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Ruins
Ruins
Ruins
(from the Latin "Ruina") are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction. Natural disaster, war and depopulation are the most common root causes, with many structures becoming progressively derelict over time due to long-term weathering and scavenging. There are famous ruins all over the world, from ancient sites in China, the Indus valley
Indus valley
and Judea
Judea
to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in Africa, ancient Greek, Egyptian and Roman sites in the Mediterranean basin, and Incan and Mayan sites in the Americas
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Theodosian Code
The Codex Theodosianus
Codex Theodosianus
(Eng. Theodosian Code) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
under the Christian
Christian
emperors since 312. A commission was established by Theodosius II
Theodosius II
and his co-emperor Valentinian III
Valentinian III
on 26 March 429[1][2] and the compilation was published by a constitution of 15 February 438
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Grozny
Grozny
Grozny
(Russian: Грозный, IPA: [ˈgroznɨj]; Chechen: Грозный) is the capital city of the Chechen Republic, Russia. The city lies on the Sunzha River
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Ruined (play)
Ruined is a play by Lynn Nottage. The play won the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Drama.[1][2] The play involves the plight of women in the civil war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.Contents1 Production history 2 Overview 3 Critical response 4 Awards and nominations 5 In print 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksProduction history[edit]Opening night of RuinedRuined was commissioned by the Goodman Theatre
Goodman Theatre
(Chicago, Illinois) and is a co-production with the Manhattan Theatre Club
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UNESCO World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Human Settlement
In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages, towns and cities
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Looting
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting.[3] The term is also used in a broader sense to describe egregious instances of theft and embezzlement, such as the "plundering" of private or public assets by governments.[4] The proceeds of all these activities can be described as booty, loot, plunder, spoils, or pillage.[5][6]Looters attempting to enter a cycle shop in North London during the 2011 England riotsContents1 Looting
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Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw
(/ˈwɔːrsɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (listen); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula
Vistula
River in east-central Poland
Poland
and its population is officially estimated at 1.78 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents,[5] which makes Warsaw
Warsaw
the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi).[6] Warsaw
Warsaw
is an alpha global city,[7] a major international tourist destination, and a significant cultural, political and economic hub
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Dresden
Dresden
Dresden
(German pronunciation: [ˈdʁeːsdn̩] ( listen); Czech: Drážďany, Polish: Drezno) is the capital city[2] and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city[3] of the Free State of Saxony
Saxony
in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden
Dresden
has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, and was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden
Dresden
in World War II
World War II
towards the end of the war killed approximately 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, and destroyed the entire city centre
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Beirut
Coordinates: 33°53′13″N 35°30′47″E / 33.88694°N 35.51306°E / 33.88694; 35.51306Beirut بيروت BeyrouthCity Beirut
Beirut
city skyline in the early 2000sFlagSealNickname(s): Paris of the East[1]Motto(s): Beirut, mother of laws (Latin: Berytus
Berytus
Nutrix Legum)BeirutLocation of Beirut
Beirut
within LebanonCoordinates: 33°53′13″N 35°30′47″E / 33.88694°N 35.51306°E / 33.88694; 35.51306Country  LebanonGovernorate BeirutGovernment • Mayor Jamal ItaniArea • City 19.8 km2 (7.6 sq mi) • Metro 67 km2 (26 sq mi)Population (2014) • City c. 361,366 [2] • Metro c
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Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
(/ˈkɑːbʊl/; Persian: [ˈkɒːbul]) is the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. It is also a municipality, forming part of the greater Kabul
Kabul
Province. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul
Kabul
is 4.635 million,[1] which includes all the major ethnic groups.[2] Rapid urbanization had made Kabul
Kabul
the world's 75th largest city.[3] Kabul
Kabul
is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains, with an elevation of 1,790 metres (5,873 ft) making it one of the highest capitals in the world. The city is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, and a key location of the ancient Silk Road
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Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad
(/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic: بغداد‎ [baɣˈdaːd] ( listen)) is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016[update], is approximately 8,765,000,[citation needed][note 1] making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world
Arab world
(after Cairo, Egypt), and the second largest city in Western Asia
Western Asia
(after Tehran, Iran). Located along the Tigris
Tigris
River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate
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Anthropology
Anthropology
Anthropology
is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present.[1][2][3] Social anthropology
Social anthropology
studies patterns of behaviour and cultural anthropology[1][2][3] studies cultural meaning, including norms and values. Linguistic anthropology studies how language influences social life
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Volcanic Eruption
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward
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Anno Dommini
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Lisbon
Lisbon
Lisbon
(/ˈlɪzbən/; Portuguese: Lisboa [liʒˈbo.ɐ] (listen))[4] is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526[1] within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.[5] Lisbon's urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union.[3] About 3 million people live in the Lisbon metropolitan area, including the Portuguese Riviera
Portuguese Riviera
(which represents approximately 27% of the country's population).[2] It is mainland Europe's westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon
Lisbon
lies in the western Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
on the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the River Tagus
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