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Shabbat
SHABBAT (/ʃəˈbɑːt/ ; Hebrew : שַׁבָּת‎‎ , "rest" or "cessation") or SHABBOS ( , Yiddish : שבת‎) or THE SABBATH is Judaism
Judaism
's day of rest and seventh day of the week , on which religious Jews
Jews
and certain Christians (such as Seventh Day Adventists and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age
Messianic Age
. Shabbat
Shabbat
observance entails refraining from work activities , often with great rigor , and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat
Shabbat
originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins
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Biblical Sabbath
BIBLICAL SABBATH is a weekly day of rest or time of worship given in the Bible
Bible
as the seventh day. It is observed differently in Judaism and Christianity and informs a similar occasion in several other faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition of "Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy ". Observation and remembrance of Sabbath is one of the Ten Commandments (the fourth in the original Jewish
Jewish
, the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
, and most Protestant
Protestant
traditions, the third in Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Lutheran traditions), sometimes referred to individually as the Sabbath Commandment. Most people who observe Biblical Sabbath
Biblical Sabbath
regard it as having been made for man (Mark. 2:27) at Creation (Ex
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Shabbat (Talmud)
SHABBAT (Hebrew : שבת‎‎) is first tractate (book) in the Order (Mishnaic section) of Moed , of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
. The tractate consists of 24 chapters. The tractate primarily deals with laws relating to Shabbat
Shabbat
(the weekly day of rest), and the activities prohibited on Shabbat
Shabbat
(the 39 prohibitions) and distinguishes between Biblical prohibitions and Rabbinic prohibitions. It also discusses special Rabbinic decrees to reinforce the concept of rest on Sabbath (see muktzah , articles that may not be used or moved on Sabbath, chapters 3 and 17) and to enhance its sanctity, such as forbidding pursuit of business and discussing forbidden matters (chapter 23) and pursuing weekday activities
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Ringelblum Archive
The RINGELBLUM ARCHIVE is a collection of documents from the World War II Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
, collected and preserved by the group known under code name OYNEG SHABBOS (in Modern Israeli Hebrew : ONEG SHABBAT, Hebrew : עונג שבת‎‎), led by Jewish historian Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum . The group, which included historians, writers, rabbis and social workers, was dedicated to chronicling life in the Ghetto during the Nazi occupation . They worked as a team, collecting documents and soliciting testimonies and reports from dozens of volunteers of all ages. The materials submitted included essays, diaries, drawings, wall posters and other materials describing life in the Ghetto. The collection work started in September 1939 and ended in January 1943. Today the discovered part of the collection, which contains about 6,000 documents (about 35,000 pages), is housed at the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw
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Outline Of Judaism
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Judaism : CONTENTS* 1 History of Judaism * 1.1 Pre-monarchic period * 1.2 Monarchic period * 1.2.1 United monarchy * 1.2.2 Divided monarchy * 1.2.2.1 Kingdom of Judah * 1.2.2.1.1 Kings of Judah * 1.2.2.1.2 Major events * 1.2.2.2 Kingdom of
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Judaism
JUDAISM (from Latin : _Iudaismus_, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, _Yehudah_, "Judah "; in Hebrew: יהדות‎, _Yahadut_, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos ) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion , with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible ), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud . It encompasses the religion , philosophy , culture and way of life of the Jewish people . Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel . With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world
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Jewish Religious Movements
JEWISH RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS, sometimes called "denominations" or "branches", include different groups which have developed among Jews from ancient times. Today, the main division is between the Orthodox , Reform , and Conservative lines, with several smaller movements alongside them. This threefold denominational structure is mainly present in the United States, while in Israel the fault lines are between the religious Orthodox and the non-religious . The movements differ in their views on various issues. These issues include the level of observance, the methodology for interpreting and understanding Jewish law , biblical authorship , textual criticism , and the nature or role of the messiah (or messianic age ). Across these movements there are marked differences in liturgy , especially in the language in which services are conducted, with the more traditional movements emphasizing Hebrew
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Orthodox Judaism
ORTHODOX JUDAISM is the approach to religious Judaism
Judaism
which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah
Torah
as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaimand Amoraim
Amoraim
. Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
includes movements such as Modern OrthodoxJudaism (אורתודוקסיה מודרנית) and Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism
Judaism
(יהדות חרדית). As of 2001, Orthodox Jews
Jews
and Jews
Jews
affiliated with an Orthodox synagogue accounted for approximately 50% of British Jews
Jews
(150,000), 26.5% of Israeli Jews
Jews
(1,500,000), and 13% of American Jews (529,000). Among those affiliated to a synagogue body, Orthodox Jews represent 70% of British Jewry, and 27% of American Jewry
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Haredi Judaism
HAREDI JUDAISM (Hebrew : חֲרֵדִי‎ _Ḥaredi_, IPA: ; also spelled _Charedi_, plural _Charedim_) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism , all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture. Its members are often referred to as STRICTLY ORTHODOX or ULTRA-ORTHODOX in English. The term "ultra-Orthodox", however, is considered pejorative by many of its adherents. Haredim regard themselves as the most religiously authentic group of Jews, although this claim is contested by other streams. Haredi Judaism coalesced in response to the sweeping changes brought upon the Jews in the modern era: emancipation, enlightenment, the _ Haskalah _ movement derived from enlightenment, acculturation, secularization, religious reform in all its forms from mild to extreme, the rise of the Jewish national movements , etc
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Hasidic Judaism
HASIDISM, sometimes HASIDIC JUDAISM ( Hebrew : חסידות‎, _hasidut_, Ashkenazi pronunciation : ; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious sect. It arose as a spiritual revival movement in contemporary Western Ukraine during the 18th century and spread rapidly throughout Eastern Europe . Today, most affiliates reside in the United States , Israel , and Britain . Israel Ben Eliezer, the " Baal Shem Tov ", is regarded as its founding father, and his disciples developed and disseminated it. Present-day Hasidism is a sub-group within Ultra-Orthodox ("Haredi") Judaism and is noted for its religious conservatism and social seclusion
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Modern Orthodox Judaism
MODERN ORTHODOX JUDAISM (also MODERN ORTHODOX or MODERN ORTHODOXY) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law , with the secular , modern world . Modern Orthodoxy draws on several teachings and philosophies, and thus assumes various forms. In the United States , and generally in the Western world , "Centrist Orthodoxy" – underpinned by the philosophy of _ Torah Umadda _ (" Torah and Knowledge") – is prevalent. In Israel, Modern Orthodoxy is dominated by Religious Zionism ; however, although not identical, these movements share many of the same values and many of the same adherents
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Conservative Judaism
CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM (known as MASORTI JUDAISM outside North America ) is a major Jewish denomination , which views Jewish Law, or _Halakha _, as both binding and subject to historical development. The Conservative rabbinate therefore employs modern historical-critical research, rather than only traditional methods and sources, and lends great weight to its constituency when determining its stance on matters of Law. The movement considers its approach as the authentic and most appropriate continuation of _halakhic_ discourse, maintaining both fealty to received forms and flexibility in their interpretation. It also eschews strict theological definitions, lacking a consensus in matters of faith and allowing great pluralism
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Reform Judaism
REFORM JUDAISM (also known as LIBERAL JUDAISM or PROGRESSIVE JUDAISM) is a major Jewish denomination which emphasizes the evolving nature of the religion, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai . A liberal religion , it is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as of non-binding nature and the individual Jew as autonomous, and openness to external influences and progressive values. The origins of Reform Judaism lay in 19th-century Germany, where its early principles were formulated by Rabbi Abraham Geiger and his associates; since the 1970s, the movement adopted a policy of inclusiveness and acceptance, inviting as many as possible to partake in its communities, rather than strict theoretical clarity. Its greatest center today is in North America
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Karaite Judaism
KARAITE JUDAISM or KARAISM (also spelt QARAITE JUDAISM or QARAISM), (/ˈkærə.aɪt/ or /ˈkærə.ɪzəm/ ; Hebrew : יהדות קראית‎, Modern _Yahadut Qara'it from_, Tiberian _Qārāʾîm_; meaning "Readers") is a Jewish religious movement characterized by the recognition of the Tanakh alone as its supreme authority in _ Halakha _ (Jewish religious law ) and theology . It is distinct from mainstream Rabbinic Judaism , which considers the Oral Torah , as codified in the Talmud and subsequent works, to be authoritative interpretations of the Torah . Karaites maintain that all of the divine commandments handed down to Moses by God were recorded in the written Torah without additional Oral Law or explanation. As a result, Karaite Jews do not accept as binding the written collections of the oral tradition in the Midrash or Talmud
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Reconstructionist Judaism
RECONSTRUCTIONIST JUDAISM (Hebrew : יהדות רקונסטרוקטיבית‎, _yahadút rekonstruktívit_, or יהדות מתחדשת‎, _yahadút mitkhadéshet_) is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983). The movement originated as a semi-organized stream within Conservative Judaism and developed from the late 1920s to 1940s, before it seceded in 1955 and established a rabbinical college in 1967. There is substantial theological diversity within the movement. _ Halakha _, the collective body of Jewish Law, is not considered binding, but is treated as a valuable cultural remnant that should be upheld unless there is reason for the contrary
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Jewish Renewal
JEWISH RENEWAL (Hebrew : התחדשות יהודית‎, translit. _hitchadeshut yehudit_‎), is a recent movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with Kabbalistic , Hasidic , and musical practices. Specifically, it seeks to reintroduce the "ancient Judaic traditions of mysticism and meditation , gender equality and ecstatic prayer" to synagogue services. It is distinct from the Baal Teshuva movement of return to Orthodox Judaism
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