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Secondary Sex Characteristics
Secondary sex characteristics are features that appear during puberty in humans, and at sexual maturity in other animals. These are particularly evident in the sexually dimorphic phenotypic traits that distinguish the sexes of a species, but unlike the sex organs, are not directly part of the reproductive system. They are believed to be the product of sexual selection for traits which display fitness, giving an individual an advantage over its rivals in courtship and aggressive interactions
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Peacock
Pavo cristatus Pavo muticus Afropavo
Afropavo
congensisThe peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo
Afropavo
of the Phasianidae
Phasianidae
family, the pheasants and their allies. There are two Asiatic species: the blue or Indian peafowl
Indian peafowl
originally of the Indian subcontinent; and the green peafowl of Southeast Asia; and one African species, the Congo peafowl, native only to the Congo Basin. Male peafowl are known for their piercing call and their extravagant plumage. The latter is especially prominent in the Asiatic species, who have an eye-spotted "tail" or "train" of covert feathers which they display as part of a courtship ritual
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Sexy Son Hypothesis
The sexy son hypothesis in evolutionary biology and sexual selection—proposed by Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
in 1930—states that a female's ideal mate choice among potential mates is one whose genes will produce male offspring with the best chance of reproductive success. This also implies that a potential mate's capacity as a parental caregiver or any other direct benefits the father can offer the mother, such as nuptial gifts or good territory, are irrelevant to his value as the potential father of the female's offspring
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Facial Hair
Facial hair
Facial hair
is hair grown on the face, usually on the chin, cheeks, and upper lip region. It is typically a secondary sex characteristic of human males. Men typically start developing facial hair in the later years of puberty or adolescence, between seventeen and twenty years of age, and most do not finish developing a full adult beard until their early twenties or later.[1] This varies, as boys may first develop facial hair between fourteen and sixteen years of age, and boys as young as eleven have been known to develop facial hair. Women are also capable of developing facial hair, especially after menopause, though typically significantly less than men. Men may style their facial hair into beards, moustaches, goatees or sideburns; others completely shave their facial hair
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Adam's Apple
The Adam's apple, or laryngeal prominence, is a feature of the human neck, and is the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx seen especially in males.Contents1 Structure1.1 Sex difference2 Function 3 Society and culture 4 Etymology 5 Additional images 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksStructure[edit] The structure of the Adam's apple
Adam's apple
forms a bump under the skin. It is typically larger in adult males, in whom it is usually clearly visible and palpable. In females, the bump is much less visible and is hardly perceived on the upper edge of the thyroid cartilage.[1] Sex difference[edit] An Adam's apple
Adam's apple
is usually a feature of adult males, because its size in males tends to increase considerably during puberty. However, some women also have an Adam’s apple
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Mate Choice
Mate choice, also known as intersexual selection, is an evolutionary process in which selection is dependent on the attractiveness of an individual's phenotypic traits.[1] Evolutionary change is possible because the qualities that are desired in a mate are more frequently passed on to each generation over time. For example, if female peacocks desire mates who have a colourful plumage, then this trait will increase in frequency over time as male peacocks with a colourful plumage will have more reproductive success.[2] Mate choice
Mate choice
is one of two components of sexual selection, the other being intrasexual selection. Ideas on sexual selection were first introduced in 1871, by Charles Darwin, then expanded on by Ronald Fisher in 1915. At present, there are five mechanisms that explain how mate choice has evolved over time
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Red Deer
The red deer ( Cervus
Cervus
elaphus) is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains
Caucasus Mountains
region, Asia Minor, Iran, parts of western Asia, and central Asia. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains
Atlas Mountains
region between Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia
Tunisia
in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa
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Charles Darwin
Tertiary education: University of Edinburgh Medical School
University of Edinburgh Medical School
(medicine, no degree) Christ's College, Cambridge
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Plumage
Plumage
Plumage
(Latin: plūma "feather") refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage differ between species and subspecies, and may vary with age classes. Within species there can be different colour morphs. The placement of feathers on a bird are not haphazard, but rather emerge in organized, overlapping rows and groups, and these feather tracts are known by standardized names.[1][2] Most birds moult, usually before and after breeding, resulting in a breeding or nuptial plumage and a basic plumage. Many ducks and some other species such as the red junglefowl have males wearing a bright nuptial plumage while breeding and a drab eclipse plumage for some months afterwards. The painted bunting's juveniles have two inserted moults in their first autumn, each yielding plumage like an adult females
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Ronald Fisher
Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher FRS[2] (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist. For his work in statistics, he has been described as "a genius who almost single-handedly created the foundations for modern statistical science"[3] and "the single most important figure in 20th century statistics".[4] In genetics, his work used mathematics to combine Mendelian genetics
Mendelian genetics
and natural selection; this contributed to the revival of Darwinism
Darwinism
in the early 20th century revision of the theory of evolution known as the modern synthesis. Fisher also did experimental agricultural research, which has saved millions from starvation.[5] From 1919 onward, he worked at the Rothamsted Experimental Station for 14 years;[6] there, he analysed its immense data from crop experiments since the 1840s, and developed the analysis of variance (ANOVA)
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Biology
Biology
Biology
is the natural science that involves the study of life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.[1] Modern biology is a vast field, composed of many branches. Despite the broad scope and the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology
Biology
recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the creation of new species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy[2] to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis
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Handicap Principle
The handicap principle is a hypothesis originally proposed in 1975 by Israeli biologist Amotz Zahavi
Amotz Zahavi
to explain how evolution may lead to "honest" or reliable signaling between animals which have an obvious motivation to bluff or deceive each other.[1][2][3] The handicap principle suggests that reliable signals must be costly to the signaler, costing the signaler something that could not be afforded by an individual with less of a particular trait. For example, in the case of sexual selection, the theory suggests that animals of greater biological fitness signal this status through handicapping behaviour or morphology that effectively lowers this quality
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Genetic Fitness
Fitness (often denoted w displaystyle w or ω in population genetics models) is the quantitative representation of natural and sexual selection within evolutionary biology. It can be defined either with respect to a genotype or to a phenotype in a given environment. In either case, it describes individual reproductive success and is equal to the average contribution to the gene pool of the next generation that is made by individuals of the specified genotype or phenotype. The fitness of a genotype is manifested through its phenotype, which is also affected by the developmental environment. The fitness of a given phenotype can also be different in different selective environments. With asexual reproduction, it is sufficient to assign fitnesses to genotypes. With sexual reproduction, genotypes are scrambled every generation. In this case, fitness values can be assigned to alleles by averaging over possible genetic backgrounds
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Pubic Hair
Pubic hair
Pubic hair
is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans. The hair is located on and around the sex organs and sometimes at the top of the inside of the thighs. In the pubic region around the pubis bone, it is known as a pubic patch. Pubic hair
Pubic hair
is found on the scrotum in the male and on the vulva in the female. Although fine vellus hair is present in the area in childhood, pubic hair is considered to be the heavier, longer and coarser hair that develops during puberty as an effect of rising levels of androgens in males and estrogens in females. Pubic hair
Pubic hair
differs from other hair on the body and is a secondary sex characteristic. Many cultures regard pubic hair as erotic, and in most cultures pubic hair is associated with the genitals, which both men and women are expected to keep covered at all times
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Metabolism
Metabolism
Metabolism
(from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments
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Good Genes Hypothesis
The sexy son hypothesis in evolutionary biology and sexual selection—proposed by Ronald Fisher
Ronald Fisher
in 1930—states that a female's ideal mate choice among potential mates is one whose genes will produce male offspring with the best chance of reproductive success. This also implies that a potential mate's capacity as a parental caregiver or any other direct benefits the father can offer the mother, such as nuptial gifts or good territory, are irrelevant to his value as the potential father of the female's offspring
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