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Heraclitus
Heraclitus
of Ephesus
Ephesus
(/ˌhɛrəˈklaɪtəs/;[1] Greek: Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος Hērákleitos ho Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus,[2] then part of the Persian Empire. He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the apparently riddled[3] and allegedly paradoxical[4] nature of his philosophy and his stress upon the needless unconsciousness of humankind,[5] he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher". Heraclitus
Heraclitus
was famous for his insistence on ever-present change as being the fundamental essence of the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice"[6] (see panta rhei below). This position was complemented by his stark commitment to a unity of opposites in the world, stating that "the path up and down are one and the same". Through these doctrines Heraclitus characterized all existing entities by pairs of contrary properties, whereby no entity may ever occupy a single state at a single time. This, along with his cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be in accordance with this Logos" (literally, "word", "reason", or "account") has been the subject of numerous interpretations.

Contents

1 Life 2 Works 3 Ancient characterizations

3.1 "The Obscure" 3.2 The "weeping philosopher"

4 Philosophy

4.1 Logos 4.2 Panta rhei, "everything flows" 4.3 Hodos ano kato, "the way up and the way down" 4.4 Dike eris, "strife is justice" 4.5 Hepesthai to koino, "follow the common" 4.6 Ethos anthropoi daimon, "character is fate"

5 Influence

5.1 Plato 5.2 Stoics 5.3 Church fathers

6 See also 7 Notes 8 Further reading

8.1 Editions and translations 8.2 Selected bibliography

9 External links

Life[edit]

Ephesus
Ephesus
on the coast of Asia Minor, birthplace of Heraclitus

The main source for the life of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
is Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, although some have questioned the validity of his account as "a tissue of Hellenistic anecdotes, most of them obviously fabricated on the basis of statements in the preserved fragments".[7] Diogenes
Diogenes
said that Heraclitus
Heraclitus
flourished in the 69th Olympiad,[8] 504–501 BC. All the rest of the evidence—the people Heraclitus
Heraclitus
is said to have known, or the people who were familiar with his work—confirms the floruit. His dates of birth and death are based on a life span of 60 years, the age at which Diogenes
Diogenes
says he died,[9] with the floruit in the middle. Heraclitus
Heraclitus
was born to an aristocratic family in Ephesus, in the Persian Empire, in what is now called present-day Efes, Turkey. His father was named either Blosôn or Herakôn.[8] Diogenes
Diogenes
says that he abdicated the kingship (basileia) in favor of his brother[3] and Strabo
Strabo
confirms that there was a ruling family in Ephesus
Ephesus
descended from the Ionian founder, Androclus, which still kept the title and could sit in the chief seat at the games, as well as a few other privileges.[10] How much power the king had is another question. Ephesus
Ephesus
had been part of the Persian Empire since 547 and was ruled by a satrap, a more distant figure, as the Great King allowed the Ionians considerable autonomy. Diogenes
Diogenes
says that Heraclitus
Heraclitus
used to play knucklebones with the youths in the temple of Artemis
Artemis
and when asked to start making laws he refused saying that the constitution (politeia) was ponêra,[11] which can mean either that it was fundamentally wrong or that he considered it toilsome. Two extant letters between Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and Darius I, quoted by Diogenes, are undoubtedly later forgeries.[12] With regard to education, Diogenes
Diogenes
says that Heraclitus
Heraclitus
was "wondrous" (thaumasios, which, as Socrates
Socrates
explains in Plato's Theaetetus and Gorgias, is the beginning of philosophy) from childhood. Diogenes relates that Sotion said he was a "hearer" of Xenophanes, which contradicts Heraclitus' statement (so says Diogenes) that he had taught himself by questioning himself. Burnet states in any case that "...  Xenophanes
Xenophanes
left Ionia
Ionia
before Herakleitos was born."[13] Diogenes
Diogenes
relates that as a boy Heraclitus
Heraclitus
had said he "knew nothing" but later claimed to "know everything".[14] His statement that he "heard no one" but "questioned himself", can be placed alongside his statement that "the things that can be seen, heard and learned are what I prize the most."[15] Diogenes
Diogenes
relates that Heraclitus
Heraclitus
had a poor opinion of human affairs.[8] He believed that Hesiod
Hesiod
and Pythagoras
Pythagoras
lacked understanding though learned[16] and that Homer
Homer
and Archilochus deserved to be beaten.[17] Laws needed to be defended as though they were city walls.[18] Timon of Phlius
Timon of Phlius
is said to have called him a "mob-reviler". Heraclitus
Heraclitus
hated the Athenians and his fellow Ephesians, wishing the latter wealth in punishment for their wicked ways.[19] According to Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius: "Finally, he became a hater of his kind (misanthrope) and wandered the mountains [...] making his diet of grass and herbs." Heraclitus' life as a philosopher was interrupted by dropsy. The physicians he consulted were unable to prescribe a cure. Diogenes lists various stories about Heraclitus' death: In two versions, Heraclitus
Heraclitus
was cured of the dropsy and died of another disease. In one account, however, the philosopher "buried himself in a cowshed, expecting that the noxious damp humour would be drawn out of him by the warmth of the manure", while another says he treated himself with a liniment of cow manure and, after a day prone in the sun, died and was interred in the marketplace. According to Neathes of Cyzicus, after smearing himself with dung, Heraclitus
Heraclitus
was devoured by dogs.[20][21] Works[edit]

Heraclitus
Heraclitus
(with the face and in the style of Michelangelo) sits apart from the other philosophers in Raphael's School of Athens.

Main article: On Nature (Heraclitus) Diogenes
Diogenes
states that Heraclitus' work was "a continuous treatise On Nature, but was divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and a third on theology." Theophrastus
Theophrastus
says (in Diogenes) "...some parts of his work [are] half-finished, while other parts [made] a strange medley."[3] Diogenes
Diogenes
also tells us that Heraclitus
Heraclitus
deposited his book as a dedication in the great temple of Artemis, the Artemisium, one of the largest temples of the 6th century BC and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ancient temples were regularly used for storing treasures, and were open to private individuals under exceptional circumstances; furthermore, many subsequent philosophers in this period refer to the work. Says Kahn:[7] "Down to the time of Plutarch and Clement, if not later, the little book of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
was available in its original form to any reader who chose to seek it out." Diogenes says:[3] "the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of his philosophy who were called Heracliteans." As with other pre-Socratics, his writings survive now only in fragments quoted by other authors. These are catalogued using the Diels–Kranz numbering system. Ancient characterizations[edit] "The Obscure"[edit] At some time in antiquity he acquired this epithet denoting that his major sayings were difficult to understand. According to Diogenes Laërtius,[3] Timon of Phlius
Timon of Phlius
called him "the Riddler" (αἰνικτής; ainiktēs), and explained that Heraclitus
Heraclitus
wrote his book "rather unclearly" (asaphesteron) so that only the "capable" should attempt it. By the time of Cicero
Cicero
he had become "the dark" (ὁ Σκοτεινός; ho Skoteinós)[22] because he had spoken nimis obscurē, "too obscurely", concerning nature and had done so deliberately in order to be misunderstood. The customary English translation of ὁ Σκοτεινός follows the Latin, "the Obscure". The "weeping philosopher"[edit]

Bust of Heraclitus, "The Weeping Philosopher" by Johann Christoph Ludwig Lücke ca. 1757

Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
ascribes the theory that Heraclitus
Heraclitus
did not complete some of his works because of melancholia to Theophrastus.[3] Later he was referred to as the "weeping philosopher", as opposed to Democritus, who is known as the "laughing philosopher".[23] If Stobaeus[24] writes correctly, Sotion in the early 1st century CE was already combining the two in the imaginative duo of weeping and laughing philosophers: "Among the wise, instead of anger, Heraclitus was overtaken by tears, Democritus
Democritus
by laughter." The view is expressed by the satirist Juvenal:[25]

The first of prayers, best known at all the temples, is mostly for riches... Seeing this then do you not commend the one sage Democritus for laughing... and the master of the other school Heraclitus
Heraclitus
for his tears?

The motif was also adopted by Lucian of Samosata
Lucian of Samosata
in his "Sale of Creeds", in which the duo is sold together as a complementary product in the satirical auction of philosophers. Subsequently, they were considered an indispensable feature of philosophic landscapes. Montaigne proposed two archetypical views of human affairs based on them, selecting Democritus' for himself.[26] The weeping philosopher may have been mentioned in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice.[27] Donato Bramante
Donato Bramante
painted a fresco, " Democritus
Democritus
and Heraclitus," in Casa Panigarola in Milan.[28] Philosophy[edit] Logos[edit] Main article: Logos "The idea that all things come to pass in accordance with this Logos"[29] and "the Logos
Logos
is common,"[30] is expressed in two famous but obscure fragments:

This Logos
Logos
holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this Logos, humans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep. (DK 22B1)

For this reason it is necessary to follow what is common. But although the Logos
Logos
is common, most people live as if they had their own private understanding. (DK 22B2)

The meaning of Logos
Logos
also is subject to interpretation: "word", "account", "principle", "plan", "formula", "measure", "proportion", "reckoning."[31] Though Heraclitus
Heraclitus
"quite deliberately plays on the various meanings of logos",[32] there is no compelling reason to suppose that he used it in a special technical sense, significantly different from the way it was used in ordinary Greek of his time.[33] The later Stoics
Stoics
understood it as "the account which governs everything,"[34] and Hippolytus, in the 3rd century CE, identified it as meaning the Christian Word of God.[35] Panta rhei, "everything flows"[edit]

Heraclitus
Heraclitus
by Hendrick ter Brugghen

The phrase πάντα ῥεῖ (panta rhei) "everything flows"[36] either was spoken by Heraclitus
Heraclitus
or survived as a quotation of his. This famous aphorism used to characterize Heraclitus' thought comes from Simplicius,[37] a neoplatonist, and from Plato's Cratylus. The word rhei (as in rheology) is the Greek word for "to stream", and is etymologically related to Rhea according to Plato's Cratylus.[38] The philosophy of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
is summed up in his cryptic utterance:[39]

ποταμοῖσι τοῖσιν αὐτοῖσιν ἐμβαίνουσιν, ἕτερα καὶ ἕτερα ὕδατα ἐπιρρεῖ. Potamoisi toisin autoisin embainousin, hetera kai hetera hudata epirrei "Ever-newer waters flow on those who step into the same rivers."

The quote from Heraclitus
Heraclitus
appears in Plato's Cratylus twice; in 401d as:[40]

τὰ ὄντα ἰέναι τε πάντα καὶ μένειν οὐδέν Ta onta ienai te panta kai menein ouden "All entities move and nothing remains still"

and in 402a[41]

"πάντα χωρεῖ καὶ οὐδὲν μένει" καὶ "δὶς ἐς τὸν αὐτὸν ποταμὸν οὐκ ἂν ἐμβαίης" Panta chōrei kai ouden menei kai dis es ton auton potamon ouk an embaies "Everything changes and nothing remains still ... and ... you cannot step twice into the same stream"[42]

Instead of "flow" Plato
Plato
uses chōrei, "to change place" (χῶρος; chōros). The assertions of flow are coupled in many fragments with the enigmatic river image:[43]

Ποταμοῖς τοῖς αὐτοῖς ἐμβαίνομέν τε καὶ οὐκ ἐμβαίνομεν, εἶμέν τε καὶ οὐκ εἶμεν. "We both step and do not step in the same rivers. We are and are not."

Compare with the Latin adages Omnia mutantur and Tempora mutantur (8 CE) and the Japanese tale Hōjōki, (1200 CE) which contains the same image of the changing river, and the central Buddhist doctrine of impermanence. However, the German classicist and philosopher Karl-Martin Dietz interprets this fragment as an indication by Heraclitus, for the world as a steady constant: "You will not find anything, in which the river remains constant. [...] Just the fact, that there is a particular river bed, that there is a source and a estuary etc. is something, that stays identical. And this is [...] the concept of a river".[44] Hodos ano kato, "the way up and the way down"[edit] In ὁδὸς ἄνω κάτω[45] the structure anō katō is more accurately[original research?] translated as a hyphenated word: "the upward-downward path". They go on simultaneously and instantaneously and result in "hidden harmony".[46] A way is a series of transformations: the πυρὸς τροπαὶ, "turnings of fire",[47] first into sea, then half of sea to earth and half to rarefied air. The transformation is a replacement of one element by another: "The death of fire is the birth of air, and the death of air is the birth of water."[48]

This world, which is the same for all, no one of gods or men has made. But it always was and will be: an ever-living fire, with measures of it kindling, and measures going out.[49]

This latter phraseology is further elucidated:

All things are an interchange for fire, and fire for all things, just like goods for gold and gold for goods.[50]

Heraclitus
Heraclitus
considered fire as the most fundamental element. He believed fire gave rise to the other elements and thus to all things. He regarded the soul as being a mixture of fire and water, with fire being the noble part of the soul, and water the ignoble part. A soul should therefore aim toward becoming more full of fire and less full of water: a "dry" soul was best. According to Heraclitus, worldly pleasures made the soul "moist", and he considered mastering one's worldly desires to be a noble pursuit which purified the soul's fire.[51] Norman Melchert interpreted Heraclitus
Heraclitus
as using "fire" metaphorically, in lieu of Logos, as the origin of all things.[52] Dike eris, "strife is justice"[edit] If objects are new from moment to moment so that one can never touch the same object twice, then each object must dissolve and be generated continually momentarily and an object is a harmony between a building up and a tearing down. Heraclitus
Heraclitus
calls the oppositional processes ἔρις (eris), "strife", and hypothesizes that the apparently stable state, δίκη (dikê), or "justice", is a harmony of it:[53]

We must know that war (πόλεμος polemos) is common to all and strife is justice, and that all things come into being through strife necessarily.

As Diogenes
Diogenes
explains:[54]

All things come into being by conflict of opposites, and the sum of things (τὰ ὅλα ta hola, "the whole") flows like a stream.

In the bow metaphor Heraclitus
Heraclitus
compares the resultant to a strung bow held in shape by an equilibrium of the string tension and spring action of the bow:[55]

There is a harmony in the bending back (παλίντροπος palintropos) as in the case of the bow and the lyre.

Hepesthai to koino, "follow the common"[edit] People must "follow the common" (ἕπεσθαι τῷ κοινῷ hepesthai tō koinō)[56] and not live having "their own judgement (phronēsis)". He distinguishes between human laws and divine law (τοῦ θείου toū theiou lit. "of God").[57] By "God" Heraclitus
Heraclitus
does not mean the Judeo-Christian version of a single God as primum movens of all things, God as Creator, but the divine as opposed to human; the immortal as opposed to the mortal, the cyclical as opposed to the transient. It is more accurate to speak of "the Divine" and not of "God". He removes the human sense of justice from his concept of God; i.e., humanity is not the image of God: "To God all things are fair and good and just, but people hold some things wrong and some right."[58] God's custom has wisdom but human custom does not,[59] and yet both humans and God are childish (inexperienced): "human opinions are children's toys"[60] and "Eternity is a child moving counters in a game; the kingly power is a child's."[61] Wisdom is "to know the thought by which all things are steered through all things",[62] which must not imply that people are or can be wise. Only Zeus
Zeus
is wise.[63] To some degree then Heraclitus
Heraclitus
seems to be in the mystic's position of urging people to follow God's plan without much of an idea what that may be. In fact there is a note of despair: "The fairest universe (κάλλιστος κόσμος kállistos kósmos) is but a heap of rubbish (σάρμα sárma lit. "sweepings") piled up (κεχυμένον kechuménon, i.e. "poured out") at random (εἰκῇ eikê "aimlessly")."[64] Ethos anthropoi daimon, "character is fate"[edit] This influential quote by Heraclitus
Heraclitus
"ἦθος ἀνθρώπῳ δαίμων" (DK 22B119) has led to numerous interpretations. Whether in this context "daimon" can indeed be translated to mean "fate" is disputed; however, it lends much sense to Heraclitus' observations and conclusions about human nature in general. While the translation with "fate" is generally accepted as in Kahn's "a man's character is his divinity", in some cases, it may also stand for the soul of the departed.[65] Influence[edit]

Crying Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and laughing Democritus, from a 1477 Italian fresco, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan

Plato[edit] To Heraclitus, a perceived object is a harmony between two fundamental units of change, a waxing and a waning. He typically uses the ordinary word "to become" (gignesthai or ginesthai, present tense or aorist tense of the verb, with the root sense of "being born"), which led to his being characterized as the philosopher of becoming rather than of being. He recognizes the fundamental changing of objects with the flow of time. Plato
Plato
argues against Heraclitus
Heraclitus
as follows:[66]

How can that be a real thing which is never in the same state? ... for at the moment that the observer approaches, then they become other ... so that you cannot get any further in knowing their nature or state .... but if that which knows and that which is known exist ever ... then I do not think they can resemble a process or flux ....

In Plato
Plato
one experienced unit is a state, or object existing, which can be observed. The time parameter is set at "ever"; that is, the state is to be presumed present between observations. Change is to be deduced by comparing observations and is thus presumed a function that happens to objects already in being, rather than something ontologically essential to them (such that something that does not change cannot exist) as in Heraclitus. In Plato, no matter how many of those experienced units you are able to tally, you cannot get through the mysterious gap between them to account for the change that must be occurring there. This limitation is considered a fundamental limitation of reality by Plato
Plato
and in part underpins his differentiation between imperfect experience from more perfect Forms. The fact that this is no limitation for Heraclitus
Heraclitus
motivates Plato's condemnation.[citation needed] Stoics[edit] Stoicism
Stoicism
was a philosophical school which flourished between the 3rd century BC and about the 3rd century AD. It began among the Greeks and became the major philosophy of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
before declining with the rise of Christianity
Christianity
in the 3rd century. Throughout their long tenure the Stoics
Stoics
believed that the major tenets of their philosophy derived from the thought of Heraclitus.[67] According to Long, "the importance of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
to later Stoics
Stoics
is evident most plainly in Marcus Aurelius."[68] Explicit connections of the earliest Stoics
Stoics
to Heraclitus
Heraclitus
showing how they arrived at their interpretation are missing but they can be inferred from the Stoic fragments, which Long concludes are "modifications of Heraclitus."[69] The Stoics
Stoics
were interested in Heraclitus' treatment of fire. In addition to seeing it as the most fundamental of the four elements and the one that is quantified and determines the quantity (logos) of the other three, he presents fire as the cosmos, which was not made by any of the gods or men, but "was and is and ever shall be ever-living fire."[70] Fire is both a substance and a motivator of change, it is active in altering other things quantitatively and performing an activity Heraclitus
Heraclitus
describes as "the judging and convicting of all things."[71] It is "the thunderbolt that steers the course of all things."[72] There is no reason to interpret the judgement, which is actually "to separate" (κρίνειν krinein), as outside of the context of "strife is justice" (see subsection above). The earliest surviving Stoic work, the Hymn to Zeus
Zeus
of Cleanthes,[73] though not explicitly referencing Heraclitus, adopts what appears to be the Heraclitean logos modified. Zeus
Zeus
rules the universe with law (nomos) wielding on its behalf the "forked servant", the "fire" of the "ever-living lightning." So far nothing has been said that differs from the Zeus
Zeus
of Homer. But then, says Cleanthes, Zeus
Zeus
uses the fire to "straighten out the common logos" that travels about (phoitan, "to frequent") mixing with the greater and lesser lights (heavenly bodies). This is Heraclitus' logos, but now it is confused with the "common nomos", which Zeus
Zeus
uses to "make the wrong (perissa, left or odd) right (artia, right or even)" and "order (kosmein) the disordered (akosma)."[74] The Stoic modification of Heraclitus' idea of the Logos
Logos
was also influential on Jewish philosophers such as Philo
Philo
of Alexandria, who connected it to "Wisdom personified" as God's creative principle. Philo
Philo
uses the term Logos
Logos
throughout his treatises on Hebrew Scripture in a manner clearly influenced by the Stoics. Church fathers[edit]

Democriet (laughing) & Herakliet (crying) by Cornelis van Haarlem

The church fathers were the leaders of the early Christian Church during its first five centuries of existence, roughly contemporaneous to Stoicism
Stoicism
under the Roman Empire. The works of dozens of writers in hundreds of pages have survived. All of them had something to say about the Christian form of the Logos. The Catholic Church found it necessary to distinguish between the Christian logos and that of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
as part of its ideological distancing from paganism. The necessity to convert by defeating paganism was of paramount importance. Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome
therefore identifies Heraclitus
Heraclitus
along with the other Pre-Socratics
Pre-Socratics
(and Academics) as sources of heresy. Church use of the methods and conclusions of ancient philosophy as such was as yet far in the future, even though many were converted philosophers. In Refutation of All Heresies[75] Hippolytus says: "What the blasphemous folly is of Noetus, and that he devoted himself to the tenets of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
the Obscure, not to those of Christ." Hippolytus then goes on to present the inscrutable DK B67: "God (theos) is day and night, winter and summer, ... but he takes various shapes, just as fire, when it is mingled with spices, is named according to the savor of each." The fragment seems to support pantheism if taken literally. German physicist and philosopher Max Bernard Weinstein
Max Bernard Weinstein
classed these views with pandeism.[76] Hippolytus condemns the obscurity of it. He cannot accuse Heraclitus of being a heretic so he says instead: "Did not (Heraclitus) the Obscure anticipate Noetus in framing a system ...?" The apparent pantheist deity of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
(if that is what DK B67 means) must be equal to the union of opposites and therefore must be corporeal and incorporeal, divine and not-divine, dead and alive, etc., and the Trinity
Trinity
can only be reached by some sort of illusory shape-shifting.[77] The Christian apologist Justin Martyr, however, took a much more positive view of him. In his First Apology, he said both Socrates
Socrates
and Heraclitus
Heraclitus
were Christians before Christ: "those who lived reasonably are Christians, even though they have been thought atheists; as, among the Greeks, Socrates
Socrates
and Heraclitus, and men like them." [78] See also[edit] The following articles on other topics contain non-trivial information that relates to Heraclitus
Heraclitus
in some way.

Becoming (philosophy) Cratylus Dialectical monism Dialectics Dualism Ephesian School (in Greek) Quotes of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
(Apospásmata) Heraclitus' influence on Hegel Introduction to Metaphysics Ionian School (philosophy) Logos

Marcel Conche Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Aristotle) Nondualism Pandeism Pantheism Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks Philosophy of space and time Process philosophy Unity of opposites Pratītyasamutpāda

Notes[edit]

^ Hanks, Patrick; Urdang, Laurence, eds. (1979). Collins English Dictionary. London, Glasgow: Collins. ISBN 0-00-433078-1.  ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Heraclitus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 309–310.  ^ a b c d e f Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, ix. 6 ^ William Harris — Heraclitus: The Complete Philosophical Fragments ^ "The waking have one common world, but the sleeping turn aside each into a world of his own" (DK B89). ^ This is how Plato
Plato
puts Heraclitus' doctrine. See Cratylus, 402a. ^ a b Kahn, Charles (1979). The Art and Thought of Heraclitus: Fragments with Translation and Commentary. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–23. ISBN 0-521-28645-X.  ^ a b c Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, ix. 1 ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, ix. 3 ^ Strabo, Chapter 1, section 3. ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, ix. 2 ^ G. S. Kirk (2010), Heraclitus: The Cosmic Fragments, Cambridge University Press, p. 1. ISBN 0521136679 ^ Chapter 3 beginning. ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, ix. 5 ^ DK B55. ^ DK B40. ^ DK B42. ^ DK B44. ^ DK B125a. ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, ix. 4 ^ Fairweather, Janet (1973). "Death of Heraclitus". p. 2.  ^ De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum, Chapter 2, Section 15. ^ Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (1995). Moral and Political Essays. Translated by John M. Cooper; J.F. Procopé. Cambridge University Press. p. 50 note 17. ISBN 0-521-34818-8.  ^ III.20.53 ^ Satire X. Translation from Juvenal
Juvenal
(1903). Thirteen Satires of Juvenal. Sidney George Owen (trans.). London: Methuen & Co. p. 61.  ^ de Montaigne, Michel. "Of Democritus
Democritus
and Heraclitus". The Essays. Project Gutenberg.  ^ Act I Scene II Line 43. ^ Levenson, Jay, editor (1991). Circa
Circa
1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 229. ISBN 0-300-05167-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ DK B1. ^ DK B2. ^ For the etymology see Watkins, Calvert (2000). "Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: leg-". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.  ^ K.F. Johansen, "Logos" in Donald Zeyl (ed.), Encyclopedia of Classical Philosophy, Greenwood Press 1997. ^ pp. 419ff. , W. K. C. Guthrie, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1962. ^ DK B72, from Marcus Aurelius, Meditations iv. 46 ^ DK B2, DK B50, from Hippolytus, Refutation of all Heresies, ix. 9 ^ Beris, A.N. and A.J. Giacomin, "πάντα ῥεῖ: Everything Flows", Cover Article, Applied Rheology, 24(5), 52918 (2014), pp. 1–13; Errata: In line 2 of each abstract, "παντα" should be "πάντα". ^ Barnes (1982), page 65, and also Peters, Francis E. (1967). Greek Philosophical Terms: A Historical Lexicon. NYU Press. p. 178. ISBN 0814765521.  Commentary on Aristotle's Physics, 1313.11. ^ For the etymology see Watkins, Calvert (2000). "Appendix I: Indo-European Roots: sreu". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth ed.).  In pronunciation the -ei- is a diphthong sounding like the -ei- in reindeer. The initial r is aspirated or made breathy, which indicates the dropping of the s in *sreu-. ^ DK22B12, quoted in Arius Didymus apud Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 15.20.2 ^ Cratylus Paragraph Crat. 401 section d line 5. ^ Cratylus Paragraph 402 section a line 8. ^ This sentence has been translated by Seneca in Epistulae, VI, 58, 23. ^ DK B49a, Harris 110. Others like it are DK B12, Harris 20; DK B91, Harris 21. ^ Dietz, Karl-Martin (2004). Heraklit von Ephesus
Ephesus
und die Entwicklung der Individualität. Stuttgart: Verlag Freies Geistesleben. p. 60. ISBN 978-3772512735.  ^ DK B60 ^ DK B54. ^ DK B31 ^ DK B76. ^ DK B30. ^ DK B90 ^ Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy ^ Melchert, Norman (2006). The Great Conversation (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530682-8.  ^ DK B80: "Εἰδέναι δὲ χρὴ τὸν πόλεμον ἐόντα ξυνὸν καὶ δίκην ἔριν, καὶ γινόμενα πάντα κατ' ἔριν καὶ χρεών". ^ Diogenes
Diogenes
Laërtius, ix. 8 ^ DK B51. ^ The initial part of DK B2, often omitted because broken by a note explaining that ξυνός ksunos (Ionic) is κοινός koinos (Attic). ^ DK B114. ^ DK B102. ^ DK B78. ^ DK B70. ^ DK B52. ^ DK B41. ^ DK B32. ^ DK B124. ^ Thomas L. Cooksey (2010). Plato's 'Symposium': A Reader's Guide. p. 69. Continuum International Publishing Group (London & New York). ISBN 978-0-8264-4067-9 ^ Cratylus Paragraph 440 sections c-d. ^ Long, A.A. (2001). Stoic Studies. University of California Press. Chapter 2. ISBN 0-520-22974-6.  ^ Long (2001), p. 56. ^ Long (2001), p. 51. ^ DK B60. ^ DK B66. ^ DK B64. ^ Different translations of this critical piece of literature, transitional from pagan polytheism to the modern religions and philosophies, can be found at Rolleston, T.W. "Stoic Philosophers: Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus". www.numinism.net. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05. Retrieved 2007-11-28.  Ellery, M.A.C. (1976). "Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus". Tom Sienkewicz at http://www.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. Retrieved 2007-11-28.  External link in publisher= (help) "Hymn to Zeus". Translated by not stated. Holy, Holy, Holy at thriceholy.net: Hypatia's Bookshelf.  ^ The ancient Greek can be found in Blakeney, E.H. The Hymn of Cleanthes: Greek Text Translated into English: with Brief Introduction and Notes. New York: The MacMillan Company.  Downloadable Google Books at [1]. ^ Book IX leading sentence. ^ Max Bernhard Weinsten, Welt- und Lebensanschauungen, Hervorgegangen aus Religion, Philosophie und Naturerkenntnis (" World
World
and Life Views, Emerging From Religion, Philosophy and Nature") (1910), p. 233: "Dieser Pandeismus, der von Chrysippos (aus Soloi 280-208 v. Chr.) herrühren soll, ist schon eine Verbindung mit dem Emanismus; Gott ist die Welt, insofern als diese aus seiner Substanz durch Verdichtung und Abkühlung entstanden ist und entsteht, und er sich strahlengleich mit seiner Substanz durch sie noch verbreitet. Daß Gott als feurig gedacht wird (jedoch auch als Atem oder Äther) ist dem Menschen entnommen, dessen Wärme sein Lebensprinzip bedeutet; eine Idee, die sich schon bei den ersten griechischen Philosophen und namentlich bei Heraklit findet." ^ Hippolytus. "Refutation of All Heresies". New Advent. pp. Book IX Chapter 5. Retrieved 2007-12-01.  ^ Martyr, Justin. "First Apology of Justin". Early Christian Writings. 

Library resources about Heraclitus

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Heraclitus

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Further reading[edit] Editions and translations[edit]

Botten, Mick. (2012). Herakleitos – Logos
Logos
Made Manifest, Upfront Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78035-064-6 All fragments, in Greek and English, with commentary and appendices. Davenport, Guy (translator) (1979). Herakleitos and Diogenes. Bolinas: Grey Fox Press. ISBN 0-912516-36-4.  Complete fragments of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
in English. Heraclitus; Haxton (translator), Brooks; Hillman (Forward), James (2001). "Fragments: The Collected Wisdom of Heraclitus". New York: Viking (The Penguin Group, Penguin Putnam, Inc.). ISBN 0-670-89195-9. . Parallel Greek & English. Kahn, Charles H. (1979). The Art and Thought of Heraclitus. An Edition of the Fragments with Translation and Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21883-7.  Kirk, G.S. (1954). Heraclitus, the Cosmic Fragments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Marcovich, Miroslav (2001). Heraclitus. Greek Text with a Short Commentary. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag. ISBN 3-89665-171-4.  First edition: Heraclitus, editio maior. Mérida, Venezuela, 1967. Patrick, G.T.W. (1889). Heraclitus
Heraclitus
of Ephesus: The Fragments.  Robinson, T.M. (1987). Heraclitus: Fragments: A Text and Translation with a Commentary. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6913-4.  Sallis, John; Maly, Kenneth, eds. (1980). Heraclitean fragments. University: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0027-9.  Wright, M.R. (1985). The Presocratics: The main Fragments in Greek with Introduction, Commentary and Appendix Containing Text and Translation of Aristotle
Aristotle
on the Presocratics. Bristol: Bristol Classical Press. ISBN 0-86292-079-5. 

Selected bibliography[edit]

Bakalis, Nikolaos (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales
Thales
to the Stoics: Analysis and Fragments. Trafford Publishing. pp. 26–45 under Heraclitus. ISBN 1-4120-4843-5.  Barnes, Jonathan (1982). The Presocratic Philosophers [Revised Edition]. London & New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 0-415-05079-0.  Burnet, John (2003). Early Greek Philosophy. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-2826-1.  First published in 1892, this book has had dozens of editions and has been used as a textbook for decades. The first edition is downloadable from Google Books. Dietz, Karl-Martin (2004): Metamorphosen des Geistes. Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart 2004, Band 1: Prometheus der Vordenker: Vom göttlichen zum menschlichen Wissen. Band 2: Platon und Aristoteles. Das Erwachen des europäischen Denkens. Band 3: Heraklit von Ephesus und die Entwicklung der Individualität. Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart, 2004, ISBN 3-7725-1300-X. Dilcher, Roman (1995). Studies in Heraclitus. Hildesheim: Olms. ISBN 3-487-09986-1.  Fairbanks, Arthur (1898). The First Philosophers of Greece. New York: Scribner.  Graham, D. W. " Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and Parmenides". In Caston, V.; Graham, D. W. Presocratic Philosophy: Essays in Honour of Alexander Mourelatos. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 27–44. ISBN 0-7546-0502-7.  Graham, D. W. (2008). "Heraclitus: Flux, Order, and Knowledge". In Curd, P.; Graham, D. W. The Oxford Handbook of Presocratic Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 169–188. ISBN 978-0-19-514687-5.  Guthrie, W.K.C. (1962). A History of Greek Philosophy: The Earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Heidegger, Martin; Fink, Eugen; Seibert (translator), Charles H. (1993). " Heraclitus
Heraclitus
Seminar". Evanston: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0-8101-1067-9. . Transcript of seminar in which two German philosophers analyze and discuss Heraclitus' texts. Kirk, G.S.; Raven, J.E. (1957). The Pre-Socratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selection of Texts (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Lavine, T.Z. (1984). From Socrates
Socrates
to Sartre: The Philosophic Quest. New York, New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. (Bantam Books). Chapter 2: Shadow and Substance; Section: Plato's Sources: The Pre–SocraticPhilosophers: Heraclitus
Heraclitus
and Parmenides. ISBN 0-553-25161-9.   Laërtius, Diogenes
Diogenes
(1925). "Others: Heraclitus". Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 2:9. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library.  Luchte, James (2011). Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0567353313.  Magnus, Magus; Fuchs, Wolfgang (introduction) (2010). Heraclitean Pride. Towson: Furniture Press Books. ISBN 978-0-9826299-2-5.  Creative re-creation of Heraclitus' lost book, from the fragments. McKirahan, R. D. (2011). Philosophy before Socrates, An Introduction With Text and Commentary. Indianapolis: Hackett. ISBN 978-1-60384-183-2.  Mourelatos, Alexander, ed. (1993). The Pre-Socratics : a collection of critical essays (Rev. ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-02088-4.  Pyle, C. M. (1997). ' Democritus
Democritus
and Heracleitus: An Excursus on the Cover of this Book,' Milan
Milan
and Lombardy
Lombardy
in the Renaissance. Essays in Cultural History. Rome, La Fenice. (Istituto di Filologia Moderna, Università di Parma: Testi e Studi, Nuova Serie: Studi 1.) (Fortuna of the Laughing and Weeping Philosophers topos) Rodziewicz, A. (2011). " Heraclitus
Heraclitus
historicus politicus". Studia Antyczne i Mediewistyczne. 44: 5–35. ISSN 0039-3231.  Schofield, Malcolm; Nussbaum, Martha Craven, eds. (1982). Language and logos : studies in ancient Greek philosophy
Greek philosophy
presented to G.E.L. Owen. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P. ISBN 0-521-23640-1.  Taylor, C. C. W (ed.), Routledge History of Philosophy: From the Beginning to Plato, Vol. I, pp. 80–117. ISBN 0-203-02721-3 Master e-book ISBN, ISBN 0-203-05752-X (Adobe eReader Format) and ISBN 0-415-06272-1 (Print Edition). Tarán, L. (1999). "337–378". Elenchos. 20: 9–52.  Vlastos, G. (1955). "On Heraclitus". American Journal of Philology. 76 (4): 337–378. doi:10.2307/292270.  Wheelwright, Philip (1959). Heraclitus. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 

External links[edit]

Quotations related to Heraclitus
Heraclitus
at Wikiquote Works related to Fragments of Heraclitus
Heraclitus
at Wikisource Media related to Heraclitus
Heraclitus
at Wikimedia Commons Elpenor. "Heraclitus: The Word is Common". The Greek Word: Three Millennia of Greek Literature. Elpenor. Retrieved 2007-10-10.  Heraclitus
Heraclitus
bilingual anthology from DK in Greek and English, side by side, the translations being provided by the organization, Elpenor. Graham, Daniel W. (2006). "Heraclitus". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The editors. Retrieved 2007-10-09.  Graham, Daniel W. (2011). "Heraclitus". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The editors. Retrieved 2013-08-25.  Harris, William, translator (1994). "Heraclitus: The Complete Fragments: Translation and Commentary and The Greek Text" (PDF). Humanities and the Liberal Arts: Greek Language and Literature: Text and Commentary. Middlebury College. Retrieved 2007-10-09.  Greek and English with DK numbers and commentary. " Heraclitus
Heraclitus
the Obscure: The Father of the Doctrine of Flux and the Unity of Opposites". Archimedes' Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-11-09.  Text and selected aphorisms in Greek, English, Italian and French. Hooker, Richard (1996). "Heraclitus". World
World
Civilizations: An Internet Classroom and Anthology: Greek Philosophy. Washington State University. Retrieved 2007-10-11.  Selected fragments translated by Hooker. Hoyt, Randy (2002). "The Fragments of Heraclitus". Retrieved 2007-10-09.  The fragments also cited in DK in Greek (Unicode) with the English translations of John Burnet (see Bibliography). June, Daniel (2012). "The Logos: a Modern Adapted Translation of the Complete Fragments of Heraclitus" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2015-04-21.  Knierim, Thomas (2007). "Heraclitus: (Ephesus, around 500 BC)". thebigview.com.  Essay on the flux and fire philosophy of Heraclitus. Lancereau, M. Daniel; Béreau, M. Samuel (2007). "Heraclitus". Philoctetes: ΦΙΛΟΚΤΗΤΗΣ. Retrieved 2007-10-10.  Site with links to pdf's containing the fragments of DK in Greek (Unicode) with the English translations of John Burnet (see Bibliography) and translations into French, either in parallel columns or interlinear, with links on the lexical items to Perseus dictionaries. Includes also Heraclitus
Heraclitus
article from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Magnus, Magus. "The Turning".  Mailman, Joshua (2009). "An Imagined Drama of Competitive Opposition in Carter's Scrivo in Vento (with Notes on Narrative, Symmetry, Quantitative Flux, and Heraclitus)". Music Analysis, v.28, 2-3. Wiley.  Stamatellos, Giannis. " Heraclitus
Heraclitus
of Ephesus: Life and Work". Retrieved 2007-10-12.  Trix. "Heraclitus' Epistemological Views". sym•pos•i•a: σuμποσια: the online philosophy journal. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-10-10.  Osho. "Osho discourse on Heraclitus,The Hidden Harmony".  " Heraclitus
Heraclitus
Series".  Heraclitus' fragments rendered into the language of deductive logic on Triple Canopy (online magazine).

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