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_RUBUS_ is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae , subfamily Rosoideae , with 250–700 species. Raspberries , blackberries , and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The _Rubus_ fruit , sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets . The term "cane fruit" (or "cane-fruit") applies to any _Rubus_ species or hybrid which is commonly grown with supports such as wires or canes, including raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids such as loganberry , boysenberry , marionberry and tayberry .

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview * 2 Hybrid berries * 3 Scientific classification * 4 Fossil record * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

OVERVIEW

Most species are hermaphrodites , _ Rubus chamaemorus _ being an exception.

The blackberries, as well as various other _Rubus_ species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles . However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species, such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species.

The generic name means blackberry in Latin and was derived from the word _ruber_, meaning "red".

The scientific study of brambles is known as "batology".

Examples of the hundreds of species of _Rubus_ include:

* _ Rubus aboriginum _ – garden dewberry * _ Rubus abundus _ * _ Rubus aculiferus _ * _ Rubus adenocaulis _ * _ Rubus adenotrichos _ * _ Rubus adjacens _ * _ Rubus alaskensis _ * _ Rubus allegheniensis _ – Allegheny blackberry * _ Rubus alnifolius _ * _ Rubus alpinus _ * _ Rubus alter _ * _ Rubus alumnus _ * _ Rubus amplior _ * _ Rubus andrewsianus _ * _ Rubus apogaeus _ * _ Rubus aptatus _ * _ Rubus arcticus _ – Arctic raspberry * _ Rubus arcuans _ * _ Rubus arenicola _ * _ Rubus argutus _ * _ Rubus arizonensis _ – Arizona dewberry * _ Rubus armeniacus _ – Himalayan blackberry * _ Rubus arvensis _ * _ Rubus audax _ * _ Rubus baileyanus _ * _ Rubus bartonianus _ * _ Rubus bellobatus _ * _ Rubus bicknellii _ * _ Rubus biformispinus _ * _ Rubus bifrons _ * _ Rubus bigelovianus _ * _ Rubus blanchardianus _ * _ Rubus boyntonii _ * _ Rubus burnhamii _ * _ Rubus bushii _ * _ Rubus caesius _ – European dewberry * _ Rubus canadensis _ – Canadian blackberry * _ Rubus centralis _ * _ Rubus chamaemorus _ – Cloudberry * _ Rubus clarus _ * _ Rubus conanicutensis _ * _ Rubus concameratus _ * _ Rubus coriifolius _ * _ Rubus coronarius _ * _ Rubus coreanus _ - Bokbunja * _ Rubus costaricanus _ * _ Rubus cubitans _ * _ Rubus cuneifolius _ – sand blackberry * _ Rubus curtipes _ * _ Rubus cymosus _ * _ Rubus dalibarda _ * _ Rubus deamii _ * _ Rubus defectionis _ * _ Rubus deliciosus _ * _ Rubus densissimus _ * _ Rubus depavitus _ – Aberdeen dewberry * _ Rubus discolor _ * _ Rubus dissimilis _ * _ Rubus domingensis _ * _ Rubus durescens _ * _ Rubus durus _ * _ Rubus eggersii _ * _ Rubus elegantulus _ * _ Rubus ellipticus _ * _ Rubus emeritus _ * _ Rubus eriocarpus _ * _ Rubus exeter _ * _ Rubus exsularis _ * _ Rubus fagifolius _ * _ Rubus fecundus _ * _ Rubus felix _ * _ Rubus ferrugineus _ * _ Rubus flagellaris _ – northern dewberry * _ Rubus flavinanus _ * _ Rubus floricomus _ * _ Rubus florulentus _ * _ Rubus fraternalis _ * _ Rubus frondisentis _ * _ Rubus frondosus _ * _ Rubus fruticosus _ agg. – blackberry * _ Rubus fryei _ * _ Rubus furtivus _ * _ Rubus geniculatus _ * _ Rubus geoides _ - Patagonian raspberry * _ Rubus glandicaulis _ * _ Rubus glaucifolius _ – San Diego raspberry * _ Rubus glaucus _ * _ Rubus gnarus _ * _ Rubus grimesii _ * _ Rubus griseus _ * _ Rubus gulosus _ * _ Rubus hancinianus _ * _ Rubus hanesii _ * _ Rubus harmonicus _ * _ Rubus hawaiensis _ * _ Rubus heterophyllus _ * _ Rubus hispidoides _ * _ Rubus hispidus _ – swamp dewberry * _ Rubus hochstetterorum _ – Azorean blackberry * _ Rubus humistratus _ * _ Rubus huttonii _ * _ Rubus hypolasius _ * _ Rubus ictus _ * _ Rubus idaeus _ – European red raspberry * _ Rubus illecebrosus _ * _ Rubus immanis _ * _ Rubus impar _ * _ Rubus inclinis _ * _ Rubus inferior _ * _ Rubus iniens _ * _ Rubus insons _ * _ Rubus insulanus _ * _ Rubus invisus _ – upland dewberry * _ Rubus irasuensis _ * _ Rubus ithacanus _ * _ Rubus jacens _ * _ Rubus jamaicensis _ * _ Rubus junceus _ * _ Rubus kelloggii _ * _ Rubus kennedyanus _ * _ Rubus laciniatus _ – cutleaf evergreen blackberry * _ Rubus largus _ * _ Rubus lasiococcus _ – roughfruit berry * _ Rubus latens _ * _ Rubus lawrencei _ * _ Rubus leucodermis _ – whitebark raspberry or western raspberry * _ Rubus leviculus _ * _ Rubus liebmannii _ * _ Rubus linkianus _ * _ Rubus longii _ * _ Rubus macraei _ * _ Rubus macrogongylus _ * _ Rubus macrophyllus _ * _ Rubus macvaughii _ * _ Rubus maniseesensis _ * _ Rubus meracus _ * _ Rubus michiganensis _ * _ Rubus mirus _ * _ Rubus miser _ * _ Rubus missouricus _ * _ Rubus mollior _ * _ Rubus montensis _ * _ Rubus multifer _ * _ Rubus multiformis _ * _ Rubus multispinus _ * _ Rubus navus _ * _ Rubus nefrens _ * _ Rubus nelsonii _ * _ Rubus neomexicanus _ * _ Rubus nigerrimus _ * _ Rubus nivalis _ * _ Rubus niveus _ * _ Rubus notatus _ * _ Rubus novanglicus _ * _ Rubus noveboracus _ * _ Rubus novocaesarius _ * _ Rubus obsessus _ * _ Rubus obvius _ * _ Rubus occidentalis _ – black raspberry * _ Rubus odoratus _ – flowering raspberry * _ Rubus oklahomus _ * _ Rubus originalis _ * _ Rubus ortivus _ * _ Rubus ostryifolius _ * _ Rubus paganus _ * _ Rubus palmeri _ * _ Rubus paludivagus _ * _ Rubus parcifrondifer _ * _ Rubus parlinii _ * _ Rubus particeps _ * _ Rubus particularis _ * _ Rubus parviflorus _ – thimbleberry * _ Rubus parvifolius _ – small-leaf bramble (Australia) * _ Rubus pascuus _ * _ Rubus pedatus _ * _ Rubus pensilvanicus _ – Pennsylvania blackberry * _ Rubus pergratus _ * _ Rubus permixtus _ * _ Rubus pernagaeus _ * _ Rubus persistens _ * _ Rubus perspicuus _ * _ Rubus pervarius _ * _ Rubus philadelphicus _ * _ Rubus philyrophyllus _ * _ Rubus phoenicolasius _ – wineberry * _ Rubus pittieri _ * _ Rubus plexus _ * _ Rubus plicatifolius _ * _ Rubus plus _ * _ Rubus porteri _ * _ Rubus positivus _ * _ Rubus prestonensis _ * _ Rubus pringlei _ * _ Rubus probabilis _ * _ Rubus probativus _ * _ Rubus probus _ * _ Rubus prosper _ * _ Rubus provincialis _ * _ Rubus pubescens _ – dwarf red blackberry * _ Rubus pugnax _ * _ Rubus pumilus _ * _ Rubus quaesitus _ * _ Rubus racemiger _ * _ Rubus randolphiorum _ * _ Rubus recurvans _ * _ Rubus recurvicaulis _ * _ Rubus reflexus _ – Rusty-hair Raspberry * _ Rubus regionalis _ * _ Rubus repens _ * _ Rubus riograndis _ * _ Rubus roribaccus _ * _ Rubus rosa _ * _ Rubus rosarius _ * _ Rubus rosifolius _ * _ Rubus rossbergianus _ * _ Rubus russeus _ * _ Rubus rydbergianus _ * _ Rubus saltuensis _ * _ Rubus sapidus _ * _ Rubus saxatilis _ – stone bramble * _ Rubus scambens _ * _ Rubus scandens _ * _ Rubus sceleratus _ * _ Rubus schiedeanus _ * _ Rubus schoolcraftianus _ * _ Rubus segnis _ * _ Rubus semisetosus _ * _ Rubus setosus _ * _ Rubus severus _ * _ Rubus sewardianus _ * _ Rubus sieboldii _ * _ Rubus signatus _ * _ Rubus sons _ * _ Rubus spectabilis _ – salmonberry * _ Rubus spectatus _ * _ Rubus steelei _ * _ Rubus stipulatus _ * _ Rubus strigosus _ – American red raspberry * _ Rubus superbus _ * _ Rubus suppar _ * _ Rubus suus _ * _ Rubus tardatus _ * _ Rubus tholiformis _ * _ Rubus tomentosus _ * _ Rubus trichomallus _ * _ Rubus trifidus _ – Japanese blackberry * _ Rubus trifrons _ * _ Rubus trivialis _ * _ Rubus tuerckheimii _ * _ Rubus tygartensis _ * _ Rubus ucetanus _ * _ Rubus uhdeanus _ * _ Rubus ulmifolius _ * _ Rubus uniformis _ * _ Rubus ursinus _ – trailing blackberry * _ Rubus uvidus _ * _ Rubus variispinus _ * _ Rubus velox _ * _ Rubus verae-crucis _ * _ Rubus vermontanus _ * _ Rubus vestitus _ * _ Rubus vigilis _ * _ Rubus vigoratus _ * _ Rubus vulcanicola _ * _ Rubus weatherbyi _ * _ Rubus whartoniae _ * _ Rubus wheeleri _ * _ Rubus wisconsinensis _

_ R. arcticus _ _ R. odoratus_ _ R. saxatilis_ _ R. ellipticus_ var. _obcordatus_ _ R. ulmifolius _ _ R. chamaemorus _

The British National Collection of _Rubus_ is held by Barry Clark at Houghton, Hampshire . His collection stands at over 200 species and, although not within the scope of the National Collection, he also grows many cultivars.

HYBRID BERRIES

_ R. phoenicolasius _ _ R. hirsutus _

The term "hybrid berry" is often used collectively for those fruits in the genus _Rubus_ which have been developed mainly in the USA and UK in the last 130 years. As _Rubus_ species readily interbreed and are apomicts (able to set seed without fertilisation), the parentage of these plants is often highly complex, but is generally agreed to include cultivars of blackberries, (_ Rubus ursinus_, _R. fruticosus_) and raspberries (_R. idaeus_).

The hybrid berries include:-

* Loganberry (California, USA, 1883) _R._ × _loganobaccus_, a spontaneous cross between _R. ursinus_ 'Aughinbaugh' and _R. idaeus_ 'Red Antwerp' * Boysenberry (USA, 1920s) a cross between _R. idaeus_ and _R._ × _loganobaccus_ * Veitchberry (Europe, 1930s) a cross between _R. fruticosus_ and _R. idaeus_ * Marionberry (1956) now thought to be a blackberry cultivar _R._ 'Marion' * Silvanberry , _R._ 'Silvan', a cross between _R._ 'Marion' and boysenberry * Tayberry (Dundee, Scotland, 1979), another blackberry/raspberry cross * Tummelberry , _R._ 'Tummel', from the same Scottish breeding programme as tayberry * Hildaberry (1980s), a tayberry/boysenberry cross discovered by an amateur grower

SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION

_ R. caesius _ _ R. parviflorus _

The genus _Rubus_ is a very complex one, particularly the blackberry /dewberry subgenus (_Rubus_), with polyploidy , hybridization , and facultative apomixis apparently all frequently occurring, making species classification of the great variation in the subgenus one of the grand challenges of systematic botany .

_Rubus_ species have a basic chromosome number of seven. Polyploidy from the diploid (14 chromosomes) to the tetradecaploid (98 chromosomes) is exhibited.

Some treatments have recognized dozens of species each for what other, comparably qualified botanists have considered single, more variable species. On the other hand, species in the other _Rubus_ subgenera (such as the raspberries) are generally distinct, or else involved in more routine one-or-a-few taxonomic debates, such as whether the European and American red raspberries are better treated as one species or two. (In this case, the two-species view is followed here, with _ Rubus idaeus_ and _R. strigosus_ both recognized; if these species are combined, then the older name _R. idaeus_ has priority for the broader species.)

Molecular data have backed up classifications based on geography and chromosome number , but following morphological data, such as the structure of the leaves and stems, do not appear to produce a phylogenetic classification.

The classification presented below recognizes 13 subgenera within _Rubus_, with the largest subgenus (_Rubus_) in turn divided into 12 sections . Representative examples are presented, but many more species are not mentioned here. _ R. idaeus_ _ R. fruticosus_ _ R. laciniatus_ _ R. hawaiensis _ _ R. spectabilis_ var. _spectabilis_ _ Commercially produced R. strigosus _ raspberries _ R. rosifolius_

* SUBGENUS _ANOPLOBATUS_

* _ Rubus aboriginum _ (garden dewberry) * _ Rubus aliceae _ * _ Rubus deliciosus _ * _ Rubus koehleri _ * _ Rubus neomexicanus _ * _ Rubus odoratus _ * _ Rubus parviflorus _ (thimbleberry)

* SUBGENUS _CHAMAEBATUS _

* _ Rubus calycinus _ * _ Rubus hayata-koidzumii _ * _ Rubus nivalis _ (snow raspberry) * _ Rubus pectinellus _

* SUBGENUS _CHAMAEMORUS_

* _ Rubus chamaemorus _ * _ Rubus pseudochamaemorus _

* SUBGENUS _COMAROPSIS_

* _ Rubus geoides _

* SUBGENUS _CYLACTIS_

* _ Rubus arcticus _ * _ Rubus fockeanus _ * _ Rubus humulifolius _ * _ Rubus lasiococcus _ * _ Rubus pedatus _ * _ Rubus saxatilis _ * _ Rubus sierrae _ * _ Rubus xanthocarpus _

* SUBGENUS _DIEMENICUS_

* _ Rubus gunnianus _

* SUBGENUS _DALIBARDASTRUM_

* _ Rubus amphidasys _ * _ Rubus nepalensis _ * _ Rubus tricolor _ * _ Rubus tsangiorum _

* SUBGENUS _IDAEOBATUS_

* _ Rubus acuminatissimus _ * _ Rubus adenophorus _ (syn. _R. sagatus_) * _ Rubus alexeterius _ * _ Rubus alpestris _ * _ Rubus amabilis _ * _ Rubus apetalus _ * _ Rubus archboldianus _ * _ Rubus aurantiacus _ * _ Rubus biflorus _ * _ Rubus chingii _ * _ Rubus cockburnianus _ * _ Rubus columellaris _ * _ Rubus copelandii _ * _ Rubus corchorifolius _ * _ Rubus coreanus _ * _ Rubus crataegifolius _ * _ Rubus croceacanthus _ * _ Rubus ellipticus _ * _ Rubus eustephanos _ * _ Rubus flosculosus _ * _ Rubus fraxinifolius _ * _ Rubus glabricarpus _ * _ Rubus grayanus _ * _ Rubus hawaiensis _ * _ Rubus hirsutus _ * _ Rubus hoffmeisterianus _ * _ Rubus hypargyrus _ * _ Rubus idaeus _ * _ Rubus illecebrosus _ * _ Rubus innominatus _ * _ Rubus inopertus _ * _ Rubus irritans _ * _ Rubus komarovii _ * _ Rubus lasiostylus _ * _ Rubus leucodermis _ * _ Rubus ludwigii _ * _ Rubus lutescens _ * _ Rubus macilentus _ * _ Rubus macraei _ * _ Rubus mesogaeus _ * _ Rubus microphyllus _ * _ Rubus minusculus _ * _ Rubus niveus _ * _ Rubus occidentalis _ * _ Rubus palmatus _ * _ Rubus parvifolius _ * _ Rubus peltatus _ * _ Rubus pentagonus _ * _ Rubus phoenicolasius _ * _ Rubus pileatus _ * _ Rubus pinfaensis _ * _ Rubus pinnatus _ * _ Rubus probus _ * _ Rubus pungens _ * _ Rubus queenslandicus _ * _ Rubus racemosus _ * _ Rubus rigidus _ * _ Rubus rosifolius _ * _ Rubus sachalinensis _ * _ Rubus simplex _ * _ Rubus spectabilis _ * _ Rubus stans _ * _ Rubus strigosus _ * _ Rubus suavissimus _ * _ Rubus subornatus _ * _ Rubus sumatranus _ * _ Rubus teledapos _ * _ Rubus thibetanus _ * _ Rubus trianthus _ * _ Rubus trifidus _ * _ Rubus vernus _

* SUBGENUS _LAMPOBATUS_

* _ Rubus acanthophyllos _ * _ Rubus adenothallus _ * _ Rubus adenotrichos _ * _ Rubus betonicifolius _ * _ Rubus bogotensis _ * _ Rubus briareus _ * _ Rubus bullatus _ * _ Rubus choachiensis _ * _ Rubus coriaceus _ * _ Rubus costaricanus _ * _ Rubus eggersii _ * _ Rubus eriocarpus _ * _ Rubus fagifolius _ * _ Rubus florulentus _ * _ Rubus gachetensis _ * _ Rubus giganteus _ * _ Rubus glabratus _ * _ Rubus glaucus _ * _ Rubus hondurensis _ * _ Rubus imperialis _ * _ Rubus irasuensis _ * _ Rubus macvaughianus _ * _ Rubus megalococcus _ * _ Rubus nubigenus _ * _ Rubus peruvianus _ * _ Rubus roseus _ * _ Rubus sapidus _ * _ Rubus shankii _ * _ Rubus trichomallus _ * _ Rubus turquinensis _

* SUBGENUS _MALACHOBATUS_

* _ Rubus acuminatus _ * _ Rubus alceifolius _ * _ Rubus assamensis _ * _ Rubus bambusarum _ * _ Rubus buergeri _ * _ Rubus chroosepalus _ * _ Rubus chrysophyllus _ * _ Rubus elongatus _ * _ Rubus fairholmianus _ * _ Rubus flagelliflorus _ * _ Rubus fockei _ * _ Rubus formosensis _ * _ Rubus gardnerianus _ * _ Rubus glomeratus _ * _ Rubus henryi _ * _ Rubus hunanensis _ * _ Rubus ichangensis _ * _ Rubus irenaeus _ * _ Rubus kawakamii _ * _ Rubus lambertianus _ * _ Rubus lineatus _ * _ Rubus moluccanus _ * _ Rubus multibracteatus _ * _ Rubus paniculatus _ * _ Rubus parkeri _ * _ Rubus pseudosieboldii _ * _ Rubus pyrifolius _ * _ Rubus rolfei _ * _ Rubus rugosus _ * _ Rubus setchuenensis _ * _ Rubus sieboldii _ * _ Rubus splendidissimus _ * _ Rubus swinhoei _ * _ Rubus tephrodes _ * _ Rubus tiliaceus _ * _ Rubus wardii _ * _ Rubus xanthoneurus _

* SUBGENUS _MICRANTHOBATUS _

* _ Rubus australis _ * _ Rubus cissoides _ * _ Rubus moorei _ * _ Rubus nebulosus _ * _ Rubus parvus _ * _ Rubus schmidelioides _ * _ Rubus squarrosus _

* SUBGENUS _OROBATUS_

* _ Rubus loxensis _

* SUBGENUS _RUBUS_ (formerly known as subgenus _Eubatus_)

* SECTIONS

* Sect. _Allegheniensis_

* _ Rubus allegheniensis _ * _ Rubus alumnus _ * _ Rubus pennus _

* Sect. _Arguti_

* _ Rubus abactus _ * _ Rubus andrewsianus _ * _ Rubus argutus _ * _ Rubus frondosus _ * _ Rubus orarius _ * _ Rubus ostryifolius _ * _ Rubus pensilvanicus _ * _ Rubus recurvans _

* Sect. _Caesii_

* _ Rubus caesius _

* Sect. _Canadenses_

* _ Rubus canadensis _ * _ Rubus kennedyanus _

* Sect. _Corylifolii_

* _ Rubus adenoleucus _ * _ Rubus aureolus _ * _ Rubus babingtonianus _ * _ Rubus britannicus _ * _ Rubus camptostachys _ * _ Rubus conjungens _ * _ Rubus cyclomorphus _ * _ Rubus dissimulans _ * _ Rubus dumetorum _ * _ Rubus eluxatus _ * _ Rubus fabrimontanus _ * _ Rubus fioniae _ * _ Rubus gothicus _ * _ Rubus lamprocaulos _ * _ Rubus mortensenii _ * _ Rubus nemorosus _ * _ Rubus seebergensis _ * _ Rubus tuberculatus _ * _ Rubus wahlbergii _

* Sect. _Cuneifolii_

* _ Rubus cuneifolius _

* Sect. _Flagellares_

* _ Rubus arundelanus _ * _ Rubus biformispinus _ * _ Rubus deamii _ * _ Rubus enslenii _ * _ Rubus flagellaris _

* Sect. _Hispidi_

* _ Rubus hispidus _

* Sect. _Rubus_ (also known as _ Rubus fruticosus _ agg.)

* _ Rubus acheruntinus _ * _ Rubus adornatus _ * _ Rubus adspersus _ * _ Rubus ahenifolius _ * _ Rubus alterniflorus _ * _ Rubus ammobius _ * _ Rubus amplificatus _ * _ Rubus anglocandicans _ * _ Rubus angustifrons _ * _ Rubus armeniacus _ (syn. _R. discolor_) * _ Rubus arrhenii _ * _ Rubus atrichantherus _ * _ Rubus axillaris _ * _ Rubus bakerianus _ * _ Rubus bavaricus _ * _ Rubus bayeri _ * _ Rubus bertramii _ * _ Rubus bifrons _ * _ Rubus bloxamianus _ * _ Rubus bloxamii _ * _ Rubus bollei _ * _ Rubus boraeanus _ * _ Rubus braeuckeri _ * _ Rubus bregutiensis _ * _ Rubus calvatus _ * _ Rubus canescens _ * _ Rubus cardiophyllus _ * _ Rubus caucasicus _ * _ Rubus chlorocladus _ * _ Rubus chlorothyrsos _ * _ Rubus chrysoxylon _ * _ Rubus cimbricus _ * _ Rubus cissburiensis _ * _ Rubus clusii _ * _ Rubus colemannii _ * _ Rubus concolor _ * _ Rubus conothyrsoides _ * _ Rubus cordifolius _ * _ Rubus cyri _ * _ Rubus dasyphyllus _ * _ Rubus divaricatus _ * _ Rubus diversus _ * _ Rubus drejeri _ * _ Rubus dumnoniensis _ * _ Rubus echinatoides _ * _ Rubus echinatus _ * _ Rubus egregius _ * _ Rubus eianus _ * _ Rubus ergii _ * _ Rubus errabundus _ * _ Rubus erythrops _ * _ Rubus fissus _ * _ Rubus foliosus _ * _ Rubus formidabilis _ * _ Rubus furvicolor _ * _ Rubus fuscoater _ * _ Rubus fuscus _ * _ Rubus gelertii _ * _ Rubus georgicus _ * _ Rubus glandithyrsos _ * _ Rubus glanduliger _ * _ Rubus glandulosus _ * _ Rubus godronii _ * _ Rubus grabowskii _ * _ Rubus gratus _ * _ Rubus gremlii _ * _ Rubus hartmanii _ * _ Rubus hirtus _ * _ Rubus hylophilus _ * _ Rubus ieri _ * _ Rubus inermis _ * _ Rubus infestus _ * _ Rubus insularis _ * _ Rubus laciniatus _ * _ Rubus lamprophyllus _ * _ Rubus lespinassei _ * _ Rubus leucostachys _ * _ Rubus linkianus _ * _ Rubus macrophyllus _ * _ Rubus micans _ * _ Rubus miszczenkoi _ * _ Rubus montanus _ * _ Rubus moschus _ * _ Rubus mucronulatus _ * _ Rubus mulleri _ * _ Rubus nessensis _ * _ Rubus nitidioides _ * _ Rubus pedatifolius _ * _ Rubus pedemontanus _ * _ Rubus piceetorum _ * _ Rubus plicatus _ * _ Rubus polyanthemus _ * _ Rubus praecox _ * _ Rubus promachonicus _ * _ Rubus pyramidalis _ * _ Rubus radula _ * _ Rubus rhamnifolius _ * _ Rubus rhombifolius _ * _ Rubus rosaceus _ * _ Rubus rubritinctus _ * _ Rubus rudis _ * _ Rubus sanctus _ * _ Rubus scheutzii _ * _ Rubus schlechtendalii _ * _ Rubus schleicheri _ * _ Rubus senticosus _ * _ Rubus separinus _ * _ Rubus septentrionalis _ * _ Rubus slesvicensis _ * _ Rubus sprengelii _ * _ Rubus sulcatus _ * _ Rubus thyrsiflorus _ * _ Rubus ulmifolius _ * _ Rubus vestitus _ * _ Rubus vigorosus _ * _ Rubus vulgaris _

* Sect. _Setosi_

* _ Rubus glandicaulis _ * _ Rubus missouricus _ * _ Rubus notatus _ * _ Rubus semisetosus _ * _ Rubus setosus _ * _ Rubus stipulatus _ * _ Rubus vermontanus _

* Sect. _Ursini_

* _Rubus_ × _loganobaccus_ * _ Rubus ursinus _

* Sect. _Verotriviales_

* _ Rubus lucidus _ * _ Rubus riograndis _ * _ Rubus trivialis _ (Southern dewberry)

FOSSIL RECORD

Fossil seeds from the early Miocene of _ Rubus sp._ have been found in the Czech part of the Zittau Basin.

SEE ALSO

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to RUBUS _.

_ Wikispecies has information related to: RUBUS _

List of Lepidoptera that feed on _Rubus_

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "_Rubus_ L.". _Germplasm Resources Information Network_. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-06-27. * ^ "_Rubus_ L.". _TROPICOS_. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-06-27. * ^ Flora of North America, _Rubus_ Linnaeus, 1753; Bramble * ^ Brouillet, L. (2015), " Rosaceae Jussieu (subfam. Rosoideae) tribe Rubeae Dumortier, Anal. Fam. Pl. 39. 1829", in L. Brouillet; K. Gandhi; C.L. Howard; H. Jeude; R.W. Kiger; J.B. Phipps; A.C. Pryor; H.H. Schmidt; J.L. Strother; J.L. Zarucchi, _Flora of North America North of Mexico_, Volume 9: Magnoliophyta: Picramniaceae to Rosaceae, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 27–28, ISBN 978-0-19-534029-7 * ^ Klein, Carol (2009). _Grow your own fruit_. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845334345 . * ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). _CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names_. IV R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2345. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3 .

* ^ National Collection of _Rubus_ Species, Houghton, England, United Kingdom * ^ " Plant Heritage - National Collections Scheme, UK Garden Plants". _nccpg.com_. Retrieved 20 January 2015. * ^ Ardle, John (July 2013). "Hybris vigour". _The Garden_. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Lawrence A. Alice & Christopher S. Campbell (1999). "Phylogeny of Rubus (rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences". _American Journal of Botany_. Botanical Society of America. 86 (1): 81–97. JSTOR 2656957 . PMID 21680348 . doi :10.2307/2656957 . * ^ Acta Palaeobotanica - 43(1): 9-49, January 2003 - Early Miocene carpological material from the Czech part of the Zittau Basin - Vasilis Teodoridis

EXTERNAL LINKS

* _Rubus_ at the Western Kentucky University

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