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Sapphire
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an Aluminium oxide">aluminium oxide (α-Al2O3). It is typically blue, but natural "fancy" sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors; "parti sapphires" show two or more colors. The only color which sapphire cannot be is red – as red colored corundum is called ruby, another corundum variety. Pink colored corundum may be either classified as ruby or sapphire depending on locale. This variety in color is due to trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium. Commonly, natural sapphires are cut and polished into gemstones and worn in jewelry. They also may be created synthetically in laboratories for industrial or decorative purposes in large crystal boules
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Eastern States Of Australia
The eastern states of Australia are the states adjoining the east coast of Australia. These are the mainland states of Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales; the Australian Capital Territory and Jervis Bay Territory, while not states, are also included. The term usually includes the island state of Tasmania. On some occasions, the state of South Australia is included in this grouping. Regardless of which definition is used, the eastern states include the majority – around 80% – of the Australian population, the federal capital, Canberra, and the three Australia by population">largest cities: Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane. It also includes: the Gold Coast, Queensland; Newcastle, New South Wales; and Wollongong, New South Wales as the three largest non-capital cities in the country
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Specific Gravity
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance for liquids is nearly always Water (molecule)">water at its densest (at 4 °C or 39.2 °F); for gases it is air at room temperature (20 °C or 68 °F). Nonetheless, the temperature and pressure must be specified for both the sample and the reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa).
A US Navy Aviation Boatswain's Mate tests the specific gravity of JP-5 fuel
Temperatures for both sample and reference vary from industry to industry
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Iron
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water
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Hardness
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion. Some materials (e.g. metals) are harder than others (e.g. plastics)
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Moissanite
Moissanite (/ˈmɔɪsənt/) is the name given to naturally occurring silicon carbide and to its various crystalline polymorphs. It has the chemical formula SiC and is a rare mineral, discovered by the French chemist Henri Moissan in 1893. Silicon carbide is useful for commercial and industrial applications due to its hardness, optical properties and thermal conductivity
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Infrared
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions ). It is sometimes called infrared light. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers ( Frequency spectrum">frequency 430 THz), to 1 millimeter (300 GHz) Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared
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Optics
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light. Because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties. Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical electromagnetic description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice. Practical optics is usually done using simplified models. The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines and bend when they pass through or reflect from surfaces
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Solubility
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and presence of other chemicals (including changes to the pH) of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Insolubility is the inability to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Fusibility
The fusibility of a material is the ease at which the material can be fused together or to the temperature or amount of heat required to melt a material. Materials such as solder require a relatively low melting point so that when heat is applied to a joint, the solder will melt before the materials being soldered together melt, i.e. high fusibility. On the other hand, firebricks used for furnace linings only melt at very high temperatures and so have low fusibility. Materials that only melt at very high temperatures are called refractory materials. low-fusibility object) so it helps in cooking such as the utensils, cooking containers (e.g
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Melting Point
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance
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Pleochroism
Pleochroism (from Greek πλέων, pléōn, "more" and χρῶμα, khrôma, "color") is an optical phenomenon in which a substance has different colors when observed at different angles, especially with polarized light.

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Window
A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air. Modern windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material, a Window sash">sash set in a frame in the opening; the sash and frame are also referred to as a window. Many glazed windows may be opened, to allow ventilation, or closed, to exclude inclement weather
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Abbe Number
In optics and lens design, the Abbe number, also known as the V-number or constringence of a transparent material, is a measure of the material's dispersion (variation of refractive index versus wavelength), with high values of V indicating low dispersion
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Wafer (electronics)
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a Crystalline silicon">crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells. The wafer serves as the substrate for microelectronic devices built in and over the wafer and undergoes many microfabrication process steps such as doping or ion implantation, Etching (microfabrication)">etching, deposition of various materials, and photolithographic patterning
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Mohs Scale Of Mineral Hardness
The Mohs scale of mineral hardness (/mz/) is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material
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