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Rubus
Rubus
Rubus
is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, with 250–700 species.[4] Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The Rubus
Rubus
fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets
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BlackBerry
BlackBerry
BlackBerry
is a line of smartphones, tablets, and services originally designed and marketed by Canadian company BlackBerry Limited
BlackBerry Limited
(formerly known as Research In Motion
Research In Motion
Limited).[1] These are currently designed, manufactured, and marketed by TCL Communication, BlackBerry
BlackBerry
Mobile, BB Merah Putih, and Optiemus for the global, Indonesian, and Indian markets, respectively, continuously using the BlackBerry
BlackBerry
brand. BlackBerry
BlackBerry
was considered one of the most prominent smartphone vendors in the world, specializing in secure communications and mobile productivity
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Drupelet
In botany, a drupe (or stone fruit) is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin; and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a single shell (the pit, stone, or pyrene) of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside.[1] These fruits usually develop from a single carpel, and mostly from flowers with superior ovaries[1] (polypyrenous drupes are exceptions)
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Plant Sexuality
Plant
Plant
reproductive morphology is the study of the physical form and structure (the morphology) of those parts of plants directly or indirectly concerned with sexual reproduction. Among all living organisms, flowers, which are the reproductive structures of angiosperms, are the most varied physically and show a correspondingly great diversity in methods of reproduction.[1] Plants that are not flowering plants (green algae, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, ferns and gymnosperms such as conifers) also have complex interplays between morphological adaptation and environmental factors in their sexual reproduction. The breeding system, or how the sperm from one plant fertilizes the ovum of another, depends on the reproductive morphology, and is the single most important determinant of the genetic structure of nonclonal plant populations
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Rose
See List of Rosa speciesSynonymsHulthemia Dumort. ×Hulthemosa Juz. (Hulthemia × Rosa)A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over a hundred species and thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing or trailing with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa. Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies. Rose
Rose
plants range in size from compact, miniature roses, to climbers that can reach seven meters in height
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Edward Lee Greene
Edward Lee Greene, Ph.D., (August 10, 1843 – November 10, 1915) was an American botanist known for his numerous publications including the two-part Landmarks of Botanical History and the naming or redescribing of over 4,400 species of plants in the American West.Contents1 Early life 2 Academic career 3 Legacy 4 References4.1 Further reading5 External linksEarly life[edit] Edward Lee Greene was born on August 20, 1843 in Hopkinton, Rhode Island. In 1859 Greene moved to Wisconsin and began studying at Albion Academy, a very reputable institution with a religious emphasis. There Greene met Thure Kumlien, a Swedish Naturalist with an interest in botany. Greene accompanied Kumlein on field trips, further developing Greene’s interest in botany. In August 1862, Greene joined his father and brothers in joining the 13th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Union Army
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Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier
Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier
Barthélemy Charles Joseph Dumortier
(3 April 1797 in Tournai
Tournai
– 9 June 1878) was a Belgian who conducted a parallel career of botanist and Member of Parliament.Contents1 Biography 2 Botanist 3 Honours 4 Works 5 Literature 6 References 7 External linksBiography[edit] Barthélemy Dumortier was a son of the merchant and city councillor Barthélemy-François Dumortier and of Mariue-Jeanne Willaumez. He married Philippine Ruteau and they had a son, Barthélemy-Noël Dumortier (1830-1915). Barthélemy-Charles became politically active in the early eighteen twenties. In 1824 he founded the Courrier de l'Escaut, a paper critical of the government. He adhered in 1830 to the Belgian revolution. In 1831 he became a member of the first elected parliament of the new kingdom, as the member for Tournai. He remained elected until 1847
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Type Species
In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s).[1] A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name
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Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/;[1][2] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné[3] (Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy".[4] Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730
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Rosales
Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae (oleaster/ Russian olive
Russian olive
family) Moraceae (mulberry family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Rosaceae (rose family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family)SynonymsRhamnales Rosanae Urticales[2] Rosales
Rosales
is an order of flowering plants.[3] It is sister to a clade consisting of Fagales
Fagales
and Cucurbitales.[4] It contains about 7700 species, distributed into about 260 genera. Rosales
Rosales
comprise nine families, the type family being the rose family, Rosaceae. The largest of these families are Rosaceae
Rosaceae
(90/2500) and Urticaceae
Urticaceae
(54/2600). The order Rosales
Rosales
is divided into three clades that have never been assigned a taxonomic rank
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Rosids
The rosids are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species,[2] more than a quarter of all angiosperms.[3] The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families.[4] Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian
Aptian
or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago.[5][6]Contents1 Name 2 Relationships 3 Classification3.1 Orders4 Phylogeny 5 References 6 External linksName[edit] The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", which had usually been understood to be a subclass
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Eudicots
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants that had been called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots.[1] The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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