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Covenanters
Covenanters were members of a 17th-century Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and the primacy of its leaders in religious affairs. The name derived from Covenant, a biblical term for a bond or agreement with God. The origins of the movement lay in disputes with James VI & I, and his son Charles I of England over church structure and doctrine. In 1638, thousands of Scots signed the National Covenant, pledging to resist changes imposed by Charles on the kirk; following victory in the 1639 and 1640 Bishops' Wars, the Covenanters took control of Scotland
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Daguerreotype
The daguerreotype (/dəˈɡɛr(i)ətp, -r(i)-/;[1][2][3] French: daguerréotype) process, or daguerreotype, was the first publicly available photographic process, widely used during the 1840s and 1850s. Invented by Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre and introduced worldwide in 1839,[4][5][6] the daguerreotype was almost completely superseded by 1860 with new, less expensive processes yielding more readily viewable images
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The Pirate (novel)
The Pirate (published at the end of 1821 with the date 1822) is one of the Waverley novels by Sir Walter Scott, based roughly on the life of John Gow who features as Captain Cleveland.[1] The setting is the southern tip of the main island of Shetland (which Scott visited in 1814), towards the end of the 17th century, with 1689 as the likely date of the main incidents.[2] On 21 August 1820 John Ballantyne offered Archibald Constable a new novel to follow Kenilworth (which was to be published in January the following year). No title or subject was specified at that stage, and it was not until April 1821 that Ballantyne noted that what he calls the 'Buccaneer' had been begun
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Calvinist

Alongside the liberal development of the Netherlands came the rise of modern democracy in England and North America. In the Middle Ages, state and church had been closely connected. Martin Luther's doctrine of the two kingdoms separated state and church in principle.[159] His doctrine of the priesthood of all believers raised the laity to the same level as the clergy.[160] Going one step further, Calvin included elected laymen (church elders, presbyters) in his concept of church government. The Huguenots added democracy in England and North America. In the Middle Ages, state and church had been closely connected
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The Portfolio
The Portfolio was a British monthly art magazine published in London from 1870 to 1893.[1] It was founded by Philip Gilbert Hamerton and promoted contemporary printmaking, especially etching, and was important in the British Etching Revival. Early contributors included Joseph Beavington Atkinson (1822–1886), Francis Turner Palgrave (1824–1897) and Sidney Colvin (1845–1927). The mid-nineteenth century in France and Britain saw a rise in the interest in etching. Hamerton had spent the 1860s in France with his French wife, Eugénie. The impetus for the launch of The Portfolio came in the wake of the foundation in Paris of the Société des aquafortistes in 1862, and to a lesser extent from the longer established Etching Club from 1838. Etchings by many French etchers such as Paul Rajon (1843–1888) and Benjamin Damman (1835–1921) were a marked feature of the publication
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