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HERACLITUS OF EPHESUS (/ˌhɛrəˈklaɪtəs/ ; Greek : Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, _Hērákleitos ho Ephésios_; c. 535 – c. 475 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher , and a native of the city of Ephesus , then part of the Persian Empire . He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the apparently riddled and allegedly paradoxical nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the needless unconsciousness of humankind, he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher".

Heraclitus was famous for his insistence on ever-present change as being the fundamental essence of the universe , as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice" (see panta rhei , below). This position was complemented by his stark commitment to a unity of opposites in the world, stating that "the path up and down are one and the same". Through these doctrines Heraclitus characterized all existing entities by pairs of contrary properties, whereby no entity may ever occupy a single state at a single time. This, along with his cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be in accordance with this _ Logos _" (literally, "word", "reason", or "account") has been the subject of numerous interpretations.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life * 2 Works

* 3 Ancient characterizations

* 3.1 "The Obscure" * 3.2 The "weeping philosopher"

* 4 Philosophy

* 4.1 _Logos_ * 4.2 _Panta rhei_, "everything flows" * 4.3 _Hodos ano kato_, "the way up and the way down" * 4.4 _Dike eris_, "strife is justice" * 4.5 _Hepesthai to koino_, "follow the common" * 4.6 _Ethos anthropoi daimon_, "character is fate"

* 5 Influence

* 5.1 Plato * 5.2 Stoics * 5.3 Church fathers

* 6 See also * 7 Notes

* 8 Further reading

* 8.1 Editions and translations * 8.2 Selected bibliography

* 9 External links

LIFE

Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor , birthplace of Heraclitus

The main source for the life of Heraclitus is Diogenes Laërtius , although some have questioned the validity of his account as "a tissue of Hellenistic anecdotes, most of them obviously fabricated on the basis of statements in the preserved fragments." Diogenes said that Heraclitus flourished in the 69th Olympiad , 504–501 BC. All the rest of the evidence — the people Heraclitus is said to have known, or the people who were familiar with his work — confirms the _floruit _. His dates of birth and death are based on a life span of 60 years, the age at which Diogenes says he died, with the floruit in the middle.

Heraclitus was born to an aristocratic family in Ephesus , in the Persian Empire , in what is now called present-day Efes, Turkey . His father was named either Blosôn or Herakôn. Diogenes says that he abdicated the kingship (_basileia_) in favor of his brother and Strabo confirms that there was a ruling family in Ephesus descended from the Ionian founder, Androclus, which still kept the title and could sit in the chief seat at the games, as well as a few other privileges. How much power the king had is another question. Ephesus had been part of the Persian Empire since 547 and was ruled by a satrap , a more distant figure, as the Great King allowed the Ionians considerable autonomy. Diogenes says that Heraclitus used to play knucklebones with the youths in the temple of Artemis and when asked to start making laws he refused saying that the constitution (_politeia_) was _ponêra_, which can mean either that it was fundamentally wrong or that he considered it toilsome. Two extant letters between Heraclitus and Darius I , quoted by Diogenes, are undoubtedly later forgeries.

With regard to education, Diogenes says that Heraclitus was "wondrous" (_thaumasios_, which, as Socrates explains in Plato's _Theaetetus _ and _ Gorgias _, is the beginning of philosophy) from childhood. Diogenes relates that Sotion said he was a "hearer" of Xenophanes , which contradicts Heraclitus' statement (so says Diogenes) that he had taught himself by questioning himself. Burnet states in any case that "... Xenophanes left Ionia before Herakleitos was born." Diogenes relates that as a boy Heraclitus had said he "knew nothing" but later claimed to "know everything." His statement that he "heard no one" but "questioned himself," can be placed alongside his statement that "the things that can be seen, heard and learned are what I prize the most."

Diogenes relates that Heraclitus had a poor opinion of human affairs. He believed that Hesiod and Pythagoras lacked understanding though learned and that Homer and Archilochus deserved to be beaten. Laws needed to be defended as though they were city walls. Timon is said to have called him a "mob-reviler." Heraclitus hated the Athenians and his fellow Ephesians, wishing the latter wealth in punishment for their wicked ways. Says Diogenes: "Finally, he became a hater of his kind (_misanthrope_) and wandered the mountains ... making his diet of grass and herbs."

Heraclitus' life as a philosopher was interrupted by dropsy . The physicians he consulted were unable to prescribe a cure. Diogenes lists various stories about Heraclitus' death: In two versions, Heraclitus was cured of the dropsy and died of another disease. In one account, however, the philosopher "buried himself in a cowshed, expecting that the noxious damp humour would be drawn out of him by the warmth of the manure", while another says he treated himself with a liniment of cow manure and, after a day prone in the sun, died and was interred in the marketplace. According to Neathes of Cyzicus, after smearing himself with dung, Heraclitus was devoured by dogs.

WORKS

_ Heraclitus (with the face and in the style of Michelangelo ) sits apart from the other philosophers in Raphael 's School of Athens _. Main article: On Nature (Heraclitus)

Diogenes states that Heraclitus' work was "a continuous treatise _On Nature_, but was divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and a third on theology." Theophrastus says (in Diogenes) "...some parts of his work half-finished, while other parts a strange medley."

Diogenes also tells us that Heraclitus deposited his book as a dedication in the great temple of Artemis , the Artemisium , one of the largest temples of the 6th century BC and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . Ancient temples were regularly used for storing treasures, and were open to private individuals under exceptional circumstances; furthermore, many subsequent philosophers in this period refer to the work. Says Kahn : "Down to the time of Plutarch and Clement , if not later, the little book of Heraclitus was available in its original form to any reader who chose to seek it out." Diogenes says: "the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of his philosophy who were called Heracliteans."

As with other pre-Socratics, his writings survive now only in fragments quoted by other authors.

ANCIENT CHARACTERIZATIONS

"THE OBSCURE"

At some time in antiquity he acquired this epithet denoting that his major sayings were difficult to understand. According to Diogenes Laërtius , Timon of Phlius called him "the riddler" (αἰνικτής _ainiktēs_), and explained that Heraclitus wrote his book "rather unclearly" (_asaphesteron_) so that only the "capable" should attempt it. By the time of Cicero he had become "the dark" (ὁ Σκοτεινός — _ho Skoteinós_) because he had spoken _nimis obscurē_, "too obscurely", concerning nature and had done so deliberately in order to be misunderstood. The customary English translation of ὁ Σκοτεινός follows the Latin, "the Obscure."

THE "WEEPING PHILOSOPHER"

Bust of Heraclitus, 'The Weeping Philosopher' by Johann Christoph Ludwig Lücke ca. 1757

Diogenes Laërtius ascribes the theory that Heraclitus did not complete some of his works because of melancholia to Theophrastus . Later he was referred to as the "weeping philosopher," as opposed to Democritus , who is known as the "laughing philosopher." If Stobaeus writes correctly, Sotion in the early 1st century CE was already combining the two in the imaginative duo of weeping and laughing philosophers: "Among the wise, instead of anger, Heraclitus was overtaken by tears, Democritus by laughter." The view is expressed by the satirist Juvenal :

The first of prayers, best known at all the temples, is mostly for riches... Seeing this then do you not commend the one sage Democritus for laughing... and the master of the other school Heraclitus for his tears?

The motif was also adopted by Lucian of Samosata in his "Sale of Creeds," in which the duo is sold together as a complementary product in the satirical auction of philosophers. Subsequently, they were considered an indispensable feature of philosophic landscapes. Montaigne proposed two archetypical views of human affairs based on them, selecting Democritus' for himself. The weeping philosopher may have been mentioned in William Shakespeare 's _The Merchant of Venice _. Donato Bramante painted a fresco, " Democritus and Heraclitus," in Casa Panigarola in Milan .

PHILOSOPHY

_LOGOS_

Main article: Logos

"The idea that all things come to pass in accordance with this _Logos_" and "the _Logos_ is common," is expressed in two famous but obscure fragments:

This _Logos_ holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this _Logos_, humans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep. (DK 22B1)

For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common. But although the _Logos_ is common, most people live as if they had their own private understanding. (DK 22B2)

The meaning of _Logos_ also is subject to interpretation: "word", "account", "principle", "plan", "formula", "measure", "proportion", "reckoning." Though Heraclitus "quite deliberately plays on the various meanings of _logos_", there is no compelling reason to suppose that he used it in a special technical sense, significantly different from the way it was used in ordinary Greek of his time.

The later Stoics understood it as "the account which governs everything," and Hippolytus , in the 3rd century CE, identified it as meaning the Christian _Word of God_.

_PANTA RHEI_, "EVERYTHING FLOWS"

Heraclitus by Hendrick ter Brugghen

The phrase πάντα ῥεῖ (_panta rhei_) "everything flows" either was spoken by Heraclitus or survived as a quotation of his. This famous aphorism used to characterize Heraclitus' thought comes from Simplicius , a neoplatonist , and from Plato's _ Cratylus _. The word _rhei_ (cf. rheology ) is the Greek word for "to stream", and is etymologically related to Rhea according to Plato's _ Cratylus _.

The philosophy of Heraclitus is summed up in his cryptic utterance:

ποταμοῖσι τοῖσιν αὐτοῖσιν ἐμβαίνουσιν, ἕτερα καὶ ἕτερα ὕδατα ἐπιρρεῖ. _Potamoisi toisin autoisin embainousin, hetera kai hetera hudata epirrei_ "Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers."

The quote from Heraclitus appears in Plato 's _ Cratylus _ twice; in 401d as:

τὰ ὄντα ἰέναι τε πάντα καὶ μένειν οὐδέν _Ta onta ienai te panta kai menein ouden_ "All entities move and nothing remains still"

and in 402a

"πάντα χωρεῖ καὶ οὐδὲν μένει" καὶ "δὶς ἐς τὸν αὐτὸν ποταμὸν οὐκ ἂν ἐμβαίης" _Panta chōrei kai ouden menei kai dis es ton auton potamon ouk an embaies_ "Everything changes and nothing remains still ... and ... you cannot step twice into the same stream"

Instead of "flow" Plato uses _chōrei_, "to change place" (χῶρος _chōros_).

The assertions of flow are coupled in many fragments with the enigmatic river image:

Ποταμοῖς τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐμβαίνομέν τε καὶ οὐκ ἐμβαίνομεν, εἶμέν τε καὶ οὐκ εἶμεν. "We both step and do not step in the same rivers. We are and are not."

Compare with the Latin adages _Omnia mutantur _ and _Tempora mutantur _ (8 CE) and the Japanese tale _ Hōjōki ,_ (1200 CE) which contains the same image of the changing river, and the central Buddhist doctrine of impermanence .

However, the German classicist and philosopher Karl-Martin Dietz interprets this fragment as an indication by Heraclitus, for the world as a steady constant : "You will not find anything, in which the river remains constant. ... Just the fact, that there is a particular river bed , that there is a source and a estuary etc. is something, that stays identical. And this is ... the concept of a river"

_HODOS ANO KATO_, "THE WAY UP AND THE WAY DOWN"

In ὁδὸς ἄνω κάτω the structure _anō katō_ is more accurately translated as a hyphenated word: "the upward-downward path." They go on simultaneously and instantaneously and result in "hidden harmony". A way is a series of transformations: the πυρὸς τροπαὶ, "turnings of fire," first into sea, then half of sea to earth and half to rarefied air.

The transformation is a replacement of one element by another: "The death of fire is the birth of air, and the death of air is the birth of water."

This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made. But it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of it kindling, and measures going out.

This latter phraseology is further elucidated:

All things are an interchange for fire, and fire for all things, just like goods for gold and gold for goods.

Heraclitus considered fire as the most fundamental element. He believed fire gave rise to the other elements and thus to all things. He regarded the soul as being a mixture of fire and water, with fire being the noble part of the soul, and water the ignoble part. A soul should therefore aim toward becoming more full of fire and less full of water: a "dry" soul was best. According to Heraclitus, worldly pleasures made the soul "moist", and he considered mastering one's worldly desires to be a noble pursuit which purified the soul's fire. Norman Melchert interpreted Heraclitus as using "fire" metaphorically, in lieu of _Logos_, as the origin of all things.

_DIKE ERIS_, "STRIFE IS JUSTICE"

If objects are new from moment to moment so that one can never touch the same object twice, then each object must dissolve and be generated continually momentarily and an object is a harmony between a building up and a tearing down. Heraclitus calls the oppositional processes ἔρις _eris_, "strife", and hypothesizes that the apparently stable state, δίκη _dikê_, or "justice," is a harmony of it:

We must know that war (πόλεμος _polemos_) is common to all and strife is justice, and that all things come into being through strife necessarily.

As Diogenes explains:

All things come into being by conflict of opposites, and the sum of things (τὰ ὅλα _ta hola_, "the whole") flows like a stream.

In the bow metaphor Heraclitus compares the resultant to a strung bow held in shape by an equilibrium of the string tension and spring action of the bow:

There is a harmony in the bending back (παλίντροπος _palintropos_) as in the case of the bow and the lyre.

_HEPESTHAI TO KOINO_, "FOLLOW THE COMMON"

People must "follow the common" (ἕπεσθαι τῷ κοινῷ _hepesthai tō koinō_) and not live having "their own judgement (_phronēsis_)". He distinguishes between human laws and divine law (τοῦ θείου _tou theiou_ "of God"). By "God" Heraclitus does not mean the Judeo-Christian version of a single God as primum mobile of all things, God as Creator, but the divine as opposed the human, the immortal (which we tend to confuse with the "eternal") as opposed to the mortal, the cyclical as opposed to the transient. It is more accurate to speak of "the Divine" and not of "God".

He removes the human sense of justice from his concept of God; i.e., humanity is not the image of God: "To God all things are fair and good and just, but people hold some things wrong and some right." God's custom has wisdom but human custom does not, and yet both humans and God are childish (inexperienced): "human opinions are children's toys" and "Eternity is a child moving counters in a game; the kingly power is a child's."

Wisdom is "to know the thought by which all things are steered through all things", which must not imply that people are or can be wise. Only Zeus is wise. To some degree then Heraclitus seems to be in the mystic\'s position of urging people to follow God's plan without much of an idea what that may be. In fact there is a note of despair: "The fairest universe (κάλλιστος κόσμος _kallistos kosmos _) is but a heap of rubbish (σάρμα _sarma_, sweepings) piled up (κεχυμένον _kechumenon_, i.e. "poured out") at random (εἰκῇ _eikê_, "aimlessly")."

_ETHOS ANTHROPOI DAIMON_, "CHARACTER IS FATE"

This influential quote by Heraclitus "ἦθος ἀνθρώπῳ δαίμων" (DK 22B119) has led to numerous interpretations. Whether in this context, "daimon" can indeed be translated to mean "fate" is disputed; however, it lends much sense to Heraclitus' observations and conclusions about human nature in general. While the translation with "fate" is generally accepted as in Kahn's "a man's character is his divinity", in some cases, it may also stand for the soul of the departed.

INFLUENCE

_ Crying Heraclitus and laughing Democritus _, from a 1477 Italian fresco, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan

PLATO

In Heraclitus a perceived object is a harmony between two fundamental units of change, a waxing and a waning. He typically uses the ordinary word "to become" (_gignesthai_ or _ginesthai_, present tense or aorist tense of the verb, with the root sense of "being born"), which led to his being characterized as the philosopher of becoming rather than of being. He recognizes the fundamental changing of objects with the flow of time.

Plato argues against Heraclitus as follows:

How can that be a real thing which is never in the same state? ... for at the moment that the observer approaches, then they become other ... so that you cannot get any further in knowing their nature or state .... but if that which knows and that which is known exist ever ... then I do not think they can resemble a process or flux ....

In Plato one experienced unit is a state, or object existing, which can be observed. The time parameter is set at "ever"; that is, the state is to be presumed present between observations. Change is to be deduced by comparing observations and is thus presumed a function that _happens to_ objects already in being, rather than something ontologically essential to them (such that something that does not change cannot exist) as in Heraclitus. In Plato, no matter how many of those experienced units you are able to tally, you cannot get through the mysterious gap between them to account for the change that must be occurring there. This limitation is considered a fundamental limitation of reality by Plato and in part underpins his differentiation between imperfect experience from more perfect Forms . The fact that this is no limitation for Heraclitus motivates Plato's condemnation.

STOICS

Stoicism was a philosophical school which flourished between the 3rd century BC and about the 3rd century AD. It began among the Greeks and became the major philosophy of the Roman Empire before declining with the rise of Christianity in the 3rd century.

Throughout their long tenure the Stoics believed that the major tenets of their philosophy derived from the thought of Heraclitus. According to Long , "the importance of Heraclitus to later Stoics is evident most plainly in Marcus Aurelius ." Explicit connections of the earliest Stoics to Heraclitus showing how they arrived at their interpretation are missing but they can be inferred from the Stoic fragments, which Long concludes are "modifications of Heraclitus."

The Stoics were interested in Heraclitus' treatment of fire. In addition to seeing it as the most fundamental of the four elements and the one that is quantified and determines the quantity (_logos_) of the other three, he presents fire as the cosmos, which was not made by any of the gods or men, but "was and is and ever shall be ever-living fire." Fire is both a substance and a motivator of change, it is active in altering other things quantitatively and performing an activity Heraclitus describes as "the judging and convicting of all things." It is "the thunderbolt that steers the course of all things." There is no reason to interpret the judgement, which is actually "to separate" (κρίνειν _krinein_), as outside of the context of "strife is justice" (see subsection above).

The earliest surviving Stoic work, the _Hymn to Zeus_ of Cleanthes , though not explicitly referencing Heraclitus, adopts what appears to be the Heraclitean logos modified. Zeus rules the universe with law (_nomos_) wielding on its behalf the "forked servant", the "fire" of the "ever-living lightning." So far nothing has been said that differs from the Zeus of Homer . But then, says Cleanthes, Zeus uses the fire to "straighten out the common logos" that travels about (_phoitan_, "to frequent") mixing with the greater and lesser lights (heavenly bodies). This is Heraclitus' logos, but now it is confused with the "common _nomos_", which Zeus uses to "make the wrong (_perissa_, left or odd) right (_artia_, right or even)" and "order (_kosmein_) the disordered (_akosma_)."

The Stoic modification of Heraclitus' idea of the Logos was also influential on Jewish philosophers such as Philo of Alexandria, who connected it to "Wisdom personified" as God's creative principle. Philo uses the term Logos throughout his treatises on Hebrew Scripture in a manner clearly influenced by the Stoics.

CHURCH FATHERS

Democriet (laughing) as, among the Greeks, Socrates and Heraclitus, and men like them."

SEE ALSO

The following articles on other topics contain non-trivial information that relates to Heraclitus in some way.

* Becoming (philosophy) * Cratylus * Dialectical monism * Dialectics * Dualism * Ephesian School * (in Greek) Quotes of Heraclitus (Apospásmata) * Heraclitus\' influence on Hegel * Introduction to Metaphysics * Ionian School (philosophy) * Logos

* Marcel Conche * Metaphysics (Aristotle) * Nondualism * Pandeism * Pantheism * Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks * Philosophy of space and time * Process philosophy * Unity of opposites * Pratītyasamutpāda

NOTES

* ^ Hanks, Patrick ; Urdang, Laurence , eds. (1979). _Collins English Dictionary_. London, Glasgow: Collins. ISBN 0-00-433078-1 . * ^ _ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Heraclitus". Encyclopædia Britannica _. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 309–310. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 6 * ^ William Harris — Heraclitus: The Complete Philosophical Fragments * ^ "The waking have one common world, but the sleeping turn aside each into a world of his own" (DK B89). * ^ This is how Plato puts Heraclitus' doctrine. See _Cratylus_, 402a. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kahn, Charles (1979). _The Art and Thought of Heraclitus: Fragments with Translation and Commentary_. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–23. ISBN 0-521-28645-X . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 1 * ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 3 * ^ Strabo, Chapter 1, section 3. * ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 2 * ^ G. S. Kirk (2010), _Heraclitus: The Cosmic Fragments_, Cambridge University Press, p. 1. ISBN 0521136679 * ^ Chapter 3 beginning. * ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 5 * ^ DK B55. * ^ DK B40. * ^ DK B42. * ^ DK B44. * ^ DK B125a. * ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 4 * ^ Fairweather, Janet (1973). "Death of Heraclitus". p. 2. * ^ _De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum_, Chapter 2, Section 15. * ^ Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (1995). _Moral and Political Essays_. Translated by John M. Cooper; J.F. Procopé. Cambridge University Press. p. 50 note 17. ISBN 0-521-34818-8 . * ^ III.20.53 * ^ Satire X. Translation from Juvenal (1903). _Thirteen Satires of Juvenal_. Sidney George Owen (trans.). London: Methuen & Co. p. 61. * ^ de Montaigne, Michel . "Of Democritus and Heraclitus". _The Essays_. Project Gutenberg. * ^ Act I Scene II Line 43. * ^ Levenson, Jay, editor (1991). _Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration_. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 229. ISBN 0-300-05167-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ DK B1. * ^ DK B2. * ^ For the etymology see Watkins, Calvert (2000). "Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: leg-". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. * ^ K.F. Johansen, "Logos" in Donald Zeyl (ed.), _Encyclopedia of Classical Philosophy_, Greenwood Press 1997. * ^ pp. 419ff. , W. K. C. Guthrie , _A History of Greek Philosophy_, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1962. * ^ DK B72, from Marcus Aurelius , _Meditations_ iv. 46 * ^ DK B2, DK B50, from Hippolytus, _Refutation of all Heresies_, ix. 9 * ^ Beris, A.N. and A.J. Giacomin, "πάντα ῥεῖ : Everything Flows," Cover Article, Applied Rheology, 24(5), 52918 (2014), pp. 1-13; Errata: In line 2 of each abstract, "παντα" should be "πάντα". * ^ Barnes (1982), page 65, and also Peters, Francis E. (1967). _Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon_. NYU Press. p. 178. ISBN 0814765521 . _Commentary on Aristotle 's Physics _, 1313.11. * ^ For the etymology see Watkins, Calvert (2000). "Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: sreu". _The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language_ (Fourth ed.). In pronunciation the -ei- is a diphthong sounding like the -ei- in reindeer. The initial r is aspirated or made breathy, which indicates the dropping of the s in *_sreu_-. * ^ DK22B12, quoted in Arius Didymus apud Eusebius , _Praeparatio Evangelica _, 15.20.2 * ^ _ Cratylus _ Paragraph Crat. 401 section d line 5. * ^ _ Cratylus _ Paragraph 402 section a line 8. * ^ This sentence has been translated by Seneca in Epistulae, VI, 58, 23. * ^ DK B49a, Harris 110. Others like it are DK B12, Harris 20; DK B91, Harris 21. * ^ Dietz, Karl-Martin (2004). _Heraklit von Ephesus und die Entwicklung der Individualität_. Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben. p. 60. ISBN 978-3772512735 . * ^ DK B60 * ^ DK B54. * ^ DK B31 * ^ DK B76. * ^ DK B30. * ^ DK B90 * ^ Russell, Bertrand , _History of Western Philosophy _ * ^ Melchert, Norman (2006). _The Great Conversation_ (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530682-8 . * ^ DK B80: "Εἰδέναι δὲ χρὴ τὸν πόλεμον ἐόντα ξυνὸν καὶ δίκην ἔριν, καὶ γινόμενα πάντα κατ' ἔριν καὶ χρεών". * ^ Diogenes Laërtius, ix. 8 * ^ DK B51. * ^ The initial part of DK B2, often omitted because broken by a note explaining that ξυνός _ksunos_ (Ionic) is κοινός _koinos_ (Attic). * ^ DK B114. * ^ DK B102. * ^ DK B78. * ^ DK B70. * ^ DK B52. * ^ DK B41. * ^ DK B32. * ^ DK B124. * ^ Thomas L. Cooksey (2010). Plato's 'Symposium': A Reader's Guide. p. 69. Continuum International Publishing Group (London & New York). ISBN 978-0-8264-4067-9 * ^ Cratylus Paragraph 440 sections c-d. * ^ Long, A.A. (2001). _Stoic Studies_. University of California Press. Chapter 2. ISBN 0-520-22974-6 . * ^ Long (2001), p. 56. * ^ Long (2001), p. 51. * ^ DK B60. * ^ DK B66. * ^ DK B64. * ^ Different translations of this critical piece of literature, transitional from pagan polytheism to the modern religions and philosophies, can be found at Rolleston, T.W. "Stoic Philosophers: Cleanthes\' Hymn to Zeus". www.numinism.net. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05. Retrieved 2007-11-28. Ellery, M.A.C. (1976). "Cleanthes\' Hymn to Zeus". Tom Sienkewicz at http://www.utexas.edu. Retrieved 2007-11-28. External link in publisher= (help ) "Hymn to Zeus". Translated by not stated. Holy, Holy, Holy at thriceholy.net: Hypatia's Bookshelf. * ^ The ancient Greek can be found in Blakeney, E.H. _The Hymn of Cleanthes: Greek Text Translated into English: with Brief Introduction and Notes_. New York: The MacMillan Company. Downloadable Google Books at . * ^ Book IX leading sentence. * ^ Max Bernhard Weinsten, _Welt- und Lebensanschauungen, Hervorgegangen aus Religion, Philosophie und Naturerkenntnis_ ("World and Life Views, Emerging From Religion, Philosophy and Nature") (1910), p. 233: "Dieser Pandeismus, der von Chrysippos (aus Soloi 280-208 v. Chr.) herrühren soll, ist schon eine Verbindung mit dem Emanismus; Gott ist die Welt, insofern als diese aus seiner Substanz durch Verdichtung und Abkühlung entstanden ist und entsteht, und er sich strahlengleich mit seiner Substanz durch sie noch verbreitet. Daß Gott als feurig gedacht wird (jedoch auch als Atem oder Äther) ist dem Menschen entnommen, dessen Wärme sein Lebensprinzip bedeutet; eine Idee, die sich schon bei den ersten griechischen Philosophen und namentlich bei Heraklit findet." * ^ Hippolytus. "Refutation of All Heresies". New Advent. pp. Book IX Chapter 5. Retrieved 2007-12-01. * ^ Martyr, Justin. "First Apology of Justin". Early Christian Writings.

FURTHER READING

EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS

* Botten, Mick. (2012). _Herakleitos – Logos Made Manifest_, Upfront Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78035-064-6 All fragments, in Greek and English, with commentary and appendices. * Davenport, Guy (translator) (1979). _Herakleitos and Diogenes_. Bolinas: Grey Fox Press. ISBN 0-912516-36-4 . Complete fragments of Heraclitus in English. * Heraclitus; Haxton (translator), Brooks; Hillman (Forward), James (2001). "Fragments: The Collected Wisdom of Heraclitus". New York: Viking (The Penguin Group, Penguin Putnam, Inc.). ISBN 0-670-89195-9 . . Parallel Greek & English. * Irish, Tom (2016). Heraclitus translated. * Kahn, Charles H. (1979). _The Art and Thought of Heraclitus. An Edition of the Fragments with Translation and Commentary_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21883-7 . * Kirk, G.S. (1954). _Heraclitus, the Cosmic Fragments_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Marcovich, Miroslav (2001). _Heraclitus. Greek Text with a Short Commentary_. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag. ISBN 3-89665-171-4 . First edition: _Heraclitus_, editio maior. Mérida, Venezuela, 1967. * Patrick, G.T.W. (1889). _ Heraclitus of Ephesus: The Fragments_. * Robinson, T.M. (1987). _Heraclitus: Fragments: A Text and Translation with a Commentary_. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6913-4 . * Sallis, John; Maly, Kenneth, eds. (1980). _Heraclitean fragments_. University: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0027-9 . * Wright, M.R. (1985). _The Presocratics: The main Fragments in Greek with Introduction, Commentary and Appendix Containing Text and Translation of Aristotle on the Presocratics_. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 0-86292-079-5 .

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bakalis, Nikolaos (2005). _Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics: Analysis and Fragments_. Trafford Publishing. pp. 26–45 under Heraclitus. ISBN 1-4120-4843-5 . * Barnes, Jonathan (1982). _The Presocratic Philosophers _. London & New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 0-415-05079-0 . * Burnet, John (2003). _Early Greek Philosophy_. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-2826-1 . First published in 1892, this book has had dozens of editions and has been used as a textbook for decades. The first edition is downloadable from Google Books. * Dietz, Karl-Martin (2004): _Metamorphosen des Geistes._ Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart 2004, Band 1: _Prometheus der Vordenker: Vom göttlichen zum menschlichen Wissen._ Band 2: _Platon und Aristoteles. Das Erwachen des europäischen Denkens._ Band 3: _Heraklit