington State
University. Retrieved 2007-10-11. Selected fragments translated
Hoyt, Randy (2002). "The Fragments of Heraclitus". Retrieved
2007-10-09. The fragments also cited in DK in Greek (Unicode)
with the English translations of John Burnet (see Bibliography).
June, Daniel (2012). "The Logos: a Modern Adapted Translation of the
Complete Fragments of Heraclitus" (PDF). Archived from the original
(PDF) on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2015-04-21.
Knierim, Thomas (2007). "Heraclitus: (Ephesus, around 500 BC)".
thebigview.com. Essay on the flux and fire philosophy of
Lancereau, M. Daniel; Béreau, M. Samuel (2007). "Heraclitus".
Philoctetes: ΦΙΛΟΚΤΗΤΗΣ. Retrieved 2007-10-10. Site
with links to pdf's containing the fragments of DK in Greek (Unicode)
with the English translations of John Burnet (see Bibliography) and
translations into French, either in parallel columns or interlinear,
with links on the lexical items to Perseus dictionaries. Includes also
Heraclitus article from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.
Magnus, Magus. "The Turning".
Mailman, Joshua (2009). "An Imagined Drama of Competitive Opposition
in Carter's Scrivo in Vento (with Notes on Narrative, Symmetry,
Quantitative Flux, and Heraclitus)". Music Analysis, v.28, 2-3.
Stamatellos, Giannis. "
Heraclitus of Ephesus: Life and Work".
Trix. "Heraclitus' Epistemological Views". sym•pos•i•a:
σuμποσια: the online philosophy journal. Archived from the
original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-10-10.
Osho. "Osho discourse on Heraclitus,The Hidden Harmony".
Heraclitus Series". Heraclitus' fragments rendered into the
language of deductive logic on Triple Canopy (online magazine).
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