The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral
region of the torso of primates. In females, it serves as the mammary
gland, which produces and secretes milk to feed infants. Both
females and males develop breasts from the same embryological tissues.
At puberty, estrogens, in conjunction with growth hormone, cause
breast development in females.
Subcutaneous fat covers and envelops a network of ducts that converge
on the nipple, and these tissues give the breast its size and shape.
At the ends of the ducts are lobules, or clusters of alveoli, where
milk is produced and stored in response to hormonal signals. During
pregnancy, the breast responds to a complex interaction of hormones,
including estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin, that mediate the
completion of its development, namely lobuloalveolar maturation, in
preparation of lactation and breastfeeding.
Along with their major function in providing nutrition for infants,
female breasts have social and sexual characteristics. Breasts have
been featured in notable ancient and modern sculpture, art, and
photography. They can figure prominently in a woman's perception of
her body and sexual attractiveness. A number of Western cultures
associate breasts with sexuality and tend to regard bare breasts in
public as immodest or indecent. Breasts, especially the nipples, are
an erogenous zone.
1 Etymology and terminology
2.1 Glandular structure
2.2 Lymphatic drainage
2.3 Shape, texture, and support
3.2 Changes during the menstrual cycle
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
5 Clinical significance
5.2 Male breasts
5.3 Plastic surgery
Society and culture
6.2 Art history
6.3 Body image
6.5 Sexual characteristic
6.6 Anthropomorphic geography
8 External links
Etymology and terminology
The English word breast derives from the
Old English word brēost
(breast, bosom) from
Proto-Germanic breustam (breast), from the
Proto-Indo-European base bhreus– (to swell, to sprout). The
breast spelling conforms to the Scottish and North English dialectal
pronunciations. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary states that "Middle
English brest, [comes] from
Old English brēost; akin to Old High
German brust..., Old Irish brú [belly], [and] Russian bryukho"; the
first known usage of the term was before the 12th century.
A large number of colloquial terms for breasts are used in English,
ranging from fairly polite terms to vulgar or slang. Some vulgar slang
expressions may be considered to be derogatory or sexist to women.
The breast: cross-section scheme of the mammary gland.
In women, the breasts overlay the pectoralis major muscles and usually
extend from the level of the second rib to the level of the sixth rib
in the front of the human rib cage; thus, the breasts cover much of
the chest area and the chest walls. At the front of the chest, the
breast tissue can extend from the clavicle (collarbone) to the middle
of the sternum (breastbone). At the sides of the chest, the breast
tissue can extend into the axilla (armpit), and can reach as far to
the back as the latissimus dorsi muscle, extending from the lower back
to the humerus bone (the longest bone of the upper arm). As a mammary
gland, the breast is composed of differing layers of tissue,
predominantly two types: adipose tissue; and glandular tissue, which
affects the lactation functions of the breasts. :115
Morphologically the breast is tear-shaped. The superficial tissue
layer (superficial fascia) is separated from the skin by
0.5–2.5 cm of subcutaneous fat (adipose tissue). The suspensory
Cooper's ligaments are fibrous-tissue prolongations that radiate from
the superficial fascia to the skin envelope. The female adult breast
contains 14–18 irregular lactiferous lobes that converge at the
nipple. The 2.0–4.5 mm milk ducts are immediately surrounded
with dense connective tissue that support the glands. Milk exits the
breast through the nipple, which is surrounded by a pigmented area of
skin called the areola. The size of the areola can vary widely among
women. The areola contains modified sweat glands known as Montgomery's
glands. These glands secrete oily fluid that lubricate and protect the
nipple during breastfeeding. Volatile compounds in these
secretions may also serve as an olfactory stimulus for the newborn's
Montgomery's glands on areolas
The dimensions and weight of the breast vary widely among women. A
small-to-medium-sized breast weighs 500 grams (1.1 pounds) or
less, and a large breast can weigh approximately 750 to 1,000 grams
(1.7 to 2.2 pounds) or more. The tissue composition ratios of the
breast also vary among women. Some women's breasts have varying
proportions of glandular tissue than of adipose or connective tissues.
The fat-to-connective-tissue ratio determines the density or firmness
of the breast. During a woman's life, her breasts change size, shape,
and weight due to hormonal changes during puberty, the menstrual
cycle, pregnancy, breastfeeding, and menopause.
The breast is an apocrine gland that produces the milk used to feed an
infant. The nipple of the breast is surrounded by the areola
(nipple-areola complex). The areola has many sebaceous glands, and the
skin color varies from pink to dark brown. The basic units of the
breast are the terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), which produce the
fatty breast milk. They give the breast its offspring-feeding
functions as a mammary gland. They are distributed throughout the body
of the breast. Approximately two-thirds of the lactiferous tissue is
within 30 mm of the base of the nipple. The terminal lactiferous
ducts drain the milk from TDLUs into 4–18 lactiferous ducts, which
drain to the nipple. The milk-glands-to-fat ratio is 2:1 in a
lactating woman, and 1:1 in a non-lactating woman. In addition to the
milk glands, the breast is also composed of connective tissues
(collagen, elastin), white fat, and the suspensory Cooper's ligaments.
Sensation in the breast is provided by the peripheral nervous system
innervation by means of the front (anterior) and side (lateral)
cutaneous branches of the fourth-, fifth-, and sixth intercostal
nerves. The T-4 nerve (Thoracic spinal nerve 4), which innervates the
dermatomic area, supplies sensation to the nipple-areola complex.
Approximately 75% of the lymph from the breast travels to the axillary
lymph nodes on the same side of the body, whilst 25% of the lymph
travels to the parasternal nodes (beside the sternum bone).:116 A
small amount of remaining lymph travels to the other breast and to the
abdominal lymph nodes. The axillary lymph nodes include the pectoral
(chest), subscapular (under the scapula), and humeral (humerus-bone
area) lymph-node groups, which drain to the central axillary lymph
nodes and to the apical axillary lymph nodes. The lymphatic drainage
of the breasts is especially relevant to oncology because breast
cancer is common to the mammary gland, and cancer cells can
metastasize (break away) from a tumour and be dispersed to other parts
of the body by means of the lymphatic system.
Shape, texture, and support
The morphologic variations in the size, shape, volume, tissue density,
pectoral locale, and spacing of the breasts determine their natural
shape, appearance, and position on a woman's chest.
Breast size and
other characteristics do not predict the fat-to-milk-gland ratio or
the potential for the woman to nurse an infant. The size and the shape
of the breasts are influenced by normal-life hormonal changes
(thelarche, menstruation, pregnancy, menopause) and medical conditions
(e.g. virginal breast hypertrophy). The shape of the breasts is
naturally determined by the support of the suspensory Cooper's
ligaments, the underlying muscle and bone structures of the chest, and
by the skin envelope. The suspensory ligaments sustain the breast from
the clavicle (collarbone) and the clavico-pectoral fascia (collarbone
and chest) by traversing and encompassing the fat and milk-gland
tissues. The breast is positioned, affixed to, and supported upon the
chest wall, while its shape is established and maintained by the skin
envelope. In most women, one breast is slightly
larger than the other. More obvious and persistent asymmetry in
breast size occurs in up to 25% of women.
While it has been a common belief that breastfeeding causes breasts to
sag, researchers have found that a woman's breasts sag due to four
key factors: cigarette smoking, number of pregnancies, gravity, and
weight loss or gain.
The base of each breast is attached to the chest by the deep fascia
over the pectoralis major muscles. The space between the breast and
the pectoralis major muscle, called retromammary space, gives mobility
to the breast. The chest (thoracic cavity) progressively slopes
outwards from the thoracic inlet (atop the breastbone) and above to
the lowest ribs that support the breasts. The inframammary fold, where
the lower portion of the breast meets the chest, is an anatomic
feature created by the adherence of the breast skin and the underlying
connective tissues of the chest; the IMF is the lower-most extent of
the anatomic breast. Normal breast tissue typically has a texture that
feels nodular or granular, to an extent that varies considerably from
woman to woman.
The study The Evolution of the Human
Breast (2001) proposed that the
rounded shape of a woman's breast evolved to prevent the sucking
infant offspring from suffocating while feeding at the teat; that is,
because of the human infant's small jaw, which did not project from
the face to reach the nipple, he or she might block the nostrils
against the mother's breast if it were of a flatter form (cf.
chimpanzee). Theoretically, as the human jaw receded into the face,
the woman's body compensated with round breasts.
The breasts are principally composed of adipose, glandular, and
connective tissues. Because these tissues have hormone
receptors, their sizes and volumes fluctuate according to the
hormonal changes particular to thelarche (sprouting of breasts),
menstruation (egg production), pregnancy (reproduction), lactation
(feeding of offspring), and menopause (end of menstruation).
Five-stage Tanner Scale
The morphological structure of the human breast is identical in males
and females until puberty. For pubescent girls in thelarche (the
breast-development stage), the female sex hormones (principally
estrogens) in conjunction with growth hormone promote the sprouting,
growth, and development of the breasts. During this time, the mammary
glands grow in size and volume and begin resting on the chest. These
development stages of secondary sex characteristics (breasts, pubic
hair, etc.) are illustrated in the five-stage Tanner Scale.
During thelarche, the developing breasts are sometimes of unequal
size, and usually the left breast is slightly larger. This condition
of asymmetry is transitory and statistically normal in female physical
and sexual development. Medical conditions can cause
overdevelopment (e.g., virginal breast hypertrophy, macromastia) or
underdevelopment (e.g., tuberous breast deformity, micromastia) in
girls and women.
Approximately two years after the onset of puberty (a girl's first
menstrual cycle), estrogen and growth hormone stimulate the
development and growth of the glandular fat and suspensory tissues
that compose the breast. This continues for approximately four years
until the final shape of the breast (size, volume, density) is
established at about the age of 21.
Mammoplasia (breast enlargement)
in girls begins at puberty, unlike all other primates in which breasts
enlarge only during lactation.
Breast with visible stretch marks
Changes during the menstrual cycle
During the menstrual cycle, the breasts are enlarged by premenstrual
water retention and temporary growth.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
The breasts reach full maturity only when a woman's first pregnancy
occurs. Changes to the breasts are among the very first signs of
pregnancy. The breasts become larger, the nipple-areola complex
becomes larger and darker, the
Montgomery's glands enlarge, and veins
sometimes become more visible.
Breast tenderness during pregnancy is
common, especially during the first trimester. By mid-pregnancy, the
breast is physiologically capable of lactation and some women can
express colostrum, a form of breast milk.
Pregnancy causes elevated levels of the hormone prolactin, which has a
key role in the production of milk. However, milk production is
blocked by the hormones progesterone and estrogen until after
delivery, when progesterone and estrogen levels plummet.
At menopause, breast atrophy occurs. The breasts can decrease in size
when the levels of circulating estrogen decline. The adipose tissue
and milk glands also begin to wither. The breasts can also become
enlarged from adverse side effects of combined oral contraceptive
pills. The size of the breasts can also increase and decrease in
response to weight fluctuations. Physical changes to the breasts are
often recorded in the stretch marks of the skin envelope; they can
serve as historical indicators of the increments and the decrements of
the size and volume of a woman's breasts throughout the course of her
Main article: Breastfeeding
The primary function of the breasts, as mammary glands, is the
nourishing of an infant with breast milk. Milk is produced in
milk-secreting cells in the alveoli. When the breasts are stimulated
by the suckling of her baby, the mother's brain secretes oxytocin.
High levels of oxytocin trigger the contraction of muscle cells
surrounding the alveoli, causing milk to flow along the ducts that
connect the alveoli to the nipple.
Full-term newborns have an instinct and a need to suck on a nipple,
and breastfed babies nurse for both nutrition and for comfort.
Breast milk provides all necessary nutrients for the first six months
of life, and then remains an important source of nutrition, alongside
solid foods, until at least one or two years of age.
The breast is susceptible to numerous benign and malignant conditions.
The most frequent benign conditions are puerperal mastitis,
fibrocystic breast changes and mastalgia.
Lactation unrelated to pregnancy is known as galactorrhea. It can be
caused by certain drugs (such as antipsychotic medications), extreme
physical stress, or endocrine disorders.
Lactation in newborns is
caused by hormones from the mother that crossed into the baby's
bloodstream during pregnancy.
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women
and it is one of the leading causes of death among women. Factors that
appear to be implicated in decreasing the risk of breast cancer are
regular breast examinations by health care professionals, regular
mammograms, self-examination of breasts, healthy diet, and exercise to
decrease excess body fat.
Both females and males develop breasts from the same embryological
tissues. Normally, males produce lower levels of estrogens and higher
levels of androgens, namely testosterone, which suppress the effects
of estrogens in developing excessive breast tissue. In boys and men,
abnormal breast development is manifested as gynecomastia, the
consequence of a biochemical imbalance between the normal levels of
estrogen and testosterone in the male body. Around 70% of boys
temporarily develop breast tissue during adolescence. The
condition usually resolves by itself within two years. When male
lactation occurs, it is considered a symptom of a disorder of the
Conventional mastectomy (top); skin sparing mastectomy and latissimus
dorsi myocutaneous flap reconstruction, prior to nipple reconstruction
and tattooing (bottom).
Plastic surgery can be performed to augment or reduce the size of
breasts, or reconstruct the breast in cases of deformative disease,
such as breast cancer.
Breast augmentation and breast lift
(mastopexy) procedures are done only for cosmetic reasons, whereas
breast reduction is sometimes medically indicated. In cases where a
woman's breasts are severely asymmetrical, surgery can be performed to
either enlarge the smaller breast, reduce the size of the larger
breast, or both.
Breast augmentation surgery generally does not interfere with future
ability to breastfeed.
Breast reduction surgery more frequently
leads to decreased sensation in the nipple-areola complex, and to low
milk supply in women who choose to breastfeed. Implants can
interfere with mammography (breast x-rays images).
Society and culture
In Christian iconography, some works of art depict women with their
breasts in their hands or on a platter, signifying that they died as a
martyr by having their breasts severed; one example of this is Saint
Agatha of Sicily.
Femen member participating in a protest
Femen is a feminist activist group which uses topless protests as part
of their campaigns against sex tourism religious
institutions, sexism, homophobia and to "defend [women's]
right to abortion".
Femen activists have been regularly detained
by police in response to their protests.
There is a long history of female breasts being used by comedians as a
subject for comedy fodder (e.g., British comic Benny Hill's
A Cretan snake goddess from the Minoan civilization, c. 1600 BC
In European pre-historic societies, sculptures of female figures with
pronounced or highly exaggerated breasts were common. A typical
example is the so-called Venus of Willendorf, one of many Paleolithic
Venus figurines with ample hips and bosom. Artifacts such as bowls,
rock carvings and sacred statues with breasts have been recorded from
15,000 BC up to late antiquity all across Europe, North Africa
and the Middle East.
Many female deities representing love and fertility were associated
with breasts and breast milk. Figures of the Phoenician goddess
Astarte were represented as pillars studded with breasts. Isis, an
Egyptian goddess who represented, among many other things, ideal
motherhood, was often portrayed as suckling pharaohs, thereby
confirming their divine status as rulers. Even certain male deities
representing regeneration and fertility were occasionally depicted
with breast-like appendices, such as the river god
Hapy who was
considered to be responsible for the annual overflowing of the Nile.
Female breasts were also prominent in the
Minoan civilization in the
form of the famous
Snake Goddess statuettes. In
Ancient Greece there
were several cults worshipping the "Kourotrophos", the suckling
mother, represented by goddesses such as Gaia,
Hera and Artemis. The
worship of deities symbolized by the female breast in Greece became
less common during the first millennium. The popular adoration of
female goddesses decreased significantly during the rise of the Greek
city states, a legacy which was passed on to the later Roman
1825 oil painting entitled "Tetuppa, a Native Female of the Sandwich
Islands", by Robert Dampier
During the middle of the first millennium BC, Greek culture
experienced a gradual change in the perception of female breasts.
Women in art were covered in clothing from the neck down, including
female goddesses like Athena, the patron of Athens who represented
heroic endeavor. There were exceptions: Aphrodite, the goddess of
love, was more frequently portrayed fully nude, though in postures
that were intended to portray shyness or modesty, a portrayal that has
been compared to modern pin ups by historian Marilyn Yalom.
Although nude men were depicted standing upright, most depictions of
female nudity in Greek art occurred "usually with drapery near at hand
and with a forward-bending, self-protecting posture". A popular
legend at the time was of the Amazons, a tribe of fierce female
warriors who socialized with men only for procreation and even removed
one breast to become better warriors (the idea being that the right
breast would interfere with the operation of a bow and arrow). The
legend was a popular motif in art during Greek and Roman antiquity and
served as an antithetical cautionary tale.
Many women regard their breasts as important to their sexual
attractiveness, as a sign of femininity that is important to their
sense of self.
See also: Brassiere, Cleavage (breasts), Toplessness, Modesty,
Naturism, and Exhibitionism
As is customary in her culture, a bare-breasted Himba woman of
Namibia wears a traditional headdress and skirt
Because breasts are mostly fatty tissue, their shape can -within
limits- be molded by clothing, such as foundation garments. Bras are
commonly worn by about 90% of Western women, and are often
worn for support. The social norm in most Western cultures is to
cover breasts in public, though the extent of coverage varies
depending on the social context. Some religions ascribe a special
status to the female breast, either in formal teachings or through
Islam forbids women from exposing their
breasts in public.
Many cultures, including Western cultures in North America, associate
breasts with sexuality and tend to regard bare breasts as immodest or
indecent. In some cultures, like the Himba in northern Namibia,
bare-breasted women are normal. In some African cultures, for example,
the thigh is regarded as highly sexualised and never exposed in
public, but breast exposure is not taboo. In a few Western countries
and regions female toplessness at a beach is acceptable, although it
may not be acceptable in the town center.
Social attitudes and laws regarding breastfeeding in public vary
widely. In many countries, breastfeeding in public is common, legally
protected, and generally not regarded as an issue. However, even
though the practice may be legal or socially accepted, some mothers
may nevertheless be reluctant to expose a breast in public to
breastfeed due to actual or potential objections by other
people, negative comments, or harassment. It is estimated that
around 63% of mothers across the world have publicly breast-fed.
Bare-breasted women are legal and culturally acceptable at public
beaches in Australia and much of Europe. Filmmaker
Lina Esco made a film entitled Free The Nipple, which is about
"...laws against female toplessness or restrictions on images of
female, but not male, nipples", which Esco states is an example of
sexism in society.
See also: Mammary intercourse,
Breast fetishism, and Stimulation of
In some cultures, breasts play a role in human sexual activity. In
Western culture, breasts have a "...hallowed sexual status, arguably
more fetishized than either sex’s genitalia". Breasts and
especially the nipples are among the various human erogenous zones.
They are sensitive to the touch as they have many nerve endings; and
it is common to press or massage them with hands or orally before or
during sexual activity. During sexual arousal, breast size increases,
venous patterns across the breasts become more visible, and nipples
harden. Compared to other primates, human breasts are proportionately
large throughout adult females' lives. Some writers have suggested
that they may have evolved as a visual signal of sexual maturity and
Many people regard bare female breasts to be aesthetically pleasing or
erotic, and they can elicit heightened sexual desires in men in many
cultures. In the ancient Indian work the Kama Sutra, light scratching
of the breasts with nails and biting with teeth are considered
erotic. Some people show a sexual interest in female breasts
distinct from that of the person, which may be regarded as a breast
fetish. A number of Western fashions include clothing which
accentuate the breasts, such as the use of push-up bras and decollete
(plunging neckline) gowns and blouses which show cleavage. While U.S.
culture prefers breasts that are youthful and upright, some cultures
venerate women with drooping breasts, indicating mothering and the
wisdom of experience.
Research conducted at the
Victoria University of Wellington
Victoria University of Wellington showed
that breasts are often the first thing men look at, and for a longer
time than other body parts. The writers of the study had initially
speculated that the reason for this is due to endocrinology with
larger breasts indicating higher levels of estrogen and a sign of
greater fertility, but the researchers said that "Men may be
looking more often at the breasts because they are simply
aesthetically pleasing, regardless of the size."
Some women report achieving an orgasm from nipple stimulation, but
this is rare. Research suggests that the orgasms are genital
orgasms, and may also be directly linked to "the genital area of the
brain". In these cases, it seems that sensation from the nipples
travels to the same part of the brain as sensations from the vagina,
clitoris and cervix.
Nipple stimulation may trigger uterine
contractions, which then produce a sensation in the genital area of
Main article: Breast-shaped hill
There are many mountains named after the breast because they resemble
it in appearance and so are objects of religious and ancestral
veneration as a fertility symbol and of well-being. In Asia, there was
Breast Mountain", which had a cave where the Buddhist monk
Bodhidharma (Da Mo) spent much time in meditation. Other such
breast mountains are
Mount Elgon on the Uganda-
Kenya border, Beinn
Chìochan and the Maiden Paps in Scotland, the "Bundok ng Susong
Dalaga" (Maiden's breast mountains) in Talim Island, Philippines, the
twin hills known as the
Paps of Anu
Paps of Anu (Dá Chích Anann or "the breasts
of Anu"), near
Killarney in Ireland, the 2,086 m high Tetica de
Bacares or "La Tetica" in the Sierra de Los Filabres, Spain, and Khao
Nom Sao in Thailand,
Cerro Las Tetas
Cerro Las Tetas in
Puerto Rico and the Breasts of
Aphrodite in Mykonos, among many others. In the United States, the
Teton Range is named after the French word for "breast".
^ "mammal – Definitions from Dictionary.com".
Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
Breast – Definition of breast by Merriam-Webster".
merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
^ "SEER Training:
Breast Anatomy". National Cancer Institute.
Retrieved 9 May 2012.
^ "Early Indo-European Online: Introduction to the Language Lessons".
www.utexas.edu. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016.
^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com.
^ "Definition of BREAST". www.merriam-webster.com.
^ GROOT, SUE DE. "Is there a respectful slang word for breasts?".
^ a b Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell
(2005). Gray's anatomy for students. illustrations by Richard
Richardson, Paul. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone.
^ a b c d e Love, Susan M. (2015). "1". Dr. Susan Love's
(6 ed.). U.S.A.: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-07382-1821-2.
^ a b Stöppler, Melissa Conrad. "
Breast Anatomy". Retrieved 28 June
^ Doucet, Sébastien; Soussignan, Robert; Sagot, Paul; Schaal, Benoist
(2009). Hausberger, Martine, ed. "The Secretion of Areolar
(Montgomery's) Glands from Lactating Women Elicits Selective,
Unconditional Responses in Neonates". PLoS ONE. 4 (10): e7579.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0007579. PMC 2761488 .
^ Pamplona DC, de Abreu Alvim C.
Breast Reconstruction with Expanders
and Implants: a Numerical Analysis. Artificial Organs 8 (2004), pp.
^ Grassley, JS (2002). "
Breast Reduction Surgery: What every Woman
Needs to Know". Lifelines. 6 (3): 244–249.
doi:10.1111/j.1552-6356.2002.tb00088.x. PMID 12078570.
^ Tortora, Gerard J.; Grabowski, Sandra Reynolds (2001). Introduction
to the Human Body: the Essentials of Anatomy and
ed.). New York; Toronto: J. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-36777-2.
^ Wood K, Cameron M, Fitzgerald K (2008). "
Breast Size, Bra Fit and
Thoracic Pain in Young Women: A Correlational Study". Chiropractic
& Osteopathy. 16: 1. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-16-1.
PMC 2275741 . PMID 18339205.
^ a b c "
Breast Development". Massachusetts Hospital for Children.
Archived from the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 2 June
^ Lauersen, Niels H.; Stukane, Eileen (1998). The Complete Book of
Breast Care (1st Trade Paperback ed.). New York: Fawcett
Columbine/Ballantine. ISBN 978-0-449-91241-6. ...there is no
medical reason to wear a bra, so the decision is yours, based on your
own personal comfort and aesthetics. Whether you have always worn a
bra or always gone braless, age and breastfeeding will naturally
fcause your breasts to sag.
^ Rinker, B; Veneracion, M; Walsh, C (2008). "The Effect of
Breast Aesthetics". Aesthetic Surgery Journal. 28
(5): 534–7. doi:10.1016/j.asj.2008.07.004. PMID 19083576. Lay
summary – LiveScience (2 November 2007).
^ Bentley, Gillian R. (2001). "The Evolution of the Human Breast".
American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 32 (38): 30–50.
^ a b Robert L. Barbieri (2009), "Yen & Jaffe's Reproductive
Endocrinology", Yen (6th ed.), Elsevier: 235–248,
^ Brisken; Malley (2 December 2010), "
Hormone Action in the Mammary
Gland", Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, Cold Spring Harb Perspect
Biol, 2 (12): a003178, doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a003178,
PMC 2982168 , PMID 20739412
^ Greenbaum AR, Heslop T, Morris J, Dunn KW (April 2003). "An
Investigation of the Suitability of Bra fit in Women Referred for
Reduction Mammaplasty". British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 56 (3):
230–6. doi:10.1016/S0007-1226(03)00122-X. PMID 12859918.
^ Loughry CW; et al. (1989). "
Breast Volume Measurement of 598 Women
using Biostereometric Analysis". Annals of Plastic Surgery. 22 (5):
Breast – premenstrual tenderness and swelling, A.D.A.M., May
^ Lawrence 2016, p. 34.
^ Lawrence 2016, p. 58.
^ a b "The physiological basis of breastfeeding". NCBI Bookshelf.
November 5, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
^ Lawrence 2016, p. 201.
World Health Organization
World Health Organization (February 2006). "Fact sheet No. 297:
Cancer". Retrieved 26 April 2007.
^ Seven things you should know about breast cancer risk Harvard
College. Last updated June 2008
^ Olson, James Stuart (2002). Bathsheba's Breast: Women, Cancer and
History. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 109.
ISBN 978-0-8018-6936-5. OCLC 186453370.
^ "Secondary sex characteristics". .hu-berlin.de. Retrieved 31 October
^ a b Lawrence 2016, pp. 613–616.
^ "St Agatha". Catholic Online. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
Femen wants to move from public exposure to political power, Kyiv
Post (28 April 2010)
^ "Ukraine's Ladies Of Femen". Movements.org. 16 August 2011. Archived
from the original on 14 April 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
^ Ukraine's Femen:Topless protests 'help feminist cause',
BBC News (23
^ "Topless FEMEN Protesters Drench Belgian Archbishop André-Jozef
Homophobia In Catholic Church (PHOTOS)". The
Huffington Post. 24 April 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
^ a b "FEMEN rings the bell: Naked activists defend right to
abortion". Russia Today. 10 April 2012.
Femen activists jailed in Tunisia for topless protest,
BBC News (12
^ a b c Shire, Emily (9 September 2014). "Women, It's Time to Reclaim
Our Breasts". The Daily Beast.
^ Yalom (1998) pp. 9–16; see Eva Keuls (1993), Reign of the Phallus:
Sexual Politics in Ancient Athens for a detailed study of
male-dominant rule in ancient Greece.
^ Yalom (1998), p. 18.
^ Hollander (1993), p. 6.
^ "Bra Cup Sizes—getting fitted with the right size". 1stbras.com.
Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 11 May
^ "The Right Bra". Liv.com. Archived from the original on 28 March
2009. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
Breast supporting act: a century of the bra". London: The
Independent UK. 15 August 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2010.
^ Wood, K; Cameron, M; Fitzgerald, K (2008). "
Breast size, bra fit and
thoracic pain in young women: a correlational study". Chiropr
Osteopat. 16: 1. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-16-1. PMC 2275741 .
^ Wolf, J.H. (2008). "Got milk? Not in public!". International
breastfeeding journal. 3 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1746-4358-3-11.
PMC 2518137 . PMID 18680578.
^ Vance, Melissa R. (June–July 2005). "
Breastfeeding Legislation in
the United States: A General Overview and Implications for Helping
Mothers". LEAVEN. 41 (3): 51–54. Archived from the original on 31
^ Jordan, Tim; Pile, Steve, eds. (2002). Social Change. Blackwell.
p. 233. ISBN 9780631233114.
^ Cox, Sue (2002).
Breast Feeding With Confidence. United States:
Meadowbrook Press. ISBN 0684040050.
^ Anders Pape Møller; et al. (1995). "
Breast asymmetry, sexual
selection, and human reproductive success". Ethology and Sociobiology.
16 (3): 207–219. doi:10.1016/0162-3095(95)00002-3.
^ "Sir Richard Burton's English translation of Kama Sutra".
Sacred-texts.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010.
Retrieved 31 October 2011.
^ Hickey, Eric W. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Murder and Violent Crime.
Sage Publications Inc. ISBN 978-0-7619-2437-1
^ Burns-Ardolino, Wendy (2007). Jiggle: (Re)shaping American women.
Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 31.
^ a b c Dixson, BJ; Grimshaw, GM; Linklater, WL; Dixson, AF (February
2011). "Eye-tracking of men's preferences for waist-to-hip ratio and
breast size of women". Archives of Sexual Behavior. International
Academy of Sex Research. 40 (1): 43–50.
doi:10.1007/s10508-009-9523-5. PMID 19688590. Retrieved 25 August
^ "Hourglass figure fertility link". BBC News. 4 May 2004. Retrieved
31 October 2011.
^ Alfred C. Kinsey; Wardell B. Pomeroy; Clyde E. Martin; Paul H.
Gebhard (1998). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Indiana
University Press. p. 587. ISBN 0-253-01924-9. Retrieved 12
August 2017. There are some females who appear to find no erotic
satisfaction in having their breasts manipulated; perhaps half of them
derive some distinct satisfaction, but not more than a very small
percentage ever respond intensely enough to reach orgasm as a result
of such stimulation (Chapter 5). [...] Records of females reaching
orgasm from breast stimulation alone are rare.
^ Boston Women's Health Book Collective (1996). The New Our Bodies,
Ourselves: A Book by and for Women. Simon & Schuster. p. 575.
ISBN 0-684-82352-7. Retrieved 12 August 2017. A few women can
even experience orgasm from breast stimulation alone.
^ Merril D. Smith (2014). Cultural Encyclopedia of the Breast. Rowman
& Littlefield. p. 71. ISBN 0-7591-2332-2. Retrieved 12
^ Justin J. Lehmiller (2013). The Psychology of Human Sexuality. John
Wiley & Sons. p. 120. ISBN 1-118-35132-0. Retrieved 12
^ Komisaruk, B. R.; Wise, N.; Frangos, E.; Liu, W.C.; Allen, K.;
Brody, S. (2011). "Women's Clitoris, Vagina, and Cervix Mapped on the
Sensory Cortex: fMRI Evidence, Surprise finding in response to nipple
stimulation". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 8 (10): 2822–30.
doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02388.x. PMC 3186818 .
PMID 21797981. Lay summary – CBSnews.com (5 August 2011).
^ "The Story of Bodhidharma". Usashaolintemple.org. Retrieved 31
^ "Creation of the Teton Landscape: The Geologic Story of Grand Teton
National Park (The Story Begins)". U.S. National Park Service. 19
January 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
Hollander, Anne (1993). Seeing through clothes. Berkeley: University
of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-08231-1.
Morris, Desmond The Naked Ape: a zoologist's study of the human animal
Bantam Books, Canada. 1967
Yalom, Marilyn (1998). A history of the breast. London: Pandora.
Venes, Donald (2013). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary.
Philadelphia: F.A. Davis. ISBN 978-0-8036-2977-6.
Lawrence, Ruth (2016). Breastfeeding : a guide for the medical
profession, 8th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.
Look up breasts in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Media related to Breasts at Wikimedia Commons
"Are Women Evolutionary Sex Objects?: Why Women Have Breasts".
Archived from the original on 2 December 2011.
Anatomy of the breast
Areolar gland (gland of Montgomery)
Tail of Spence
Breast disease (N60–N64, 610–611)
Benign mammary dysplasia
Duct ectasia of breast
Chronic cystic mastitis
Adipomastia (lipomastia, pseudogynecomastia)
Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia
Outline of human sexuality
Physiology and biology
Female and male ejaculation
Masters and Johnson
Sexually transmitted infection
Identity and diversity
Men who have sex with men
Women who have sex with women
Age of consent
Criminal transmission of HIV
Child sexual abuse
Counterculture of the 1960s
Feminist sex wars
Golden Age of Porn
History of erotic depictions
Anarchism and love/sex
Mechanics of sex
Wet T-shirt contest
Adult video games