MERRIAM-WEBSTER, INCORPORATED, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially known for its dictionaries .
In 1831, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G it sold poorly, with only 2,500 copies putting him in debt. However, in 1840, he published the second edition in two volumes with much greater success.
Author and poet Nathan W. Austin explores the intersection of lexicographical and poetic practices in American literature, and attempts to map out a "lexical poetics" using Webster's dictionaries as a base. He shows ways that American poetry inherited Webster's ideas and draws on his lexicography to develop the language. Austin explicates key definitions from the _Compendious_ (1806) and _American_ (1828) dictionaries, and expresses various concerns, including the politics of American English , the question of national identity and culture in the early moments of American independence, and the poetics of citation and definition.
MERRIAM AS PUBLISHER
Further information: Webster\'s Dictionary
In 1843, after Webster's death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary. They published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the main text but merely added new sections, and a second update with illustrations in 1859. In 1864, Merriam published a greatly expanded edition, which was the first version to change Webster's text, largely overhauling his work yet retaining many of his definitions and the title "_An American Dictionary_". This began a series of revisions that were described as being "unabridged" in content. In 1884 it contained 118,000 words, "3000 more than any other English dictionary".
With the edition of 1890, the dictionary was retitled _Webster's International_. The vocabulary was vastly expanded in _Webster's New International_ editions of 1909 and 1934, totaling over half a million words, with the 1934 edition retrospectively called _Webster's Second International_ or simply "The Second Edition" of the New International. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition.
The _Collegiate Dictionary_ was introduced in 1898 and the series is now in its eleventh edition. Following the publication of _Webster's International_ in 1890, two _Collegiate_ editions were issued as abridgments of each of their _Unabridged_ editions. With the ninth edition (_Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary_ (WNNCD), published in 1983), the _Collegiate_ adopted changes which distinguish it as a separate entity rather than merely an abridgment of the _Third New International_ (the main text of which has remained virtually unrevised since 1961). Some proper names were returned to the word list, including names of Knights of the Round Table . The most notable change was the inclusion of the date of the first known citation of each word, to document its entry into the English language. The eleventh edition (published in 2003) includes more than 225,000 definitions, and more than 165,000 entries. A CD-ROM of the text is sometimes included. This dictionary is preferred as a source "for general matters of spelling" by the influential _The Chicago Manual of Style _, which is followed by many book publishers and magazines in the United States. The _Chicago Manual_ states that it "normally opts for" the first spelling listed.
Merriam overhauled the dictionary again with the 1961 _Webster's Third New International_ under the direction of Philip B. Gove , making changes that sparked public controversy. Many of these changes were in formatting, omitting needless punctuation, or avoiding complete sentences when a phrase was sufficient. Others, more controversial, signaled a shift from linguistic prescriptivism and towards describing American English as it was used at that time.
Since the 1940s, the company has added many specialized dictionaries, language aides, and other references to its repertoire.
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* ^ " Merriam-Webster Dictionary". _Encyclopædia Britannica Online_. 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015. * ^ "An American Dictionary of the English Language". _ Encyclopædia Britannica Online_. 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015. * ^ Nathan W. Austin, "Lost in the Maze of Words: Reading and Re-reading Noah Webster's Dictionaries," _Dissertation Abstracts International_, 2005, Vol. 65 Issue 12, p. 4561 * ^ "Webster\'s Unabridged". _The Week : a Canadian journal of politics, literature, science and arts_. 1 (10): 160. 11 Feb 1884. Retrieved 26 April 2013. * ^ _ The Chicago Manual of Style _, 15th edition, New York and London: University of Chicago Press, 2003, Chapter 7: "Spelling, Distinctive Treatment of Words, and Compounds", Section 7.1 "Introduction", p. 278. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Fatsis, Stefan (12 Jan 2015). "The Definition of a Dictionary". _Slate_. ISSN 1091-2339 . Retrieved 2015-07-12. * ^ Merriam-Webster, merriam-webster.com, _Timeline: Merriam-Webster Milestones_, retrieved March 20, 2009 * ^ Trusca, Sorin (February 16, 2007). " AskMeNow and Merriam-Webster Launch Mobile Dictionary". Softpedia . Retrieved March 14, 2014.