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Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code[1] (EBCDIC[1]; /ˈɛbsɪdɪk/) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
midrange computer operating systems. It descended from the code used with punched cards and the corresponding six bit binary-coded decimal code used with most of IBM's computer peripherals of the late 1950s and early 1960s.[2] It is supported by various non- " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
platforms, such as Fujitsu-Siemens' BS2000/OSD, OS-IV, MSP, and MSP-EX, the SDS Sigma series, " onclick="link_click('Unisys') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Unisys " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Unisys " height="200 " width="714.28571428571";>
Unisys
VS/9, Burroughs MCP and ICL VME.

Contents

1 History 2 Compatibility with ASCII 3 " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Code_page " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> Code page layout 4 DKOI 5 Criticism and humor 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit]

" onclick="link_click('Punched card') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Punched_card " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Punched card " height="200 " width="453.60824742268";>
Punched card
with the 1964 E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC character set. Contrast at top enhanced to show the printed characters.

E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC was devised in 1963 and 1964 by " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
and was announced with the release of the " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
System/360 line of mainframe computers. It is an eight-bit character encoding, developed separately from the seven-bit " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
encoding scheme. It was created to extend the existing Binary-Coded Decimal (BCD) Interchange Code, or BCDIC, which itself was devised as an efficient means of encoding the two zone and number punches on punched cards into six bits. The distinct encoding of 's' and 'S' (using position 2 instead of 1) was maintained from punched cards where it was desirable not to have hole punches too close to each other to ensure the integrity of the physical card. While " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
was a chief proponent of the " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
standardization committee,[3] the company did not have time to prepare ASCII peripherals (such as card punch machines) to ship with its System/360 computers, so the company settled on EBCDIC.[4] The System/360 became wildly successful, together with clones such as RCA Spectra 70, ICL System 4, and Fujitsu FACOM, thus so did EBCDIC. All " onclick="link_click('IBM mainframe') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM_mainframe " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM mainframe " height="200 " width="252.87356321839";>
IBM mainframe
and midrange peripherals and operating systems use E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC as their inherent encoding[5] (with toleration for ASCII, for example, " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ISPF " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> ISPF in z/OS can browse and edit both E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC and ASCII encoded files). Software and many hardware peripherals can translate to and from encodings, and modern mainframes (such as " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
zSeries) include processor instructions, at the hardware level, to accelerate translation between character sets. There is an EBCDIC-oriented " onclick="link_click('Unicode Transformation Format') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Unicode_Transformation_Format " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Unicode Transformation Format " height="200 " width="185.18518518519";>
Unicode Transformation Format
called UTF-E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC proposed by the " onclick="link_click('Unicode') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Unicode " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Unicode " height="200 " width="200";>
Unicode
consortium, designed to allow easy updating of E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC software to handle Unicode, but not intended to be used in open interchange environments. Even on systems with extensive E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC support, it has not been popular. For example, z/OS supports " onclick="link_click('Unicode') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Unicode " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Unicode " height="200 " width="200";>
Unicode
(preferring " onclick="link_click('UTF-16') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=UTF-16 " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> UTF-16 " height="200 " width="200";>
UTF-16
specifically), but z/OS only has limited support for UTF-EBCDIC. " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
AIX running on the " onclick="link_click('RS/6000') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=RS%2F6000 " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> RS/6000 " height="200 " width="266.66666666667";>
RS/6000
and its descendants including the IBM Power Systems, Linux running on z Systems, and operating systems running on the " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
PC and its descendants use ASCII, as did AIX/370 and " onclick="link_click('AIX/390') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=AIX%2F390 " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> AIX/390 " height="200 " width="266.66666666667";>
AIX/390
running on " onclick="link_click('System/370') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=System%2F370 " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> System/370 " height="200 " width="319.14893617021";>
System/370
and " onclick="link_click('System/390') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=System%2F390 " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> System/390 " height="200 " width="500";>
System/390
mainframes. Compatibility with ASCII[edit] The fact that all the code points were different was less of a problem for inter-operating with " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
than the fact that sorting E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC put lowercase letters before uppercase letters and letters before numbers, exactly the opposite of ASCII. Software portability and data exchange are hindered by EBCDIC's lack of codes for several symbols (such as the brace characters) commonly used in programming and in network communications. The gaps between letters made simple code that worked in " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
fail on EBCDIC. For example, "for (c='A';c<='Z';++c) " would set c to the 26 letters in the " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
alphabet, but 41 characters including a number of unassigned ones in EBCDIC. Fixing this required complicating the code with function calls which was greatly resisted by programmers. All " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
codes stored within an eight-bit byte had nonnegative values on systems such as the " onclick="link_click('PDP-11') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=PDP-11 " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> PDP-11 " height="200 " width="150.15015015015";>
PDP-11
that treated bytes as signed quantities. Software on those platforms often took advantage of that property, causing problems when it was ported to EBCDIC-based environments where many character codes had a 1 as the "sign " bit. By using all eight bits E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC may have encouraged the use of the eight-bit byte by IBM, while " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
was more likely to be adopted by systems with 36 bits (as five seven-bit " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
characters fit into one word). As eight-bit bytes became widespread, " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
systems sometimes used the "unused " bit for other purposes such as parity, thus making it more difficult to transition to larger character sets.[citation needed] " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Code_page " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> Code page layout[edit] Further information: E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC code pages The table below is based on CCSID 037, one of the code page variants of EBCDIC; it shows only the basic (English) E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC characters. Characters 00–3F and FF are controls, 40 is space, 41 is no-break space (RSP: "Required Space"), E1 is numeric space (NSP: "Numeric Space"), and CA is soft hyphen. Characters are shown with their equivalent " onclick="link_click('Unicode') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Unicode " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Unicode " height="200 " width="200";>
Unicode
codes. Unassigned codes are typically filled with international or region-specific characters in the various E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC code page variants, but the punctuation marks and other special characters, such as cent sign, are often moved around as well; only the letters and numbers and space have the same assignments in all E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC code pages. In each table cell below, the first row is an abbreviation for a control code or (for printable characters) the character itself; the second row is the " onclick="link_click('Unicode') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Unicode " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Unicode " height="200 " width="200";>
Unicode
code (blank for controls that don't exist in Unicode); and the third row is decimal value of the E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC code.

EBCDIC

_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F

  0_   NUL 0000 0 SOH 0001 1 STX 0002 2 ETX 0003 3 SEL

4 HT 0009 5 RNL

6 DEL 007F 7 GE

8 SPS

9 RPT

10 VT 000B 11 FF 000C 12 CR 000D 13 SO 000E 14 SI 000F 15

  1_   DLE 0010 16 DC1 0011 17 DC2 0012 18 DC3 0013 19 RES ENP

20 NL 0085 21 BS 0008 22 POC

23 CAN 0018 24 EM 0019 25 UBS

26 CU1

27 IFS 001C 28 IGS 001D 29 IRS 001E 30 IUS ITB 001F 31

  2_   DS

32 SOS

33 FS

34 WUS

35 BYP INP

36 LF 000A 37 ETB 0017 38 ESC 001B 39 SA

40 SFE

41 SM SW

42 CSP

43 MFA

44 ENQ 0005 45 ACK 0006 46 BEL 0007 47

  3_  

48

49 SYN 0016 50 IR

51 PP

52 TRN

53 NBS

54 EOT 0004 55 SBS

56 IT

57 RFF

58 CU3

59 DC4 0014 60 NAK 0015 61

62 SUB 001A 63

  4_   SP 0020 64 RSP 00A0 65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73 ¢ 00A2 74 . 002E 75 < 003C 76 ( 0028 77 + 002B 78 007C 79

  5_   & 0026 80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89 ! 0021 90 $ 0024 91 * 002A 92 ) 0029 93 ; 003B 94 ¬ 00AC 95

  6_   - 002D 96 / 002F 97

98

99

100

101

102

103

104

105 ¦ 00A6 106 , 002C 107 % 0025 108 _ 005F 109 > 003E 110 ? 003F 111

  7_  

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120 ` 0060 121 : 003A 122 # 0023 123 @ 0040 124 ' 0027 125 = 003D 126 " 0022 127

  8_  

128 a 0061 129 b 0062 130 c 0063 131 d 0064 132 e 0065 133 f 0066 134 g 0067 135 h 0068 136 i 0069 137

138

139

140

141

142 ± 00B1 143

  9_  

144 j 006A 145 k 006B 146 l 006C 147 m 006D 148 n 006E 149 o 006F 150 p 0070 151 q 0071 152 r 0072 153

154

155

156

157

158

159

  A_  

160 ~ 007E 161 s 0073 162 t 0074 163 u 0075 164 v 0076 165 w 0077 166 x 0078 167 y 0079 168 z 007A 169

170

171

172

173

174

175

  B_   ^ 005E 176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

184

185 [ 005B 186 ] 005D 187

188

189

190

191

  C_  

007B 192 A 0041 193 B 0042 194 C 0043 195 D 0044 196 E 0045 197 F 0046 198 G 0047 199 H 0048 200 I 0049 201 SHY 00AD 202

203

204

205

206

207

  D_  

007D 208 J 004A 209 K 004B 210 L 004C 211 M 004D 212 N 004E 213 O 004F 214 P 0050 215 Q 0051 216 R 0052 217

218

219

220

221

222

223

  E_  

005C 224 NSP 2007 225 S 0053 226 T 0054 227 U 0055 228 V 0056 229 W 0057 230 X 0058 231 Y 0059 232 Z 005A 233

234

235

236

237

238

239

  F_   0 0030 240 1 0031 241 2 0032 242 3 0033 243 4 0034 244 5 0035 245 6 0036 246 7 0037 247 8 0038 248 9 0039 249

250

251

252

253

254 EO

255

_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F

DKOI[edit] EBCDIC-based Cyrillic DKOI character sets:[6]

DKOI CS2 (defined in CSN 36 9103)[7] DKOI K1 (defined in CSN 36 9103, ST SEV 358-88)[7] DKOI K2 (defined in CSN 36 9103, ST SEV 358-88)[7] DKOI L2 (defined in CSN 36 9103)[7]

Criticism and humor[edit] Open-source software advocate and hacker Eric S. Raymond
Eric S. Raymond
writes in his Jargon " onclick="link_click('File') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=File " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> File " height="200 " width="277.77777777778";>
File
that E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC was almost universally loathed by early hackers and programmers. The Jargon " onclick="link_click('File') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=File " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> File " height="200 " width="277.77777777778";>
File
4.4.7 gives the following definition:[8]

EBCDIC: /eb´s@·dik/, /eb´see`dik/, /eb´k@·dik/, n. [abbreviation, Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code] An alleged character set used on " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
dinosaurs. It exists in at least six mutually incompatible versions, all featuring such delights as non-contiguous letter sequences and the absence of several " onclick="link_click('ASCII') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=ASCII " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> ASCII " height="200 " width="819.67213114754";>
ASCII
punctuation characters fairly important for modern computer languages (exactly which characters are absent varies according to which version of E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC you're looking at). " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
adapted E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC from punched card code in the early 1960s and promulgated it as a customer-control tactic (see connector conspiracy), spurning the already established ASCII standard. Today, " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
claims to be an open-systems company, but IBM's own description of the E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC variants and how to convert between them is still internally classified top-secret, burn-before-reading. Hackers blanch at the very name of E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC and consider it a manifestation of purest evil. — The Jargon file 4.4.7

E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC design was also the source of many jokes. One such joke went:

Professor: "So the American government went to " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
to come up with an encryption standard, and they came up with—" Student: "EBCDIC!"

References to the E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC character set are made in the classic Infocom adventure game series Zork. In the "Machine Room " in Zork
Zork
II, EBCDIC is used to imply an incomprehensible language:

This is a large room full of assorted heavy machinery, whirring noisily. The room smells of burned resistors. Along one wall are three buttons which are, respectively, round, triangular, and square. Naturally, above these buttons are instructions written in EBCDIC...

A similar description can be found in the "Maintenance Room " in Zork:

This is what appears to have been the maintenance room for Flood Control Dam #3, judging by the assortment of tool chests around the room. Apparently, this room has been ransacked recently, for most of the valuable equipment is gone. On the wall in front of you is a group of buttons, which are labelled in EBCDIC. However, they are of different colors: Blue, Yellow, Brown, and Red.

See also[edit]

List of E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC code pages with Latin-1 character set " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Code_page " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> Code page 037 (English, Portuguese) " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Code_page " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> Code page 285 (Ireland, United Kingdom) UTF-EBCDIC

References[edit]

^ a b Mackenzie, Charles E. (1980). Coded Character Sets, History and Development. The Systems Programming Series (1 ed.). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 0-201-14460-3. LCCN 77-90165. ISBN 978-0-201-14460-4. Retrieved 2016-05-22.  [1] ^ Bemer, Bob. "E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC and the P-Bit". Retrieved July 2, 2013.  ^ They had 4 staff on the final 21-member ASA X3.2 sub-committee ^ Bob Bemer. "E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC and the P-Bit". ...but their printers and punches were not ready to handle ASCII, and " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
just HAD to announce.  ^ IBMnt (2008). " " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
confirms the use of E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC in their mainframes as a default practice". Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2008-06-16.  ^ Kornai, Andras; Birnbaum, David J.; da Cruz, Frank; Davis, Bur; Fowler, George; Paine, Richard B.; Paperno, Slava; Simonsen, Keld J.; Thobe, Glenn E.; Vulis, Dimitri; van Wingen, Johan W. (1993-03-13). "CYRILLIC ENCODING FAQ Version 1.3". 1.3. Retrieved 2017-02-18.  ^ a b c d Petrlik, Lukas (1996-06-19). "The Czech and Slovak Character Encoding Mess Explained". cs-encodings-faq. 1.10. Archived from the original on 2016-06-21. Retrieved 2016-06-21.  ^ "EBCDIC". Jargon File. 

Further reading[edit]

E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC and the P- " onclick="link_click('Bit') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Bit " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Bit " height="200 " width="295.85798816568";>
Bit
(The Biggest " onclick="link_click('Computer') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Computer " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Computer " height="200 " width="276.54320987654";>
Computer
Goof Ever)

External links[edit]

Character Data Representation Architecture (CDRA) from " onclick="link_click('IBM') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=IBM " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> IBM " height="200 " width="208.5308056872";>
IBM
Contains IBM's official information on code pages and character sets.

" href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Code_page " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> Code page 37 " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Code_page " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> Code page 1047

F.0 Appendix F. Code Pages from AS/400 International Application Development V4R2 ICU Converter Explorer Contains more information about E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC derived from IBM's CDRA, including DBCS E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC (Double Byte Character Set EBCDIC) ICU Charset Mapping Tables Contains computer readable " onclick="link_click('Unicode') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=Unicode " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> Unicode " height="200 " width="200";>
Unicode
mapping tables for E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC and many other character sets E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC character list, including decimal and hex values, symbolic name, and character/function EBCDIC-code pages with Latin-1-charset (JavaScript) All E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC code pages and 3270 graphics escape codes

v t e

Character encodings

Early telecommunications

ASCII ISO/IEC 646 ISO/IEC 6937 T.61 BCDIC Baudot code Morse code

Telegraph code Wabun code

Special
Special
telegraphy codes

Non-Latin Chinese Cyrillic

Needle telegraph codes

ISO/IEC 8859

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16

Bibliographic use

ANSEL ISO 5426 / 5426-2 / 5427 / 5428 / 6438 / 6861 / 6862 / 10585 / 10586 / 10754 / 11822 MARC-8

National standards

ArmSCII BraSCII CNS 11643 ELOT 927 GOST 10859 GB 18030 HKSCS ISCII JIS X 0201 JIS X 0208 JIS X 0212 JIS X 0213 KOI-7 KPS 9566 KS X 1001 PASCII SI 960 TIS-620 TSCII VISCII YUSCII

EUC

CN JP KR TW

ISO/IEC 2022

CN JP KR CCCII

MacOS code pages ("scripts")

Arabic Celtic CentEuro ChineseSimp / EUC-CN ChineseTrad / Big5 Croatian Cyrillic Devanagari Dingbats Esperanto Farsi (Persian) Gaelic Greek Gujarati Gurmukhi Hebrew Iceland Japanese / ShiftJIS Korean / EUC-KR Latin-1 Roman Romanian Sámi Symbol Thai / TIS-620 Turkish Ukrainian

DOS code pages

100 111 112 113 151 152 161 162 163 164 165 166 210 220 301 437 449 489 620 667 668 707 708 709 710 711 714 715 720 721 737 768 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 790 850 851 852 853 854 855/872 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864/17248 865 866/808 867 868 869 874/1161/1162 876 877 878 881 882 883 884 885 891 895 896 897 898 899 900 903 904 906 907 909 910 911 926 927 928 929 932 934 936 938 941 942 943 944 946 947 948 949 950/1370 951 966 991 1034 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1046 1086 1088 1092 1093 1098 1108 1109 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1125/848 1126 1127 1131/849 1139 1167 1168 1300 1351 1361 1362 1363 1372 1373 1374 1375 1380 1381 1385 1386 1391 1392 1393 1394 Kamenický Mazovia CWI-2 KOI8 MIK Iran System

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IBM
AIX code pages

367 371 806 813 819 895 896 912 913 914 915 916 919 920 921/901 922/902 923 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 963 964 965 970 971 1004 1006 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1029 1036 1089 1111 1124 1129/1163 1133 1350 1382 1383

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IBM
Apple MacIntosh emulations

1275 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286

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IBM
Adobe emulations

1038 1276 1277

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IBM
DEC emulations

1020 1021 1023 1090 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1287 1288

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IBM
HP emulations

1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058

Windows code pages

CER-GS 874/1162 (TIS-620) 932/943 (Shift JIS) 936/1386 (GBK) 950/1370 (Big5) 949/1363 (EUC-KR) 1169 1174 Extended Latin-8 1200 (UTF-16LE) 1201 (UTF-16BE) 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1261 1270 54936 (GB18030)

E " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=BCDIC " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#006000; " target="_blank"> BCDIC code pages

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37/1140 37-2 38 39 40 251 252 254 256 257 258 259 260 264 273/1141 274 275 276 277/1142 278/1143 279 280/1144 281 282 283 284/1145 285/1146 286 287 288 289 290 293 297/1147 298 300 310 320 321 322 330 351 352 353 355 357 358 359 360 361 363 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 410 420/16804 421 423 424/8616/12712 425 435 500/1148 803 829 833 834 835 836 837 838/838 839 870/1110/1153 871/1149 875/4971/9067 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 892 893 905 918 924 930/1390 931 933/1364 935/1388 937/1371 939/1399 1001 1002 1003 1005 1007 1024 1025/1154 1026/1155 1027 1028 1030 1031 1032 1033 1037 1047 1068 1069 1070 1071 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1087 1091 1097 1112/1156 1113 1122/1157 1123/1158 1130/1164 1132 1136 1137 1150 1151 1152 1159 1165 1166 1278 1279 1303 1364 1376 1377 JEF KEIS

Platform specific

Acorn Adobe Standard Adobe Latin 1 Apple II ATASCII Atari ST BICS Casio calculators CDC CPC DEC Radix-50 DEC MCS/NRCS DG International ELWRO-Junior FIELDATA GEM GEOS GSM 03.38 HP Roman Extension HP Roman-8 HP Roman-9 HP FOCAL HP RPL LICS LMBCS Mattel Aquarius MSX NEC APC NeXT PCW PETSCII Sharp calculators TI calculators TRS-80 Ventura International Ventura Symbol WISCII XCCS ZX80 ZX81 ZX Spectrum

Unicode / ISO/IEC 10646

UTF-1 UTF-7 UTF-8 " onclick="link_click('UTF-16') " href="../php/SummaryGet.php?FindGo=UTF-16 " style= " text-decoration:none; color:#000060; " target="_blank"> UTF-16 " height="200 " width="200";>
UTF-16
(UTF-16LE/UTF-16BE) / UCS-2 UTF-32 (UTF-32LE/UTF-32BE) / UCS-4 UTF-EBCDIC GB 18030 BOCU-1 CESU-8 SCSU

Miscellaneous code pages

ABICOMP APL ARIB STD-B24 Cork HZ INIS INIS-8 ISO-IR-111 ISO-IR-182 ISO-IR-200 ISO-IR-201 ISO-IR-209 Johab LGR LY1 OML OMS OMX OT1 OT2 OT3 OT4 T2A T2B T2C T2D T3 T4 T5 TS1 TS3 U X2 SEASCII TACE16 TRON UTF-5 UTF-6 WTF-8

Related topics

Code page Control character (C0 C1) CCSID Character encodings in HTML Charset detection Han unification Hardware ISO 6429/IEC 6429/ANSI X3.64 Mojibake

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