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RS232
In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232[1] is a standard introduced in 1960[2] for serial communication transmission of data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a DTE (data terminal equipment) such as a computer terminal, and a DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment or data communication equipment), such as a modem. The RS-232
RS-232
standard had been commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors
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Electromagnetic Interference
Electromagnetic interference
Electromagnetic interference
(EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.[1] The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data.[2] Both man-made and natural sources generate changing electrical currents and voltages that can cause EMI: ignition systems, cellular network of mobile phones, lightning, solar flares, and auroras (Northern/Southern Lights)
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Programmable Logic Controller
A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis. They were first developed in the automobile industry to provide flexible, ruggedised and easily programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays, timers and sequencers. Since then they have been widely adopted as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments
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Capacitance
Capacitance
Capacitance
is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. There are two closely related notions of capacitance: self capacitance and mutual capacitance. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits self capacitance. A material with a large self capacitance holds more electric charge at a given voltage than one with low capacitance. The notion of mutual capacitance is particularly important for understanding the operations of the capacitor, one of the three elementary linear electronic components (along with resistors and inductors). The capacitance is a function only of the geometry of the design (e.g. area of the plates and the distance between them) and the permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates of the capacitor
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Character Encoding
In computing character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.[1] Depending on the abstraction level and context, corresponding code points and the resulting code space may be regarded as bit patterns, octets, natural numbers, electrical pulses, etc. A character encoding is used in computation, data storage, and transmission of textual data. "Character set", "character map", "codeset" and "code page" are related, but not identical, terms. Early character codes associated with the optical or electrical telegraph could only represent a subset of the characters used in written languages, sometimes restricted to upper case letters, numerals and some punctuation only. The low cost of digital representation of data in modern computer systems allows more elaborate character codes (such as Unicode) which represent most of the characters used in many written languages
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ASCII
ASCII
ASCII
(/ˈæski/ ( listen) ASS-kee),[1]:6 abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication
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EBCDIC
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code[1] (EBCDIC[1]; /ˈɛbsɪdɪk/) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="500";>
IBM
midrange computer operating systems
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Bit Rate
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.[1] The bit rate is quantified using the bits per second unit (symbol: "bit/s"), often in conjunction with an SI prefix
SI prefix
such as "kilo" (1 kbit/s = 1,000 bit/s), "mega" (1  Mbit/s = 1,000 kbit/s), "giga" (1 
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Teletypewriter
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. The machines were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could also be used to create punched tape for data storage (either from typed input or from data received from a remote source) and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission. Teleprinters could use a variety of different communication media. These included a simple pair of wires; dedicated non-switched telephone circuits (leased lines); switched networks that operated similarly to the public telephone network (telex); and radio and microwave links (telex-on-radio, or TOR)
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Electronic Terminal
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.[1] The teletype was an example of an early day hardcopy terminal,[2], and predated the use of a computer screen by decades.[3] Early terminals were inexpensive devices but very slow compared to punched cards or paper tape for input, but as the technology improved and video displays were introduced, terminals pushed these older forms of interaction from the industry. A related development was timesharing systems, which evolved in parallel and made up for any inefficiencies of the user's typing ability with the ability to support multiple users on the same machine, each at their own terminal. The function of a terminal is confined to display and input of data; a device with significant local programmable data processing capability may be called a "smart terminal" or fat client
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POS Terminal
The point of sale (POS) or point of purchase (POP) is the time and place where a retail transaction is completed. At the point of sale, the merchant calculates the amount owed by the customer, indicates that amount, may prepare an invoice for the customer (which may be a cash register printout), and indicates the options for the customer to make payment. It is also the point at which a customer makes a payment to the merchant in exchange for goods or after provision of a service. After receiving payment, the merchant may issue a receipt for the transaction, which is usually printed but is increasingly being dispensed with or sent electronically.[1][2][3] To calculate the amount owed by a customer, the merchant may use various devices such as weighing scales, barcode scanners, and cash registers
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Breakout Box
A breakout box is a critical piece of electrical test equipment used to support integration testing, expedite maintenance, and streamline the troubleshooting process at the system, subsystem, and component level by simplifying the access to test signals.[1] Breakout boxes span a wide spectrum of functionality: (i) some serve to break out every signal connection coming into a unit while others breakout only specific signals commonly monitored for either testing or troubleshooting purposes; and some are used on electrical connectors and others are used on optical fiber connectors. Overview[edit] A breakout box serves as a troubleshooting tool to determine the wiring of an electrical connector interface on a networking device or computer
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System Console
The system console, computer console, root console, operator's console, or simply console is the text entry and display device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS
BIOS
or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger. It is a physical device consisting of a keyboard and a screen, and traditionally is a text terminal, but may also be a graphical terminal. System consoles are generalized to computer terminals, which are abstracted respectively by virtual consoles and terminal emulators
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V24 (other)
V24 m ay refer to: V24 (boat), an offshore powerboat V24 engine V.24, a standard similar to RS-232 Mil V-24, designation for early Mil Mi-24 mockup/prototype Fokker V.24, a German World War I fighter aircraft prototypeThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title formed as a letter-number combination. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Telecommunications Industry Association
The Telecommunications Industry Association
Telecommunications Industry Association
(TIA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products, and currently represents nearly 400 companies
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CCITT
The ITU
ITU
Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Standardization
Standardization
Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications. The standardization efforts of ITU
ITU
commenced in 1865 with the formation of the International Telegraph Union (ITU). ITU
ITU
became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947
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