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Rubus
_RUBUS_ is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae , subfamily Rosoideae , with 250–700 species. Raspberries , blackberries , and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The _Rubus_ fruit , sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets . The term "cane fruit" (or "cane-fruit") applies to any _Rubus_ species or hybrid which is commonly grown with supports such as wires or canes, including raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids such as loganberry , boysenberry , marionberry and tayberry . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Hybrid berries * 3 Scientific classification * 4 Fossil record * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWMost species are hermaphrodites , _ Rubus chamaemorus _ being an exception. The blackberries, as well as various other _Rubus_ species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles . However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species, such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species. The generic name means blackberry in Latin and was derived from the word _ruber_, meaning "red"
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Rubus Fruticosus
_RUBUS FRUTICOSUS_ L. is the ambiguous name of a European blackberry species in the genus _ Rubus _ in the rose family . The name has been interpreted in several ways: * The species represented by the type specimen of _ Rubus fruticosus_ L., which is also the type specimen of the genus _Rubus_. This specimen is considered to match the species _R. plicatus _, in _Rubus_ subgenus _Rubus_, section _Rubus_. * Various species consistent with Linnaeus\' original description of the species, which was based on a mixture of specimens now considered to match _ Rubus ulmifolius _ and _R. plicatus_* a species aggregate (group of similar species) _RUBUS FRUTICOSUS_ AGG. that includes most of a group called either _Rubus_ subgenus _Rubus_ or _Rubus_ section _Rubus_: * in a narrow sense, sometimes separated as the section _Glandulosus_, with about 289 microspecies . In this sense the species aggregate does not include the type of the genus _Rubus_, which is a hybrid . * in a broad sense including subgenus _Rubus_ sections _Glandulosus_, _Rubus_ (about 20 microspecies), and _Corylifolii_ (about 24 microspecies). Section _Rubus_ are probably hybrids involving members of section _Glandulosus_ with either _R. idaeus _ or _R. allegheniensis _. Section _Corylifolii_ are probably hybrids involving members of section _Glandulosus_ with _R. caesius _
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations , although asexual reproduction is also common. There are about 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants (see the table below ). Green plants provide most of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecologies, especially on land
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Flowering Plant
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales * Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek composite word (_angeion_, "case" or "casing", and _sperma_, "seed") meaning "enclosed seeds", after the enclosed condition of the seeds. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period , during the range 245 to 202 million years ago (mya), and the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya. They diversified extensively during the Lower Cretaceous , became widespread by 120 mya, and replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been widely adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms (constituting over 70% of the angiosperm species), monocots being the other. The remaining angiosperms are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been widely or consistently adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is TRICOLPATES, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling
. The clade was later renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN . The rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis. Three different definitions of the rosids were used
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Rosales
Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae (oleaster / Russian olive family) Moraceae (mulberry family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Rosaceae (rose family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) SYNONYMS Rhamnales Rosanae Urticales ROSALES is an order of flowering plants . It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales and Cucurbitales . It contains about 7700 species , distributed into about 260 genera . Rosales comprise nine families , the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae . The largest of these families are Rosaceae (90/2500) and Urticaceae (54/2600). The order Rosales is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank . The basal clade consists of the family Rosaceae; another clade consists of four families, including Rhamnaceae; and the third clade consists of the four urticalean families. The order Rosales is strongly supported as monophyletic in phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences , such as those carried out by members of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group . In their APG III system of plant classification , they defined Rosales as consisting of the nine families listed in the box on the right
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Rosaceae
ROSACEAE, the rose family, is a medium-sized family of flowering plants , including 4,828 known species in 91 genera. The name is derived from the type genus _Rosa _. Among the most species-rich genera are _ Alchemilla _ (270), _ Sorbus _ (260), _ Crataegus _ (260), _ Cotoneaster _ (260), _ Rubus _ (250), and _Prunus _ (plums, cherries, peaches, apricots, and almonds) with about 200 species. However, all of these numbers should be seen as estimates – much taxonomic work remains. The Rosaceae family includes herbs, shrubs, and trees. Most species are deciduous, but some are evergreen. They have a worldwide range, but are most diverse in the Northern Hemisphere. Several economically important products come from the Rosaceae, including many edible fruits (such as apples , pears , quinces , apricots , plums , cherries , peaches , raspberries , loquats , and strawberries ), almonds , and ornamental trees and shrubs (such as roses , meadowsweets , photinias , firethorns , rowans , and hawthorns )
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature , a TYPE SPECIES (_species typica_) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus . In botanical nomenclature , these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature , but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology , a type species is assigned for each genus. Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid , is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type. CONTENTS * 1 Use in zoology * 2 Citing * 3 See also * 4 References USE IN ZOOLOGY See also: Types in zoology A type species is both a concept and a practical system that is used in the classification and nomenclature (naming) of animals
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce , which he called _Pinus abies_. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is _Picea abies_. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and _vice versa_). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier
BARTHéLEMY CHARLES JOSEPH DUMORTIER (3 April 1797, Tournai
Tournai
– 9 June 1878) was a Belgian who conducted a parallel career of botanist and Member of Parliament. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Botanist * 3 Honours * 4 Works * 5 Literature * 6 References * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYBarthélemy Dumortier was a son of the merchant and city councillor Barthélemy-François Dumortier and of Mariue-Jeanne Willaumez. He married Philippine Ruteau and they had a son, Barthélemy-Noël Dumortier (1830-1915). Barthélemy-Charles became politically active in the early eighteen twenties. In 1824 he founded the Courrier de l'Escaut, a paper critical of the government. He adhered in 1830 to the Belgian revolution. In 1831 he became a member of the first elected parliament of the new kingdom, as the member for Tournai. He remained elected until 1847. He then switched seats, and was now elected for the city of Roulers and held this seat until his death. In 1872 he was awarded the honorary title of Minister of State. He also was awarded nobility with the title of earl. However, for unknown reasons, he did not raise the necessary patent letters and was therefore not ennobled. BOTANISTIn the early 1820s, Dumortier published in Latin his first contribution to botany. In 1827 he published a complete national flora, the Florula Belgica
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Edward Lee Greene
EDWARD LEE GREENE, Ph.D. , (August 10, 1843 – November 10, 1915) was an American botanist known for his numerous publications including the two-part _Landmarks of Botanical History_ and the naming or redescribing of over 4,400 species of plants in the American West. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Academic career * 3 Legacy * 4 References * 4.1 Further reading * 5 External links EARLY LIFE Edward Lee Greene was born on August 20, 1843 in Hopkinton, Rhode Island . In 1859 Greene moved to Wisconsin and began studying at Albion Academy, a very reputable institution with a religious emphasis. There Greene met Thure Kumlien , a Swedish Naturalist with an interest in botany . Greene accompanied Kumlein on field trips, further developing Greene’s interest in botany. In August 1862, Greene joined his father and brothers in joining the 13th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Union Army. Though he never rose above the rank of private in his three years of service, Greene was able to advance his botanical studies, collecting specimens as he marched through Tennessee, Kentucky and Alabama. Following his release from the Army, Greene returned to Albion Academy, earning his Bachelor of Philosophy in 1866. While in the service, Greene thought of moving west of the Mississippi, a desire he realized in 1870. With the aid of botanists Asa Gray of Cambridge and George Engelmann of St
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Dalibarda
_DALIBARDA REPENS_ (DEWDROP, FALSE VIOLET, STAR VIOLET, ROBIN RUNAWAY. French Canadian: DALIBARDE RAMPANTE) is a perennial plant (a forb ) in the rose family , native to eastern and central Canada and to the northeastern and north-central United States. It is the only species in the genus _DALIBARDA_, which is closely allied with the genus _ Rubus _ (brambles, blackberries, raspberries). The species is often included in the genus _Rubus_ as _ Rubus repens_ (L.) Kuntze. It is fairly easily grown in shady locations in damp to wet, acidic soils, and is frequently used in wildflower and bog gardens as a ground-cover. DESCRIPTION_ Dalibarda repens_ is a herbaceous plant with simple leaves , and hairy stems. It is the only species in the genus _Dalibarda_. It has both sterile and fertile flowers. The sterile flowers are much less numerous than the fertile ones, have five white petals and are borne atop a peduncle. The more numerous fertile flowers are cleistogamous (they are self-pollinating and never open), and are hidden beneath the leaves. The flower stalks (peduncles) of the cleistogamous flowers are short, 2–5 cm long, and curved downward. The calyx forms a shallow, hairy hypanthium , which is divided into 5–6 lobes of unequal size, the 3 larger lobes are toothed (serrate). The stem is decumbent/creeping, "several inches" in length, with a densely tufted terminal portion which bears both leaves and flowers
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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