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Romance Languages
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan
Kurgan
* Kurgan
Kurgan
culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Sto
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Linguasphere Observatory
The LINGUASPHERE OBSERVATORY (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network. It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor , a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
Senegal
. Its founding director is David Dalby, former director of the International African Institute and emeritus reader in the University of London, and its first research secretary was Philippe Blanchet, a Provençal-language poet currently serving as Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Rennes
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ISO 639-5
ISO 639-5:2008 "Codes for the representation of names of languages—Part 5: Alpha-3 code for language families and groups" is a highly incomplete international standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO). It was developed by ISO Technical Committee 37, Subcommittee 2, and first published on May 15, 2008. It is part of the ISO 639 series of standards. CONTENTS * 1 Collective codes * 2 Relationship to other parts of ISO 639 * 3 History * 4 Deficiencies * 5 References * 6 External links COLLECTIVE CODES ISO 639-5 defines alpha-3 (3-letter) codes, called "collective codes," that identify language families and groups. As of August 29, 2008 update to ISO 639-5, the standard defined 114 collective codes. The United States Library of Congress maintains the list of Alpha-3 codes that comprise ISO 639-5
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Paeonian Language
The PAEONIAN LANGUAGE is the poorly attested language of the ancient Paeonians , whose kingdom once stretched north of Macedon
Macedon
into Dardania and in earlier times into southwestern Thrace
Thrace
. Several Paeonian words are known from classical sources: * monapos, monaipos, the European bison
European bison
* tilôn, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias * paprax, a species of fish once found in Lake Prasias. Paprakas, masc. acc. pl.A number of anthroponyms (some known only from Paeonian coinage) are attested: Agis (Άγις), Patraos (Πατράος), Lycpeios (Λύκπειος), Audoleon (Αυδολέων), Eupolemos (Εὐπόλεμος), Ariston (Αρίστων), etc
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Glottolog
GLOTTOLOG is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Germany. There are two components: Languoid catalogue, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and Langdoc, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue Ethnologue in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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Mysian Language
The MYSIAN LANGUAGE was spoken by Mysians inhabiting Mysia
Mysia
in north-west Anatolia
Anatolia
. Little is known about the Mysian language. Strabo noted that their language was, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and Phrygian languages . As such, the Mysian language could be a language of the Anatolian group . However, a passage in Athenaeus
Athenaeus
suggests that the Mysian language was akin to the barely attested Paeonian language of Paeonia , north of Macedon
Macedon
. A short inscription that could be in Mysian and which dates from between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC was found in Üyücek village in the Tavşanlı district of Kütahya province, and seems to include Indo-European words
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Indo-Iranian Languages
The INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES, or INDO-IRANIC LANGUAGES, constitute the largest and easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family . It has more than 1 billion speakers, stretching from the Caucasus
Caucasus
(Ossetian ) and the Balkans
Balkans
(Romani/Gypsy ) eastward to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
(Sarikoli ) and Assam
Assam
(Assamese ), and south to the Maldives (Maldivian ). The common ancestor of all of the languages in this family is called Proto-Indo-Iranian —also known as Common Aryan—which was spoken in approximately the late 3rd millennium BC. The three branches of the modern Indo- Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan , Iranian , and Nuristani . Additionally, sometimes a fourth independent branch, Dardic , is posited, but recent scholarship in general places Dardic languages as archaic members of the Indo-Aryan branch
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Illyrian Languages
The ILLYRIAN /ɪˈlɪriən/ languages are a group of Indo-European languages that were spoken in the western part of the Balkans
Balkans
in former times by groups identified as Illyrians
Illyrians
: Ardiaei , Delmatae , Pannonii , Autariates , Taulanti (see list of ancient tribes in Illyria
Illyria
). Some sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Illyrian and other language features are deduced from what remains of the Illyrian languages, but because there are no examples of ancient Illyrian literature surviving (aside from the Messapian writings if they can be considered Illyrian), it is difficult to clarify its place within the Indo-European language family
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Liburnian Language
The LIBURNIAN LANGUAGE is an extinct language which was spoken by the ancient Liburnians
Liburnians
, who occupied Liburnia in classical times. Classification of the Liburnian language
Liburnian language
is not clearly established; it is reckoned as an Indo-European language with significant proportion of the Pre-Indo-European elements from wider area of the ancient Mediterranean . CONTENTS * 1 Classification * 2 Onomastics * 2.1 Anthroponyms
Anthroponyms
* 2.2 Theonyms * 2.3 Toponyms * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Sources CLASSIFICATIONNo writings in Liburnian are known. The only Liburnian linguistic remains are Liburnian toponyms and some family and personal names in Liburnia, in Latinized form from the 1st century AD
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Messapian Language
MESSAPIAN (/mɛˈsæpiən, mə-, -ˈseɪ-/ ; also known as MESSAPIC) is an extinct Indo-European language of southeastern Italy
Italy
, once spoken in the region of Apulia . It was spoken by the three Iapygian tribes of the region: the Messapians , the Peucetians and the Daunians . The language has been preserved in about 300 inscriptions dating from the 6th to the 1st century BCE. Messapian may have been related to the Illyrian language
Illyrian language
. Messapian became extinct after the Roman Republic conquered the region of Apulia and assimilated the inhabitants. CONTENTS * 1 Inscriptions * 2 Messapian words * 3 Bibliography * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links INSCRIPTIONSFew, if any, Messapic inscriptions have been definitely deciphered
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Proto-Indo-European Phonology
The phonology of the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) has been reconstructed by linguists , based on the similarities and differences among current and extinct Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. Because PIE was not written, linguists must rely on the evidence of its earliest attested descendants, such as Hittite , Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
, and Latin
Latin
, to reconstruct its phonology. The reconstruction of abstract units of PIE phonological systems (i.e. segments, or phonemes in traditional phonology) is mostly uncontroversial, although areas of dispute remain. Their phonetic interpretation is harder to establish; this pertains especially to the vowels, the so-called laryngeals , and the voiced stops
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Indo-European Sound Laws
As the Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) broke up, its sound system diverged as well, according to various sound laws in the daughter Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. Especially notable is the palatalization that produced the satem languages , along with the associated ruki sound law . Other notable changes are Grimm\'s law and Verner\'s law in Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
; an independent change similar to Grimm's law in Armenian ; loss of prevocalic *p- in Proto-Celtic ; Brugmann\'s law in Proto-Indo-Iranian ; Winter\'s law and Hirt\'s law in Balto-Slavic ; and merging of voiced and breathy-voiced stops, and /a/ and /o/, in various "northern" languages
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos . It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries ), nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition
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Graeco-Aryan
GRAECO-ARYAN, or GRAECO-ARMENO-ARYAN, is a hypothetical clade within the Indo-European family that would be the ancestor of Greek , Armenian , and the Indo-Iranian languages
Indo-Iranian languages
. Graeco-Aryan
Graeco-Aryan
unity would have become divided into Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian by the mid-3rd millennium BC. Conceivably, Proto-Armenian would have been between Proto-Greek and Proto-Indo-Iranian , which would be consistent with the fact that Armenian shares some features only with Indo-Iranian (the satem change) but others only with Greek (s > h)
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