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Romanize
Romanization
Romanization
(also spelled romanisation: see spelling differences), in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and transcription, for representing the spoken word, and combinations of both
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Romanization (other)
Romanization
Romanization
is the representation in the Latin alphabet of a language normally written in another writing system. Romanization
Romanization
may also refer to: Romanization
Romanization
(cultural), the expansion of Roman culture, law, and language Latinisation of names Latinisation (USSR), the Latinization of languages inside the former USSR Romanization
Romanization
(religious), the practice of modifying other rites of the Catholic Church to more resemble the Latin (Roman) rite
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Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
The Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft
(German: [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈmɔʁɡənˌlɛndɪʃə ɡəˈzɛlʃaft], German Oriental Society), abbreviated DMG, is a scholarly organization dedicated to Oriental studies, that is, to the study of the languages and cultures of the Near East
Near East
and the Far East, the broader Orient, Asia, Oceania, and Africa. The DMG was established on 2 October 1845 in Leipzig
Leipzig
by leading Oriental scholars from Germany, as well as members of other Orientalist societies such as the Asiatic Societies in Paris
Paris
(the Société Asiatique), London
London
(the Royal Asiatic Society), and Calcutta (the Asiatic Society)
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International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet
Alphabet
(IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet
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Written Language
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language
Written language
is an invention in that it must be taught to children, who will pick up spoken language (oral or sign) by exposure even if they are not specifically taught. A written language exists only as a complement to a specific spoken language, and no natural language is purely written.Contents1 Compared to spoken language 2 See also 3 Further reading 4 External linksCompared to spoken language[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Written languages change more slowly than corresponding spoken languages. When at least one register of a language is strongly divergent from spoken language, the resulting situation is called diglossia
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Spoken Language
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language. Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An oral language or vocal language is a language produced with the vocal tract, as opposed to a sign language, which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs.[1][2][3] In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument
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Jujutsu
Jujutsu
Jujutsu
(/dʒuːˈdʒuːtsuː/ joo-JOOT-soo; Japanese: 柔術, jūjutsu  listen (help·info)), also known in the West as Ju-Jitsu or Jiu-Jitsu, is a Japanese martial art and a method of close combat for defeating an armed and armored opponent in which one uses either a short weapon or none.[1][2]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Etymology 3 History3.1 Origins 3.2 Development4 Description 5 Schools and derivations5.1
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Arabic Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCE Nabataean
Nabataean
2 c. BCE Arabic
Arabic
4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c
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Urdu
  Pakistan
Pakistan
(national and official)   India
India
(official as per the 8th Schedule of the Constitution and in the following states/union territories) Official:Jammu and Kashmir TelanganaSecondary Official:National Capital Territory of Delhi Bihar Uttar Pradesh Jharkhand West BengalRecognised minority language in United Arab Emirates[6]  Guyana[7] (as Guyanese Hindustani)  Suriname[7] (as Sarnami Hindoestani)  Trinidad and Tobago[7] (as Trinidadian Hindustani)Language codesISO 639-1 urISO 639-2 urdISO 639-3 urdGlottolog urdu1245[8]Linguasphere 59-AAF-q  Areas where Urdu
Urdu
is either official or co-official   Areas where Urdu
Urdu
is neither official nor co-officialThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols
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Pashto Language
Pashto
Pashto
(/ˈpʌʃtoʊ/,[9][10][11] rarely /ˈpæʃtoʊ/,[Note 1] Pashto: پښتو‎ Pax̌tō [ˈpəʂt̪oː]), sometimes spelled Pukhto,[Note 2] is the language of the Pashtuns
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Languages Of Africa
The languages of Africa
Africa
are divided into six major language families: Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
are spread throughout Western Asia, North Africa, the
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Languages Of Asia
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates. The major language families spoken on the continent include Altaic, Austroasiatic, Austronesian, Caucasian, Dravidian, Indo-European, Semitic, Siberian, Sino-Tibetan and Tai-Kadai
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Dictionary Of Modern Written Arabic
The Dictionary
Dictionary
of Modern Written Arabic is an Arabic-English dictionary compiled by Hans Wehr
Hans Wehr
and edited by J Milton Cowan. First published in 1961 by Otto Harrassowitz in Wiesbaden, Germany, it was an enlarged and revised English version of Wehr's German Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart ("Arabic dictionary for the contemporary written language") (1952) and its Supplement (1959)
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Latinisation (other)
Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin styleList of Latinised namesthe representation of different writing systems in the Roman alphabet, also called romanization or romanisation Latinisation (USSR), the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing systems for numerous languages with the Latin alphabet
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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